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CONCLAVE 401

Conclave, Today every cardinal receives a cell, which is formed only by curtains, and in this there are a bed, a table, and a few chairs. The construction of the Conclave as a whole must conform with regu- lations in every single detail, since otherwise the elections would be canonically null and void.

On the tenth day the election was solemnly inaugurated; but in the future, out of respect for the cardinals in foreign countries, the opening date is to be postponed until the fifteenth or even the eight- eenth day. Members of the College of Cardinals who are present - there must be at least one more than half - attend High Mass (Dc Spiritu Sancto) in the Pauline Chapel in the morning, listen to an address in Latin concerning the duties of the electors, and receive Com- munion. The solemn entry into the Conclave, with which there is associated a repetition of the election oath in the Sixrine Chapel, must take place on the selfsame day. Each cardinal enters the cell which is his by lot. About seven o'clock in the evening, a gong sounds three rimes; then the masters of ceremonies cry out "Extra omnes!" and clear the Conclave of all persons who have no further business there. The scaling of the doors within and without is scrupulously confirmed, and the Papal Chamberlain, accompanied by three cardinals, makes a final tour to convince himself that the clausura has been effected ac- cording to the law. During the evening meal Italian infantry on the square before St. Peter's enkindle watch fires.

The real electoral business begins in the Sixtine Chapel on the next morning. The cardinals, clad in violet robes of mourning and white surplices, attend Mass without themselves celebrating and recite the hymn Veni Creator Spiritus. The first vote follows. Three forms are legitimate, but for a long time only secret voting with written slips has been practiced. The paper is divided into three parts by printed rubrics. In the middle the name of the candidate is written in a script which the voter tries to make unlike his real hand- writing; and above this name there is written the name of the elector, with his number and motto beneath. Thereupon the upper and the lower thirds are twice folded and sealed so that the name and the motto are hidden, and only the name of the selected candidate remains open to view. Then the ballot is simply folded in the middle. This complicated method of procedure is intended to make public if neces-


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