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sary the fact that a candidate has voted for himself. In sequence each cardinal rises from his seat, walks with the ballot in his raised right hand to a wooden altar erected directly in front of the permanent marble altar and illuminated with six candles, kneels down and swears aloud that he will vote as his conscience dictates with Christ as his witness, prays, then puts his ballot on a paten which is placed upon a chalice that is to contain all the ballots. Then he lifts up the paten, lets the ballot slide into the chalice, and returns to his place after hav- ing made a bow to the crucifix. If all the votes have been cast (when necessary those of the sick electors are collected) the covered chalice is shaken. Then ballot after ballot is taken out and placed in a second chalice that stands on a table in the centre of the Chapel. Next the total is counted, to see whether each elector has done his duty. Three examiners take their places at this table and pass the ballots to one another one by one, without injuring the seals; and then the last examiner reads out the names in a loud voice while the cardinals check against these names on their lists the number of votes cast for each candidate. The electoral commission is entrusted with the task of making known the resulting totals, which are once more scrutinized by revisors. If none of the candidates has received a two-thirds majority, the ballots are sewed together with a needle and thread and are burned with wet hay and straw in an especially constructed stove. The dusky smoke signal (the sfumata") which rises from the tower and chimney on the roof of the Sixtine shows the tense crowd that this ballot (which since Pius X's time may be one of an infinite number) has been unsuccessful. But if a thin, blue cloud of smoke arises, it means that the ballots have been burned without any hay and straw, and that therefore the election is over.

When the electoral commission proclaims a candidate successful, all the rest of the cardinals pull strings which cause their baldachinos to topple over. The symbol of sovereignty now rises only above the head of the one chosen. In memory of the fact that Peter's name was changed when he was called by his Master, the new Pontiff chooses a new name, makes this known to the inquiring cardinal- deacon, and adds a brief explanation. Then he robes himself in the Papal vestments (these are available at every election in three sizes) and receives the first homage of the cardinals. Meanwhile a cardinal-