POPE'S ATTIRE 405
placed the alb, the priestly Mass garment of linen and lace which is girdled with a golden cord, one pleated side-piece of which hangs down. Over the white linen amice of the priesthood the Pope wears a second double cloth known as the fanon, which is of white silk, embroidered with gold and red designs. The upper part of this gar- ment is thrown over the head until the stole and the three Mass gar- ments the tunic of the sub-deacon, the dalmatic of the deacon, and the alb of the priest have all been put on in such a manner that a part of each can still be seen protruding below the others. Thus the raiment appropriate to every degree of priestly dignity is placed on the one highest bearer of dignity. Then the upper part of the fanon is let down over the alb like a shawl, the pallium is placed on the Pope's shoulders, the great and precious pontifical cross is hung round his neck on a golden chain and the pontifical ring is slipped on over his glove. The Mass garments, the stole, the maniple on the left arm, sash cloth, gloves, and shoes are of white silk and are covered with lavish gold embroidery. In addition one must mention a curious article of raiment which the Pope alone wears. These are pontifical stockings made of stiff material and so laden with gold embroidery that they resemble boots and must be tied above his knees. The whole attire is so heavy that an old man can hardly carry it. But in addition to all this there i$ usually added the heaviest garment of all the fulsome, long-flowing mantle, the basic colour of which is red or white, a masterpiece of the most elaborate embroidery, the hem of which is borne by princely assistants to the throne, who are the heads of the now very amicable families of Colonna and Orsini. The Pope never wears the tiara during liturgical services or when he is appearing as spiritual Pontifex. In accordance with Innocent Ill's ruling, this crown is looked upon as a sign of world dominion. At all spiritual functions the Pope wears an episcopal mitre, though in his case this is made of gold or silver material, proper to him alone. Dur- ing a pontifical Mass, the tiara is placed on the high altar.
Outside the hours of solemn official activity, the dress and the life of the Pope must conform to a strict etiquette. His well-known sim- ple house and audience dress is a plain soutane made of white woollen material. It has a short cape, a little cap of white silk, and buckled slippers without heels made of leather or of silk and embroidered with