appear to have been in existence in the fourth century A.D. The following is the account given in the Imperial Catalogue of the first known edition :—
Chuang Tzŭ, with Commentary, in 10 books. By Kuo Hsiang of the Chin dynasty (A.D. 265-420).
The Shih-shuo-hsin-yü states that Kuo Hsiang stole his work from Hsiang Hsiu. Subsequently, Hsiang Hsiu's edition was issued, and the two were in circulation together. Hsiang Hsiu's edition is now lost, while Kuo Hsiang's remains.
Comparison with quotations from Hsiang Hsiu's work, as given in Chuang Tzŭ Explained, by Lu Tê-ming, shows conclusive evidence of plagiarism. Nevertheless, Kuo Hsiang contributed a certain amount of independent revision, making it impossible for us to regard the whole as from the hand of Hsiang Hsiu. Consequently, it now passes under the name of Kuo Hsiang.
Since Kuo Hsiang's time, numberless editions with ever-varying interpretations have been produced to delight and to confuse the student. Of these, I have chosen six, representative as nearly as possible of different schools of thought. Their editors are :—
1.—Kuo Hsiang of the Chin dynasty. (a) As given in the Shih Tzŭ Ch’üan Shu, or Complete Works of the Ten Philosophers. (b) As edited by Tan Yüan-ch’un, of the Ming dynasty, with his own valuable notes.
2.—Lü Hui-ch’ing of the Sung dynasty.
- On the authority of the I-wên-chih.
- A work of the fifth century A.D.
- Of the Han dynasty. Mayers puts him a little later, viz., A.D. 275.