through five phases before forms and names were reached, and nine before rewards and punishments could be discussed.
- As given in the preceding paragraph.
To rise per saltum to forms and names is to be ignorant of their source; to rise per saltum to rewards and punishments is to be ignorant of their beginning. Those who invert the process of discussing Tao, arguing in a directly contrary sense, are rather to, be governed by others than able to govern others themselves.
To rise per saltum to forms and names and rewards and punishments, this is to understand the instrumental part of government, but not to understand the great principle of government.
- Which is Tao.
This is to be of use in the administration of the empire, but not to be able to administer the empire. This is to be a sciolist, a man of narrow views.
Ceremonies and laws were indeed cultivated by the ancients; but they were employed in the service of the rulers by the ruled. Rulers did not employ them as a means of nourishing the ruled.
- From the beginning of this chapter, the argument has been eminently unsatisfactory.
Of old, Shun asked Yao, saying, "How does your Majesty employ your faculties?"