Royal Naval Biography/Money, Rowland
ROWLAND MONEY, Esq.
A Companion of the Most Honorable Military Order of the Bath.
[Post-Captain of 1815.]
Was made Lieutenant Jan. 12, 1805. We first find him serving in the Vestal 28, Captain Stephen Thomas Digby.
On the 16th and 17th Mar. 1806, the boats of that frigate made several ineffectual efforts to rescue the crew of a merchant brig, the Friendship, of Hull, which had grounded on the Gunfleet, near Harwich, in a heavy gale of wind. At day-light on the 18th, they failed in another attempt, owing to the heavy breakers, one of which filled the boat commanded by Lieutenant Money, and washed away all her oars; but providentially the current set her off the bank, and with the assistance of another boat she was at length enabled to cast a grapnel under the vessel’s lee. A rope from the fore-top was then fastened to her, and one by one the shipwrecked crew were hauled on board, which was scarcely effected when the tottering foremast fell.
Mr. Money subsequently joined the Lively frigate. Captain George M‘Kinley; and while serving under that excellent officer, as second lieutenant, his benevolent exertions to save a number of persons from perishing were again crowned with success.
In the evening of Nov. 19, 1807, the Lively being then under storm stay-sails, in lat. 47° 10' N., long. 16° W., a merchant brig was observed to leeward, apparently in a sinking state, the crew and passengers holding up their hats and handkerchiefs as signals of distress. Although it was the general opinion on board the frigate that no boat could live in the heavy sea then running. Lieutenant Money volunteered to make the attempt, and called on some of the people near to follow him: the jolly-boat was lowered from the lee-quarter, and the providence of God was so manifest on this occasion, that a very great and lasting impression was made upon many minds. Three times did she safely proceed under the stern of the foundering vessel, and at the third trip Lieutenant Money succeeded in taking off the last of her crew, &c. all of whom were thrown overboard when close to the Lively, and hauled up over the taffrail by ropes fastened around them. The intrepid Lieutenant and his companions then regained the ship by similar means, and the jolly-boat was cut adrift, it being impossible to save her.
From this period, we lose sight of Mr. Money until his promotion to the rank of Commander, Nov. 9, 1809. In April 1814, he received an appointment to the Trave 36, armed en flûte, in which ship he conveyed part of the 4th regiment of infantry from the river Garonne to North America, where he was soon engaged in a variety of important services, as will be seen by the following official details:
dated off Mount Calvert, Aug. 22, 1814.
“After parting; from you at Benedict, on the evening of the 20th instant, I proceeded up the Patuxent with the boats and tenders, the marines of the ships being embarked in them, under the command of Captain John Robyns (the senior officer of that corps in the fleet), and the marine-artillery, under Captain Harrison, in their two tenders; the Severn and Hebrus frigates, and the Manly sloop, being directed to follow us up the river as far as might prove practicable.
“The boats and tenders I placed in three divisions: the first under the immediate command of Captains Thomas Ball Sulivan and William Stanhope Badcock; the second under Captains Rowland Money and the Hon. Kenelm Somerville; the third under Captain Robert Ramsay; and the whole under the superintendence and immediate management of Captain Wainwright, of the Tonnant; Lieutenant James Scott, acting first of the Albion, attending as my aide-de-camp.
“I endeavoured to keep with the boats and tenders as nearly as possible abreast of the army under Major-General Ross, that I might communicate with him as occasion offered, according to the plan previously arranged; and about noon yesterday, I accordingly anchored at the ferry-house opposite Lower Marlborough, where I met the General, and where the army halted for some hours; after which he marched for Nottingham, and I proceeded on for the same place with the boats. On our approaching that town, a few shot were exchanged between the leading boats and some of the enemy’s cavalry; but the appearance of our army advancing caused them to retire with precipitation. Captains Nourse and Palmer, of the Severn and Hebrus, joined me this day with their boats, having found it impracticable to get their ships higher than Benedict.
“The Major-General remained with the army at Nottingham, and the boats and tenders continued off it during the night. Soon after day-light, this morning, the whole moved again forward; but the wind blowing down the river, the channel being excessively narrow, and the advance of our tenders consequently slow, I judged it adviseable to push on with the boats only, leaving the tenders to follow as they could.
“On approaching Pig Point, where the enemy’s flotilla was said to be, I landed the marines under Captain Robyns on the left bank of the river, and directed him to march round, and attack, on the land side, the town situated on the point, to draw from us the attention of such troops as might be there for its defence and the support of the flotilla. I then proceeded on with the boats, and as we opened the reach above Pig Point, I plainly discovered Commodore Barney’s broad pendant on the headmost vessel, a large sloop, and the remainder of the flotilla extending in a long line astern of her. Our boats now advanced towards them as rapidly as possible; but on nearing them, we observed the vessel bearing the broad pendant to be on fire, and she very soon afterwards blew up. I now saw clearly that they were all abandoned, and on fire, with trains to their magazines; and out of seventeen vessels which composed this formidable and so much vaunted flotilla, sixteen were in quick succession blown to atoms, and the seventeenth, in which the fire had not taken effect, we captured. The Commodore’s sloop was a large armed vessel; all the others had a long gun in the bow, and a carronade in the stern. The calibre of the guns, and number of men belonging to each, differed in proportion to the size of the boat, varying from 32-pounders and 60 men to 18-pounders and 40 men. I found here, lying above the flotilla, under its protection, thirteen merchant schooners; such as were not worth bringing away, I caused to be burnt; and those in good condition to be moved to Pig Point. Whilst employed taking these vessels, a few shot were fired by some of the men of the flotilla from the bushes on the shore near us; but Lieutenant Scott, whom I had landed for the purpose, soon got hold of them, and made them prisoners. Some horsemen likewise shewed themselves on the neighbouring heights, but a rocket or two dispersed them; and Captain Robyns, who had obtained possession of Pig Point without resistance, now spreading his men through the country, the enemy retreated to a distance, and left us in quiet possession of the town, the neighbourhood, and our prizes.
“A large quantity of tobacco having been found at Pig Point, Captain Robyns is left with the marines, and Captain Nourse with two divisions of the boats, to hold the town, and ship the tobacco into the prizes; and I have moved back with the third division to this place, to enable me to confer, on our future operations, with the Major-General, who has been good enough to send his aide-de-camp, to inform me of his safe arrival with the army under his command, at Upper Marlborough.
“In congratulating you. Sir, which I do most sincerely, on the complete destruction of this flotilla of the enemy, which has lately occupied so much of our attention, I must beg to be permitted to assure you, that the cheerful and indefatigable exertions, on this occasion, of Captains Wainwright, Nourse, and Palmer, and of Captain Sulivan, the other commanders, officers, and men, in the boats you have placed under my orders, must justly entitle them to my warmest acknowledgments, and my earnest recommendation to your favourable notice.”
From the same to the same – dated off Nottingham, Aug. 27, 1814.
“Agreeably to the intentions I notified to you in my letter of the 22d instant, I proceeded by land, on the morning of the 23d, to Upper Marlborough, to meet and confer with Major-General Ross as to our further operations against the enemy; and we were not long in agreeing on the propriety of making an immediate attempt on the city of Washington.
“In conformity, therefore, with the wishes of the Major-General, I instantly sent orders for our marine and naval forces at Pig Point to be forthwith moved over to Mount Calvert, and for the marine-artillery, and a proportion of the seamen, to be there landed, and with the utmost possible expedition to join the army, which I also most readily agreed to accompany.
“The Major-General then made his dispositions, and arranged, that Captain Robyns, with the marines of the ships, should retain possession of Upper Marlborough, and that the marine-artillery and seamen should follow the army to the ground it was to occupy for the night. The army then moved on, and bivouacked before dark about five miles nearer Washington.
“In the night, Captains Palmer and Money joined us with the seamen, and the marine-artillery under Captain Harrison. Captain Wainwright had accompanied me the day before, as had also Lieutenant Scott.
“At daylight, on the morning of the 24th, the Major-General again put the army iu motion, directing his march upon Bladensburg; on reaching which place with the advanced guard, the enemy was discovered drawn up in force on a rising ground beyond the town; and by the fire he soon opened on us, as we entered the place, gave us to understand he was well protected by artillery. Major-General Ross, however, did not hesitate in immediately advancing to attack him, although our troops were almost exhausted with the fatigue of the march they had just made, and but a small proportion of our little army had yet got up. This dashing measure was, I am happy to add, crowned with the success it merited; for, in spite of the galling fire of the enemy, our troops advanced steadily on both his flanks and in his front, and as soon as they got on even ground with him, he fled in every direction, leaving behind him ten pieces of cannon, and a considerable number of killed and wounded; amongst the latter. Commodore Barney and several other officers: some other prisoners were also taken, though not many, owing to the swiftness with which the enemy went off, and the fatigues our army had previously undergone.
“It would, Sir, be deemed presumption in me to attempt to give you particular details respecting the nature of this battle; I shall, therefore, only remark generally, that the enemy, 8000 strong, on ground he had chosen as best adapted for him to defend, where he had time to erect his batteries, and concert all his measures, was dislodged as soon us reached, and a victory gained over him by a division of the British army, not amounting to more than 1500 men, headed by our gallant General, whose brilliant achievement of this day it is beyond my power to do justice to, and indeed no possible comment could enhance.
“The seamen with the guns were, to their great mortification, with the rear division during this short but decisive action: those, however, attached to the rocket-brigade were in the battle, and I remarked with much pleasure the precision with which the rockets were thrown by them, under the direction of First Lieutenant Lawrence, of the marine-artillery. Mr. Jeremiah M‘Daniel, master’s-mate of the Tonnant, a very fine young man, who was attached to this party, being severely wounded, I beg permission to recommend him to your favourable notice. The company of marines I have on so many occasions had cause to mention to you, commanded by Lieutenant Stephens, was also in the action, as were the colonial marines, under the temporary command of Captain Reed, of the 6th West India regiment, and they respectively behaved with their accustomed zeal and bravery. None other of the naval department were fortunate enough to arrive up in time to take their share in this battle, excepting Captain Palmer, of the Hebrus, with his aide-de-camp, Mr. Arthur Wakefield, midshipman of that ship, and Lieutenant James Scott, who acted as my aide-de-camp, and remained with me during the whole time.
“The contest being completely ended, and the enemy having retired from the field, the Major-General gave the army about two hours’ rest, when he again moved forward on Washington: it was, however, dark before we reached that city; and on the General, myself, and some officers advancing a short way past the first houses thereof, unaccompanied by the troops, the enemy opened upon us a heavy fire of musketry from the capitol and two other buildings: these were, therefore, almost immediately stormed by our people, taken possession of, and set on fire; after which, the town submitted without further resistance. The enemy himself, on our entering the town, set fire to the navy yard (filled with naval stores), to a frigate of the largest class, almost ready for launching, and to a sloop of war lying off it, as he also did to the fort which protected the sea-approach to Washington. On taking possession of the city, we likewise set fire to the President’s palace, the treasury, and the war office; and in the morning. Captain Wainwright went with a party to see that the destruction in the navy yard was complete, when he destroyed whatever stores and buildings had escaped the flames of the preceding night. A large quantity of ammunition and ordnance stores was also destroyed by us in the arsenal, as were about 200 pieces of artillery, as well us a vast quantity of small arms. Two rope-walks, of a very extensive nature, full of tar-rope, &c. situated at a considerable distance from the yard, were likewise set fire to and consumed. In short. Sir, I do not believe a vestige of public property, or a store of any kind, which could be converted to the use of the government, escaped destruction: the bridges across the eastern branch of the Potowmac were also destroyed.”
When the British troops entered the President’s house “they found a dinner-table spread, and covers laid for 40 guests. Several kinds of wine, in handsome cut-glass decanters, were cooling on the side-board; plate-holders stood by the fire-place, filled with dishes and plates; knives, forks, and spoons were arranged for immediate use; in short, every thing was ready for the entertainment of a ceremonious party. Such were the arrangements in the dining-room, whilst in the kitchen were others answerable to them in every respect. Spits loaded with joints of various sorts, turned before the fire; pots, saucepans, and other culinary utensils, stood upon the grate; and all the requisites for an elegant and substantial repast were exactly in a state which indicated that they had been lately and precipitately abandoned. These preparations were beheld, by a party of hungry soldiers, with no indifferent eye. An elegant dinner, even though considerably over-dressed, was a luxury to which few of them, at least for some time back, had been accustomed; and which, after the dangers and fatigues of the day, appeared peculiarly inviting. They sat down to it, therefore, not indeed in the most orderly manner, but with countenances which would not have disgraced a party of aldermen at a civic feast; and having satisfied their appetites with fewer complaints than would have probably escaped their rival gourmands, and partaken pretty freely of the wines, they finished by setting fire to the house which had so liberally entertained them.”
“This general devastation being completed during the day of the 35th, we marched again at 9 that night, on our return, by Bladenaburg, to Upper Marlborough. We arrived last evening at the latter place, without molestation of any sort; and this morning moved on to Nottingham, where I found H.M. sloop Manly, the tenders, and the boats.
“In closing my statement of the arduous and highly important operations of this last week, I have a most pleasing duty to perform, in assuring you of the good conduct of the officers and men who have been serving under me. I am particularly indebted to Captain Wainwright of the Tonnant, for the assistance he has invariably afforded me whilst on this service: to Captains Palmer and Money, for their exertions during the march to and from Washington; and to Captain Nourse, who has commanded the flotilla during my absence: my acknowledgments are also most justly due to Captains Sulivan, Badcock, Somerville, Ramsay, and Bruce, who have acted in it under him. Lieutenant James Scott, now first of the Albion, has on this occasion rendered me essential services; and as I have had reason so often to mention to you the gallant and meritorious conduct of this officer, I trust you will permit me to seize this opportunity of recommending him particularly to your favorable notice and consideration. Captain Robyns, who has had, during these operations, the marines of the ships united under his orders, has executed, ably and zealously, the several serviced with which he has been entrusted, and is entitled to my best acknowledgments accordingly; as is also Captain Harrison, of the marine-artillery. Mr. James Dobie, surgeon of the Melpomene, volunteered his professional services an this occasion, and rendered much assistance to the wounded on the field of battle, as well as to many of the men taken ill on the line of march.”
The battle of Bladensburg, by which the fate of the American capital was decided, began about one o’clock, and lasted till four P.M. The loss on the part of the English was severe; Colonel Thornton, who commanded the light brigade; Lieutenant-Colonel Wood, commanding the 85th regiment; and Major Brown, the leader of the advanced guard, were all severely wounded; Major-General Ross had a horse shot under him, but he escaped without any personal injury.
The forces employed in the brilliant expedition against Washington, were re-embarked at Benedict, on the 30th August; and on the 6th Sept. the fleet under the command of Sir A. Cochrane weighed and stood towards the Chesapeake. The wind was fair, and the whole speedily cleared the Patuxent; but, instead of standing up the bay, as was generally expected, the Vice-Admiral ran down a few miles below the mouth of that river, and there anchored. A signal was then made for all the ships and vessels to send to Sir Alexander a return of the number of seamen whom, in addition to marines, they could land with small arms; and it was ascertained that, besides the numbers necessary for conveying stores and dragging guns, 600 sailors could be spared, thus enabling Major-General Ross, on his next debarkation, for the purpose of making a demonstration upon the city of Baltimore (which might be converted into a real attack, should circumstances appear to justify it), to bring into the field about 5000 fighting men.
After quitting the Patuxent, Sir Alexander Cochrane entered the Potowmac river, and distracted the enemy’s attention by steering for several hours in the direction of Alexandria. He then suddenly altered his course, ran down again to Chesapeake bay, and hastened, under a heavy press of sail, towards Baltimore. The object of this manoeuvring was evidently to deceive the Americans, and by keeping them in suspense as to the place threatened, to prevent them concentrating their forces, or throwing up works for its defence. On the 11th Sept. the armament came in sight of the projecting head-land, where it was intended to disembark the troops and naval brigade; a division of the latter commanded by Captain Money. In a letter to Sir Alexander Cochrane, dated Sept. 15, 1814, Rear-Admiral Cockburn says:
“In furtherance of the instructions I had the honor to receive from you on the 11th instant, I landed at daylight of the 12th, with Major-General Ross, at a place we had previously fixed upon, near to North Point, at the entrance of the Patapsco; and in conformity with his wishes, I determined on remaining ashore, and accompanying the army, to render him every assistance within my power, during the contemplated movements and operations: therefore, as soon as our landing was completed, I directed Captain Nourse to advance up the river, with the frigates, sloops, and bomb-vessels, to bombard the fort, and threaten the water approach to Baltimore; and I moved on with the army, and the seamen (under Captain Edward Crofton) attached to it, on the direct road leading to that town.
“We had proceeded about 6 miles, without any other occurrence than taking prisoners a few light horsemen, when the Major-General and myself, being with the advanced guard, observed a division of the enemy posted at a turning of the road, extending into a wood on our left. A sharp fire was almost immediately opened upon us from it, and as quickly returned with considerable effect by our advanced guard, which pressing steadily forward, soon obliged the enemy to run off with the utmost precipitation, leaving behind him several men killed and wounded; but it is with the most heartfelt sorrow I have to add, that in this short and desultory skirmish, my gallant and highly valued friend, the Major-General, received a musket-ball through his arm into his breast, which proved fatal to him on his way to the water-side for re-embarkation.
“Colonel Brook (of the 44th regiment), on whom the command of the army now devolved, having come up, the whole proceeded forward about two miles further, when we observed the enemy in force drawn up before us, apparently about 6000 or 7000 strong. On perceiving our army, he filed off into a large and extensive wood on his right, from which he commenced a cannonade on us, drawing up his men behind a range of high palings, where he appeared determined to make his stand.
“Our field-pieces answered his with evident advantage; and so soon as Colonel Brook had made the necessary dispositions, the attack was ordered, and executed in the highest style possible. The enemy opened his musketry on us from his whole line, immediately we approached within reach of it; and he kept up his fire till we entered the wood, when he gave way in every direction, and was chased by us a considerable distance, with great slaughter, abandoning his post, and leaving all his wounded, and two guns, in our possession.
“An advance of this description, against superior numbers of an enemy eo posted, could not be effected without loss: I have the honor to enclose a return of what has been suffered by those of the naval department acting with the army on this occasion; and it is, Sir, with the greatest pride and pleasure I report to you, that the brigade of seamen with small arms, commanded by Captain Crofton, assisted by Captains Sulivan, Money, and Ramsay, the three senior commanders in the fleet, behaved with a gallantry and steadiness which would have done honor to the ablest troops, and which attracted the admiration of the army. The seamen, under Mr. Jackson, master’s mate of the Tonnant, attached to the rocket brigade, behaved also with equal skill and bravery. The marines landed from the ships, and commanded by Captain Robyns, displayed their usual gallantry.
“The night being fast approaching, and the troops much fatigued. Colonel Brook determined to remain for the night on the field of battle; and on the morning of the 13th, leaving a small guard to collect and protect the wounded, we again moved forward towards Baltimore, on approaching which it was found to be defended by extremely strong works on every side, and immediately in front of us by an extensive hill, on which wait an entrenched camp, and great quantities of artillery. The information we collected, added to what we observed, gave us to believe, that there were at least within their works from 15,000 to 20,000 men. Colonel Brook lost no time in reconnoitring their defences; after which he made his arrangements for storming, during the ensuing night, with his gallant little army, the entrenched camp in our front, notwithstanding all the difficulties which it presented. The subsequent communications which we opened with you, however, induced him to relinquish the idea. Yesterday morning, the army retired leisurely towards the place where it had disembarked, and where it arrived this morning, without suffering the slightest molestation from the enemy, who, in spite of his superiority of numbers, did not even venture to look at us during this slow and deliberate retreat.
“I have now only to inform you of my entire satisfaction and approbation of the conduct of every officer and man employed under me during the operations detailed above; and to express to you how particularly I consider myself indebted to Captain Crofton,for the gallantry, ability, and zeal with which he led on the brigade of seamen in the action of the 12th, and executed all the other services with which he has been entrusted since our landing; to Captain White of the Albion (acting), who attended me as my aide-de-camp the whole time, and rendered me every possible assistance; to Captain Sulivan, Money, and Ramsay, who commanded divisions of the brigade of seamen; and to Lieutenant James Scott, whom I have had such frequent cause to mention to you on former occasions, and who, in the battle of the 12th, commanded a division of seamen, and behaved most gallantly, occasionally also acting as an aide-de-camp to myself. Captain Robyns, who commanded the marines of the fleet, I also beg to recommend to your favourable notice and consideration; as well as Lieutenant George Constantine Urmston of the Albion, whom I placed in command of the smaller boats, to endeavour to keep up a communication between the army and navy, which he effected by great perseverance, and thereby rendered us most essential service. In short. Sir, every individual seemed animated with equal anxiety to distinguish himself by good conduct on this occasion; and I trust therefore, the whole will be deemed worthy of approbation.”
Marching over the field, where the battle of the 12th had been fought, the author of the “Subaltern” saw several men “hanging lifeless among the branches of trees, and learnt that, they had been riflemen, who chose, during the combat, to fix themselves in these elevated situations, for the combined purposes of securing a good aim, and avoiding danger. Whatever might have been their success in the first of these designs, in the last they failed; for the British soon discovered them, and considering the thing as unfair, refused to give them quarter, and shot them on their perches.”
The disastrous result of an attempt to gain possession of the enemy’s lines near New Orleans, on the 8th Jan. 1815, has been stated at p. 638. et seq. of Vol. I. Part II. Sir Alexander Cochrane, in the despatches which he forwarded to the Admiralty, on that occasion, says:
“The 85th regiment, with a division of seamen under Captain Money, and a division of marines under Major Adair, the whole amounting to about 600 men, commanded by Colonel Thornton, of the 85th, were embarked, and landed on the right bank of the Mississipi, without opposition, just after day-light; and the armed boats moving up the river as the corps advanced, this part of the operation succeeded perfectly, the enemy having; been driven from every position, leaving behind him 17 pieces of cannon.”
On stepping ashore, the first thing Colonel Thornton and his colleagues beheld was a rocket, thrown up as a signal that the main attack was begun. This added wings to their speed. Forming in one little column, and pushing forward a single company as an advanced guard, they hastened on, and, in half an hour, reached a canal, along the opposite bank of which a detachment of Americans was drawn up. To dislodge them was but the work of a moment; a boat with a carronade in her bow, got upon their flank, and gave them a single discharge of grape, while the advanced guard extended its ranks, and approached at double quick time. But the enemy scarcely waited till the latter came within range: – firing a volley, they fled in confusion. This, however, was only an outpost. The main body was some way in rear, and amounted to no fewer than 1500 men.
It was not long before they also presented themselves. Like their countrymen on the other side, they were strongly entrenched; a thick target with a ditch covering their front, while a battery upon their left swept: the whole position. And two field-pieces commanded the road. Of artillery, the assailants possessed not a single piece; nor any means, beyond what nature gave, of scaling the rampart. Yet, nothing daunted by the obstacles before them, or by the immense odds to which they were opposed, dispositions for an immediate attack were made The 86th, extending its files, stretched across the entire line of the enemy; the sailors in column prepared to storm the battery, while the marines remained some little way behind the centre, as a reserve.
These arrangements being completed, the bugle sounded, and our brave fellows advanced. The sailors, raising a shout, rushed forward, but were met by so heavy a discharge of grape and cannister, that for an instant they paused. Recovering themselves, however, they again pushed on; and the 85th dashing forward to their aid, they received a heavy fire of musketry, and endeavoured to charge. A smart firing was now for a few minutes kept up on both sides; but the British had no time to waste in distant fighting, and accordingly hurried on to storm the works; upon which a panic seized the Yankees, they lost their order, and fled.
“I am much concerned,” adds Sir Alexander Cochrane, “to say, that Captain Money had both bones of his leg broken by a musket-shot, advancing under a heavy fire to the attack of a battery that was afterwards carried. The conduct of Captain Money at Washington and near Baltimore, where he was employed with the army, having before occasioned me to mention him to their Lordships, I beg leave now to recommend him most strongly to their protection. The wound that he has received not affording him any probability of his being able to return to his duty for a considerable time, I have given him leave of absence to go to England, and shall intrust to him my despatches.”
Captain Money’s post commission bears date Mar. 29, 1815: he obtained a pension of 250l. per annum, Feb. 16, 1816; and was appointed Inspecting Commander of the Coast Guard, for the prevention of smuggling, in the Isle of Wight, about Mar. 1822.
This distinguished officer married, Sept. 13, 1805, Maria, daughter of the late William Money, of Walthamstow, Essex, Esq. and sister to William Taylor Money, Esq. his Majesty’s Consul-General in Austria, late M.P. for St. Michael, Cornwall, and a Director of the East India Company.
Agents.– Messrs. Stilwell.
- Narrative of the Campaign at Washington and New Orleans, by the author of the Subaltern, 2d. edit. p. 130 et seq.
- Total, 31 killed, 1 missing, and 48, including Lieutenant Sampson Marshal], of the Diadem (dangerously). Captain Robyns, R.M. (severely), and Mr. C. Ogle, midshipman of the Tonnant, wounded.
- No effectual support could be given to the land force by the navy afloat; for such was the shallowness of the river, that none except the very lightest craft could make their way within six miles of the town; and even these were stopped by vessels sunk in the channel, and other artificial bars, barely within a shell’s longest range of the left of the American army, which extended to a fort, built upon the brink of the river, by silencing which the flank of the enemy’s position would have been turned.