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CHAPTER XXI.

SPELLS.

Thereupon the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Bhaishagyarâga rose from his seat, and having put his upper robe upon one shoulder and fixed the right knee upon the ground lifted his joined hands up to the Lord and said: How great, O Lord, is the pious merit which will be produced by a young man of good family or a young lady who keeps this Dharmaparyâya of the Lotus of the True Law, either in memory or in a book? Whereupon the Lord said to the Bodhisattva Mahâsattva Bhaishagyarâga: Suppose, Bhaishagyarâga, that some man of good family or a young lady honours, respects, reveres, worships hundred thousands of myriads of kotis of Tathâgatas equal to the sands of eighty Ganges rivers; dost thou think, Bhaishagyarâga, that such a young man or young lady of good family will on that account produce much pious merit? The Bodhisattva Bhaishagyarâga replied: Yes, Lord; yes, Sugata. The Lord said: I announce to thee, Bhaishagyarâga, I declare to thee: any young man or young lady of good family, Bhaishagyarâga, who shall keep, read, comprehend, and in practice follow, were it but a single stanza from this Dharmaparyâya of the Lotus of the True Law, that young man or young lady of good family, Bhaishagyarâga, will on that account produce far more pious merit.

Then the Bodhisattva Mah&sattva Bhaisha^yarlfa immediately said to the Lord : To those young men or young ladies of good family, O Lord, who keep this Dharmaparydya of the Lotus of the True Law in their memory or in a book, we will give talismanic words * for guard, defence, and protection ; such as, anye 2 manye mane mamane ^itte ^arite same, samitavi, s&nte, mukte, muktatame, same avishame, samasame, ^aye, kshaye, akshtoe, sinte sanl, dhararci dlokabh&she, pratyavekshawi, nidhini, abhyantaravisish/e, utkule mutkule, asaafe, parage, suk&nkshl, asamasame, buddhavilokite, dharmapa- rlkshite, sanghanirghoshawi, nirghoshawi bhayAbha- yasodhanl, mantre mantrdkshayate, rutakauralye, akshaye, akshavanatiya, vakule valcWa, amanyatAya 3 . These words of charms and spells, O Lord, have been pronounced by reverend Buddhas (in number)

Dhara^fpadani.

In giving these words I have followed the Camb. MS., even where the readings would seem to be incorrect.

The list in Burnoufs translation seems in many respects more correct; it is as follows: anye manye, arau parau amane ma- mane £itte forite; rame ramitd vbante, mukte muktatame same avisamasame, ^aye kshaye akshaye akshiwe .rante samite dharam dlokabhase pratyaveksha/ri dhiru viviru abhyantaranivish/e abhyan- taraparixuddhi, utkule mukule arade parage sukankshi asama- same buddhivilokite dharmaparikshite pratyaveksha/ri sanghanir- ghosham nirghosha/*i bhayavixodhani mantre mantrakshayate rutakauralya akshayavanatd vakkulavaloka amanyataye. All these words are, or ought to be, feminine words in the vocative. I take them to be epithets of the Great Mother, Nature or Earth, differently called Aditi, Pra^wa, Maya, Bhavdni, Durga. Any a may be identified with the Vedic any&, inexhaustible, and synonymous with aditi. Most of the other terms may be ex- plained as synonymous with pra^nd (e.g. pratyaveksha«i), with nature (kshaye akshaye), with the earth (dhdra/ii). B b 2 equal to the sands of sixty-two Ganges rivers. All these Buddhas would be offended by any one who would attack such preachers, such keepers of the Stitrinta.

The Lord expressed his approval to the Bodhi- sattva Mah&sattva Bhaisha^yar&^a by saying : Very well, Bhaisha^yar^a, by those talismanic words being pronounced out of compassion for creatures, the common weal of creatures is promoted; their guard, defence, and protection is secured.

Thereupon the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Pradina- ^Ara said unto the Lord : I also, O Lord, will, for the benefit of such preachers, give them talismanic words, that no one seeking for an occasion to surprise such preachers may find the occasion, be it a demon, giant, goblin, sorcerer, imp or ghost ; that none of these when seeking and spying for an occasion to surprise may find the occasion. And then the Bodhisattva Mahdsattva Pradanaitira instantly pronounced the following words of a spell : ^vale mah^vale, ukke mukke, aafe aa&vati, trzVye trzVy&vati, i/ini vi/ini £i/ini, ritA trzVydvati sv4h& These talismanic words, O Lord, have been pronounced and approved by Tath&gatas, &c. (in number) equal to the sands of the river Ganges. All those Tath£gatas would be offended by any one who would attack such preachers.


With Burnouf: ^vale maha^vale ukke mukke ate at&vati nrz'tye nr/tyavati; tifini vi//ini kMni nr*'ty£vati svihd. These terms are obviously names of the flame, mythologically called Agni's wife, the daughter of Daksha. As Siva may be identified with Agni, the feminine words again are epithets of Durga Gvala and Mahd^vald are perfectly clear; ukki is the Prakrit form of

Sanskrit ulkl Thereupon Vaisravana, one of the four rulers of the cardinal points, said unto the Lord : I also, O Lord, will pronounce talismanic words for the benefit and weal of those preachers, out of compassion to them, for their guard, defence, and protection : a/7e na#e vana//e anaafe, n&afi kunaafi svdhfi 1 . With these spells, O Lord, I shall guard those preachers over an extent of a hundred yo^anas. Thus will those young men or young ladies of good family, who keep this SfltrAnta, be guarded, be safe.

At that meeting was present Virdhaka, another of the four rulers of the cardinal points, sitting sur- rounded and attended by hundred thousands of myriads of ko/is of KumbhA;^as. He rose from his seat, put his upper robe upon one shoulder, lifted his joined hands up to the Lord, and spoke to him as follows : I also, O Lord, will pronounce talismanic words for the benefit of people at large, and to guard, defend, protect such preachers as are qualified, who keep the Sfltrinta as mentioned ; viz. aga»e ga«e gauri gandhiri £a#dali mdtangi pukkaii sankule vrtisali svihi 2 . These talismanic words, O Lord, have been pronounced by forty-two hundred thou- sand myriads of ko/is of Buddhas. All those Buddhas would be offended by any one who would attack such preachers as are qualified.

Thereupon the giantesses called Lambi, VilamVd 3 ,

Burnouf has a//e ha//e na//e, &c.

The list in Burnouf differs but slightly ; a. g. g. gandhiri k&nd&M m. pukkasi s. vrulasisi s. Vrusali or rather vrusali must be the Sanskrit vri'shalf. Gauri, A!a«</alikd, Mdtahgi are known from elsewhere as epithets of Durg& ; Pukkast and Vr/shali denote nearly the same as Kznd&W and M&tahgt.

With Burnouf, Pralamb Kti/adanti,Pushpadantt, Maku/adanti, Kerini, A>£al£, M4l4dhiri, Kunti, Sarvasattvq^ahirt, and Hirltl, all with their children and suite went up to the place where the Lord was, and with one voice said unto him: We also, O Lord, will afford guard, defence, and protection to such preachers as keep this SGtrinta; we will afford them safety, that no one seeking for an occasion to surprise those preachers may find the occasion. And the giantesses all simultaneously and in a chorus gave to the Lord the following words of spells: iti me, iti me, iti me, iti me, iti me; nime nime nime nime nime; ruhe ruhe ruhe ruhe ruhe; stuhe stuhe stuhe stuhe stuhe, sv£h£. No one shall overpower and hurt such preachers; no goblin, giant, ghost, devil, imp, sorcerer, spectre, gnome; no spirit causing epilepsy, no sorcerer of goblin race, no sorcerer of not-human race, no sorcerer of human race; no sorcerer producing tertian ague, quartian ague, quotidian ague. Even if in his dreams he has visions of women, men, boys or girls, it shall be impossible that they hurt him.

And the giantesses simultaneously and in a chorus addressed the Lord with the following stanzas:

1. His head shall be split into seven pieces, like a sprout of Symplocos Racemosa, who after hearing this spell would attack a preacher.

2. He shall go the way of parricides and matricides, who would attack a preacher.

3. He shall go the way of oil-millers and sesamum-pounders, who would attack a preacher.

Burnouf has Malutakandf.

Burnouf better, Sarvasattvaugohdrf. 4. He shall go the way of those who use false weights and measures, who would attack a preacher.

Thereafter the giantesses headed by Kuntî said unto the Lord: We also, O Lord, will afford protection to such preachers; we will procure them safety; we will protect them against assault and poison. Whereupon the Lord said to those giantesses: Very well, sisters, very well; you do well in affording guard, defence, and protection to those preachers, even to such who shall keep no more than the name of this Dharmaparyâya; how much more then to those who shall keep this Dharmaparyâya wholly and entirely, or who, possessing the text of it in a volume, honour it with flowers, incense, fragrant garlands, ointment, powder, cloth, flags, banners, lamps with sesamum oil, lamps with scented oil, lamps with Kampaka-scented oil, with Vârshika-scented oil, with lotus-scented oil, with jasmine-scented oil; who by such-like manifold hundred thousand manners of worshipping shall honour, respect, revere, venerate (this Sûtra), deserve to be guarded by thee and thy suite, Kuntî!

And while this chapter on spells was being expounded[1], sixty-eight thousand living beings received the faculty of acquiescence in the law that has no origin.


  1. The chapter was, properly speaking, not expounded at all; it simply contains a narrative with the speeches of different interlocutors. It may be observed that a poetical version is wanting.