The American Cyclopædia (1879)/Burlington (Vermont)
BURLINGTON, a city, port of entry, and the capital of Chittenden co., Vermont, on a bay of the same name, upon the E. shore of Lake Champlain. 40 m. by rail N. W. of Montpelier; pop. in 1870, 14,387. It is the largest city in the state, and is noted for its beauty of situation, grandeur of scenery, and sublime views. It stands on a gentle slope, the ground rising gradually from the lake till it reaches the height of nearly 300 ft., giving a lake view to all parts of the city. At the apex of this inclined plane, overlooking the entire city, stands the university of Vermont. Among other buildings of note are St. Mary's Roman Catholic cathedral, seven churches, the court house, custom house, city hall, and Fletcher free library of 8,000 volumes. In Green Mount cemetery is the tomb of Gen. Ethan Allen, who died here in 1789; over this the state has erected a granite monument, with a shaft 4½ ft. in diameter and 42 ft. high, bearing the inscription “Ticonderoga,” above which is a heroic statue of Gen. Allen 8⅓ ft. high, placed in position and unveiled in the presence of 10,000 spectators, July 4, 1873. The city is supplied with water from the lake, forced into a reservoir on the crest of the hill, and thence by pipes carried to all parts of the city, and with force sufficient to raise it above the highest buildings. Burlington has an excellent harbor, the best on the lake, easy of access, and protected on the only exposed side by a breakwater 3,000 ft. long, on each end of which stands a beacon light; another light on Juniper island guards the entrance into the bay. As a lumber mart, it ranks with the first three in the United States. The public free schools, under a board of five commissioners, elected by vote of the city, are organized into one graded and one ungraded school. The former has four grades, viz.: primary, intermediate, grammar, and high school, each requiring a three years' course, making a twelve years' course from the lowest primary class to the graduating class in the high school. There are 34 teachers employed, at an aggregate salary of $16,000. The city contains about 3,000 children of school age. Besides the above there are the Vermont Episcopal institute at Rock Point, for males only, a ladies' seminary, and four Roman Catholic schools. The university of Vermont was founded in 1791. It comprises an academical department, a medical college, and the agricultural college, organized in 1865 by means of the national grant of 150,000 acres of land. By vote of the trustees in 1872, the university is open to females. It has 21 instructors, 138 students, a library of 16,000 volumes, and a museum containing more than 45,000 specimens. Two daily and five weekly newspapers are published.—The first permanent settlement at Burlington was made in 1783; the first town meeting on record was in 1787; and the first meeting house (Congregational) was erected in 1795. In 1864 a city charter was granted.