Open main menu

Wikisource β

The Boy Travellers in the Russian Empire

This work was published before January 1, 1923, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

 
Sleigh Ride in Russia

THEBOYTRAVELLERSIN

 

THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

 


ADVENTURES OF TWO YOUTHS IN A JOURNEY IN

EUROPEAN AND ASIATIC RUSSIA, WITH ACCOUNTS OF A TOUR ACROSS SIBERIA
VOYAGES ON THE AMOOR, VOLGA, AND OTHER RIVERS, A VISIT TO
CENTRAL ASIA, TRAVELS AMONG THE EXILES, AND A HISTORICAL
SKETCH OF THE EMPIRE FROM ITS FOUNDATION
TO THE PRESENT TIME

 

By THOMAS W. KNOX

 

Illustrated

 

NEW YORK
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE
1887

By THOMAS W. KNOX.

——

THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE FAR EAST. Five Volumes Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00 each. The volumes sold separately. Each volume complete in itself.

  1. Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey to Japan and China.
  2. Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey to Siam and Java. With Descriptions of Cochin-China, Cambodia, Sumatra, and the Malay Archipelago.
  3. Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey to Ceylon and India. With Descriptions of Borneo, the Philippine Islands, and Burmah.
  4. Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey to Egypt and Palestine.
  5. Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey through Africa.

THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN SOUTH AMERICA.
Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey through Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentine Republic, and Chili; with Descriptions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, and Voyages upon the Amazon and La Plata Rivers. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.

THE BOY TRAVELLERS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
Adventures of Two Youths in a Journey in European and Asiatic Russia, with Accounts of a Tour across Siberia, Voyages on the Amoor, Volga, and other Rivers, a Visit to Central Asia, Travels Among the Exiles, and a Historical Sketch of the Empire from its Foundation to the Present Time. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $3 00.

THE VOYAGE OF THE "VIVIAN" TO THE NORTH POLE AND BEYOND. Adventures of Two Youths in the Open Polar Sea. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $2 50.

HUNTING ADVENTURES ON LAND AND SEA. Two Volumes. Copiously Illustrated. 8vo, Cloth, $2 50 each. The volumes sold separately. Each volume complete in itself.

  1. The Young Nimrods in North America.
  2. The Young Nimrods Around the World.

——

Published by Harper & Brothers, New York.

Any of the above volumes sent by mail, postage prepaid, to any part of the United States or Canada, on receipt of the price.

 

Copyright, 1886, by Harper & Brothers.All rights reserved.

PREFACE.


 

IN preparing this volume for the press, the author has followed very closely the plan adopted for "The Boy Travellers in the Far East," and also for his more recent work, "The Boy Travellers in South America." Accompanied by their versatile and accomplished mentor, Dr. Bronson, our young friends, Frank Bassett and Fred Bronson, journeyed from Vienna to Warsaw and St. Petersburg, and after an interesting sojourn in the latter city, proceeded to Moscow, the ancient capital of the Czars. From Moscow they went to Nijni Novgorod, to attend the great fair for which that city is famous, and thence descended the Volga to the Caspian Sea. On their way down the great river they visited the principal towns and cities along its banks, saw many strange people, and listened to numerous tales and legends concerning the races which make up the population of the great Muscovite Empire.

They visited the recently developed petroleum fields of the Caspian, and, after crossing that inland sea, made a journey in Central Asia to study certain phases of the "Eastern Question," and learn something about the difficulties that have arisen between England and Russia. Afterwards they travelled in the Caucasus, visited the Crimea, and bade farewell to the Empire as they steamed away from Odessa. Concerning the parts of Russia that they were unable to visit they gathered much information, and altogether their notes, letters, and memoranda would make a portly volume.

The author has been three times in the Russian Empire, and much of the country described by "The Boy Travellers" was seen and traversed by him. In his first journey he entered the Czar's dominions at Petropavlovsk in Kamtchatka, ascended the Amoor River through its entire navigable length, traversed Siberia from the Pacific Ocean to the Ural Mountains, and continuing thence to Kazan, Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Warsaw, left the protection of the Russian flag eleven thousand miles from where he first went beneath it. His second visit included the Crimea and other regions bordering the Black Sea, and his third was confined to Finland and other Baltic provinces.

In addition to his personal observations in Russia, the author has drawn upon the works of others. Many books of Russian travel and history have been examined; some of them have been mentioned in the text of the narrative, but it has not been practicable to refer to all. Indebtedness is hereby acknowledged to the following books: "Free Russia," by Hepworth Dixon; "Turkestan" and "Life of Peter the Great," by Hon. Eugene Schuyler; "A Ride to Khiva," by Col. Fred Burnaby; "Campaigning on the Oxus, and the Fall of Khiva," by J. A. Macgahan; "Life of Peter the Great" and "Life of Genghis Khan," by Jacob Abbott; The Siberian Overland Route," by Alexander Michie; "Tent-life in Siberia," by George Kennan; "Reindeer, Dogs, and Snow-shoes," by Richard J. Bush; "The Invasion of the Crimea," by A. W. Kinglake; "Fred Markham in Russia," by W. H. G. Kingston; "The Knout and the Russians," by G. De Lagny; "The Russians at the Gates of Herat" and "The Region of the Eternal Fire," by Charles Marvin; "Travels in the Regions of the Upper and Lower Amoor" and "Oriental and Western Siberia," by Thomas W. Atkinson; and "The Russians at Home," by Sutherland Edwards. The author has also drawn upon several articles in Harper's Magazine, including his own series describing his journey through Siberia.

The publishers have kindly permitted the use of illustrations from their previous publications on the Russian Empire, in addition to those specially prepared for this book. As a result of their courtesy, the author has been able to present a "copiously illustrated" book, which is always a delight to the youthful eye.

T. W. K.

CONTENTS.


PAGE
Departure from Vienna.—Frank's Letter.—A Farewell Promenade.—From Vienna to Cracow.—The Great Salt-mine of Wieliczka, and what was seen there.—Churches and Palaces Underground.—Voyage on a Subterranean Lake. 15
Leaving Cracow.—The Russian Frontier.—The Police and the Custom-house—Russian Censorship of Books and Papers.—Catching a Smuggler.—From the Frontier to Warsaw.—Sights and Incidents in the Capital of Poland.—From Warsaw to St. Petersburg. 40
In the Streets of St. Petersburg.—Isvoshchiks and Droskies.—Counting in Russian.—Passports and their Uses.—On the Nevski Prospect.—Visiting the Church of Kazan.—The Russo-Greek Religion.—Unfavorable Position of St. Petersburg.—Danger of Destruction.—Great Inundation of 1824.—Statue of Peter the Great.—Admiralty Square.—The Sailors and the Statue. 58
Dinner in a Russian Restaurant.—Cabbage Soup, Fish Pies, and other odd Dishes.—The "Samovar" and its Uses.—Russian Tea-drinkers.—"Joltai Chai."—Alexander's Column.—Fortress of Sts. Peter and Paul.—Imperial Assassinations.—Sketches of the People.—Russian Police and their Ways. 76
Number and Character of the Russian People.—Pan-Slavic Union.—St. Isaac's Church: its History and Description.—The Winter Palace and the Hermitage.—Sights in the Palace.—Catherine's Rules for her Receptions.—John Paul Jones in Russia.—The Crown Jewels and the Orloff Diamond.—Anecdotes of the Emperor Nicholas.—Relics of Peter the Great.—From Palace to Prison.—Tombs of Russia's Emperors.—A Monument and an Anecdote. 93
The Gostinna Dvor: its Extent and Character.—Peculiarity of Russian Shopping.—Curious Customs.—Old-clothes Market.—Hay-market.—Pigeons in Russian Cities.—Frozen Animals.—Church and Monastery of St. Alexander Nevski.—A Persian Train.—A Coffin of Solid Silver.—The Summer Garden.—Speaking to the Emperor.—Kriloff and his Fables.—Visit to a Russian Theatre.—"A Life for the Czar."—A Russian Comedy. 110
Newspapers in Russia: their Number, Character, and Influence.—Difficulties of Editorial Life.—The Censorship.—An Excursion to Peterhof, Oranienbaum, and Cronstadt.—Sights in the Summer Palace.—Cronstadt and the Naval Station.—The Russian Navy.—The Russian Army: its Composition and Numbers.—The Cossacks.—Anecdotes of Russian Military Life. 130
Visiting the University of St. Petersburg.—Education in Russia.—Primary and other Schools.—The System of Instruction.—Recent Progress in Educational Matters.—Universities in the Empire: their Number and Location.—Religious Liberty.—Treatment of the Jews.—The Islands of the Neva, and what was seen there.—In a "Traktir."—Bribery Among Russian Officials. 150
Studies of St. Petersburg.—Mujiks.—"The Imperial Nosegay."—A Short History of Russian Serfdom: its Origin, Growth, and Abuses.—Emancipation of the Serfs.—Present Condition of the Peasant Class.—Seeing the Emperor.—How the Czar appears in Public.—Public and Secret Police: their Extraordinary Powers.—Anecdotes of Police Severity.—Russian Courts of Law. 172
Winter in Russia.—Fashionable and other Furs.—Sleighs and Sledges.—No Sleigh-bells in Russian Cities.—Official Opening of the Neva.—Russian Ice-hills.—"Butter-week."—Kissing at Easter.—An Active Kissing-time.—Russian Stoves and Baths.—Effects of Severe Cold.—The Story of the Frozen Nose.—How Men are Frozen to Death. 193
Leaving St. Petersburg.—Novgorod the Great: its History and Traditions.—Rurik and his successors.—Barbarities of John the Terrible.—Early History of Russia.—An Imperial Bear-hunt.—Origin of the House of Romanoff.—"A Life for the Czar."—Railways in Russia from Novgorod to Moscow. 211
First Impressions of Moscow.—Undulations of the Ground.—Irregularity of the Buildings, and the Cause thereof.—Napoleon's Campaign in Russia.—Disaster and Retreat.—The Burning of Moscow.—The Kremlin: its Churches, Treasures, and Historical Associations.—Anecdotes of Russian Life.—The Church of St. Basil. 230
The Great Theatre of Moscow.—Operatic Performances.—The Kitai Gorod and Gostinna Dvor.—Romanoff House and the Romanoff Family.—Sketch of the Rulers of Russia.—Anecdotes of Peter the Great and others.—Church of the Saviour.—Mosques and Pagodas.—The Museum.—Riding-school.—Suhareff Tower.—Traktirs.—Old Believers.—The Sparrow Hills and the Simonoff Monastery. 252
A Visit to the Troitska Monastery, and what was seen there.—Curious Legends.—Monks at Dinner.—European Fairs.—The Great Fair at Nijni Novgorod.—Sights and Scenes.—Minin's Tomb and Tower.—Down the Volga by Steamboat.—Steam Navigation on the great River.—Kazan, and what was seen there.—The Route to Siberia. 271
Avatcha Bay, in Kamtchatka.—Attack upon Petropavlovsk by the Allied Fleet.—Dogs and Dog-driving.—Rapid Travelling with a Dog-team.—Population and Resources of Kamtchatka.—Reindeer and their Uses.—The Amoor River.—Native Tribes and Curious Customs.—Tigers in Siberia.—Navigation of the Amoor.—Overland Travelling in Siberia.—Riding in a Tarantasse.—A Rough Road.—An Amusing Mistake.—From Stratensk to Nertchinsk.—Gold-mining in Siberia. 289
The Exiles of Siberia.—The Decembrists and their Experience.—Social Position of Exiles.—Different Classes of Exiles and their Sentences.—Criminals and Politicals.—Degrees of Punishment.—Perpetual Colonists.—How Exiles Travel.—Lodging-houses and Prisons.—Convoys.—Thrilling Story of an Escape from Siberia.—Secret Roads.—How Peasants treat the Exiles.—Prisoners in Chains. 313
Character of the Siberian Population.—Absence of Serfdom, and its Effect.—A Russian Fête.—Amusements of the Peasantry.—Courtship and Marriage.—Curious Customs.—Whipping a Wife.—Overland through Siberia again.—Chetah and the Bouriats.—In a Bouriat Village.—Verckne Udinsk.—Siberian Robbers.—Tea-trains and Tea-trade.—Kiachta.—Lodged by the Police.—Trade between Russia and China. 334
General Aspects of Mai-mai-chin.—Dinner with a Chinese Governor.—A Theatrical Performance.—Lake Baikal: its Remarkable Features.—A Wonderful Ride.—Irkutsk: its Population, Size, and Peculiarities.—Social Gayeties.—Preparations for a long Sleigh-ride.—List of Garments.—Varieties of Sleighs.—Farewell to Irkutsk.—Sleighing Incidents.—Food on the Road.—Siberian Mails.—Advantages of Winter Travelling.—Sleighing on bare Ground.—A Snowless Region.—Krasnoyarsk. 354
Position and Character of Krasnoyarsk.—A Lesson in Russian Pronunciation.—Market Scene.—Siberian Trees.—The "Oukhaba."—A New Sensation.—Road-fever and its Cause.—An Exciting Adventure with Wolves.—How Wolves are Hunted.—From Krasnoyarsk to Tomsk.—Steam Navigation in Siberia.— Barnaool.—Mines of the Altai.—Tigers and Tiger Stories.—The "Bouran."—Across the Baraba Steppe.—Tumen and Ekaterineburg.—From Europe to Asia—Perm, Kazan, and Nijni Novgorod.—End of the Sleigh-ride. 377
Down the Volga again.—Russian Reception Ceremony.—Simbirsk, Samara, and Saratov.—German Settlers on the Volga.—Don Cossacks.—Astrachan.—Curious Population.—Voyage on the Caspian Sea.—The Caspian Petroleum Region.—Tank-steamers.—Interesting Facts and Figures of the New Petrolia.—Present Product of the Baku Oil-fields.—Excursion to Balakhani, and Visit to the Oil-wells.—Temples of the Fire-worshippers.—Antiquity of the Caspian Petroleum Region.—Marco Polo and other Authorities. 403
Glance at Central Asia.—Russian Conquest in Turkestan.—War and Diplomacy among the Kirghese Tribes.—Russian Taxes and their Ccollection.—Turcoman and Kirghese Raids.—Prisoners sold into Slavery.—Fortified Villages and Towers of Refuge.—Commerce in Turkestan.—Jealousy of Foreigners.—Travels of Vambéry and Others.—Vambéry's Narrow Escape.—Turcoman Character.—Payments for Human Heads.—Marriage Customs among the Turcomans.—Extent and Population of Central Asia. 428
Frank and Fred in the Turcoman Country.—The Trans-Caspian Railway.—Skobeleff's Campaign, and the Capture of Geok Tepé.—English Jealousy of Russian Advances.—Rivers of Central Asia.—The Oxus and Jaxartes.—Agriculture by Irrigation.—Khiva, Samarcand, and Bokhara.—A Ride on the Trans-Caspian Railway.—Statistics of the Line.—Kizil Arvat, Askabad, and Sarakhs.—Route to Herat and India.—Turcoman Devastation.—The Afghan Boundary Question.—How Merv was Captured.—O'Donovan and MacGahan: their Remarkable Journeys.—Railway Route from England to India.—Return to Baku. 451
Baku to Tiflis.—The Capital of the Caucasus.—Mountain Travelling.—Crossing the Range.—Petroleum Locomotives.—Batoum and its Importance.—Trebizond and Erzeroom.—Sebastopol and the Crimea.—Short History of the Crimean War.—Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78.—Battles in the Crimea and Siege of Sebastopol.—Visiting the Malakoff and Redan Forts.—View of the Battle-fields.—Charge of the Light Brigade at Balaklava.—Present Condition of Sebastopol.—Odessa.—Arrival at Constantinople.—Frank's Dream.—The End. 480

ILLUSTRATIONS.

  1. Winter Scene in Russia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    Frontispiece.
  2. PAGE
  3. Fred's Reminder
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    15
  4. St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    16
  5. View of the Palace of Cracow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    17
  6. Kosciusko, 1777
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    18
  7. Kosciusko, 1817
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    19
  8. Church of St. Mary, Cracow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    20
  9. Polish Jew of high Rank
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    21
  10. Polish Jews of the Middle Class
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    22
  11. Our Guide in Costume
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    23
  12. The Inspector-general
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    24
  13. The Shaft
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    26
  14. Descending the Shaft
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    27
  15. Lamp-bearers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    28
  16. A Foot-path
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    29
  17. An Underground Chapel
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    31
  18. Men Cutting Salt in the Mine
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    32
  19. Finishing the Columns
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    33
  20. Subterranean Stables
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    34
  21. A Mining Singer
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    35
  22. "Glück-auf!"
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    36
  23. Fête in the Grand Saloon of Entertainment
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    37
  24. A Retired Director
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    38
  25. Outer Wall of Cracow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    40
  26. Custom-house Formalities
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    41
  27. Passport not Correct
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    42
  28. In the Passport Bureau
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    43
  29. Way Station on the Railway
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    45
  30. Before Examination
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    46
  31. After Examination
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    47
  32. Scene on the Railway
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    48
  33. Shutes for loading Coal on the Railway
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    49
  34. Polish National Costumes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    50
  35. Peasant's Farm-house
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    51
  36. Royal Palace at Warsaw
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    52
  37. Shrine at a Gate-way
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    53
  38. Lake in the Park
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    54
  39. A Business Man of Warsaw
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    55
  40. In St. Petersburg
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    56
  41. Isvoshchiks in Winter
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    59
  42. Drosky Drivers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    60
  43. Sledge of a high Official
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    63
  44. Russian Workmen on their way Home
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    65
  45. Russian Officer with Decorations
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    66
  46. A Russian Priest
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    68
  47. Convent of Solovetsk in the Frozen Sea
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    71
  48. The Inundation of 1824
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    72
  49. Statue of Peter the Great
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    73
  50. Improvising a Statue
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    75
  51. Tea-sellers in the Streets
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  52. Russian Restaurant at the Paris Exposition
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    78
  53. An Out-door Tea-party
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    79
  54. Russian Mujiks drinking Tea
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81
  55. Plant from which Yellow Tea is made
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  56. Column in Memory of Alexander I
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    83
  57. Peter the Great
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  58. Assassination of Peter III
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    87
  59. Paul I
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    88
  60. Russian and Finn
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    89
  61. Dvornik and Postman
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    90
  62. Lodgings at the Frontier
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    91
  63. Ordered to leave Russia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    92
  64. Finland Peasants in Holiday Costume
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94
  65. Inhabitants of Southern Russia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  66. St. Isaac's Church and Admkalty Square
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    96
  67. Priest of the Church of St. Isaac
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    98
  68. Catherine II. of Russia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    99
  69. Reception of John Paul Jones by the Empress Catherine
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    101
  70. Russian Attack on the Turkish Galley
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    103
  71. The Orloff Diamond
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104
  72. Nicholas I
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    105
  73. Peter III
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    106
  74. Circassian Arms as Trophies of Battle
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    107
  75. Statue of Nicholas I
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    108
  76. Politeness in the Market-place
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    111
  77. Importuning a Visitor
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    113
  78. Frozen Animals in the Market
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    114
  79. Market for old Clothes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    116
  80. Pigeons in a Russian City
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118
  81. Persian Horses presented by the Shah
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    119
  82. Russian Peasant Girl
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    120
  83. Russian Nurse-maid and Children
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    121
  84. Some of Kriloff's Friends
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    122
  85. Kriloff's Characters in Convention
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    123
  86. The Fox as a Law-giver
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    126
  87. One of Kriloff's Characters
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    127
  88. Closing Scene in a Russian Play
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    128
  89. Kriloff's Statue in the Summer Garden, St. Petersburg
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    129
  90. Press-room of a Daily Newspaper
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    131
  91. Interviewing an Editor
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    132
  92. Prince Gortchakoff
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    133
  93. Cabinet and Chair in the Palace
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  94. Illumination in a Russian Park
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    136
  95. Tapestry and Fire Utensils at Peterhof
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    137
  96. Door-way of Peter's House at Zaandam, Holland
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    138
  97. A Student of Navigation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    139
  98. Steam Frigate near Cronstadt
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    140
  99. Frigate under Sail and Steam
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    141
  100. The Dreadnought—type of the Peter the Great
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    142
  101. The Russian Army—Regular Troops
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    143
  102. Cossack Lancers and Russian Guard-house
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    144
  103. The Russian Army—Irregular Troops
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    146
  104. Grand-duke Michael
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    148
  105. Iron-clad Steamer of the Baltic Fleet
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    149
  106. Little Folks at School
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    151
  107. Learning to Weave
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    152
  108. Mineral Cabinet in the University
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    153
  109. Parlor in a High-school for Women
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    155
  110. Private Room of a wealthy Student
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    156
  111. Lower Recitation-room
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157
  112. One of the Professors
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    158
  113. Descending a Shaft
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    159
  114. Galleries in a Mine
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    160
  115. In the Library
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    161
  116. A College Dormitory
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    162
  117. Jewish Burial-ground
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    163
  118. Clothes-dealer of Moscow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    164
  119. A Russian Troika
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    165
  120. A Villa on the Island
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    166
  121. A Russian Family
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    167
  122. Culprit Street-sweepers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    169
  123. A Business Transaction
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    170
  124. Peter the Great dressed for Battle
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    171
  125. An Imperial Nosegay
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    173
  126. Mujiks playing Cards
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    174
  127. Peasant's House in Southern Russia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    176
  128. Peasants' Huts
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    178
  129. Esthonian Peasants
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    179
  130. Alexander II., the Liberator of the Serfs
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    181
  131. Alexander III., Emperor of Russia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    182
  132. Battle between Russians and Circassians
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    184
  133. Schamyl's Village in the Caucasus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    185
  134. The Empress Marie Féodorovna, Wife of Alexander III
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    186
  135. Russian Peasants at their Recreation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    187
  136. "Who is the Spy?"
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    189
  137. Officers sitting in Judgment
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    191
  138. Russian Grand-duke and Grand-duchess
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    192
  139. Fur-bearing Seals
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    194
  140. Sea-otter
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    195
  141. The Beaver
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    195
  142. The Ermine
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    196
  143. The Raccoon
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    196
  144. Russian Ice-hills
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    198
  145. Soldiers off Duty—Butter-week
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    199
  146. The Easter Kiss—agreeable
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    200
  147. The Easter Kiss—in the Family
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    200
  148. The Easter Kiss—difficult
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    201
  149. The Easter Kiss—disagreeable
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    201
  150. The Emperor's Easter Kiss
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    203
  151. Peasant Girl in Winter Dress
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    204
  152. A Bath in the East
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    206
  153. Russian Street Scene in Winter
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    208
  154. Lost in a Snow-storm
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    210
  155. Workmen of Novgorod—Glazier, Painter, and Carpenters
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    212
  156. An Old Norse Chief
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    213
  157. View on the Steppe
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    216
  158. Ivan the Terrible
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    217
  159. Alexis Michailovitch, Father of Peter the Great
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    219
  160. Michael Feodorovitch, First Czar of the Romanoff Family
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    220
  161. Too near to be pleasant
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    221
  162. Wolf attacking its Hunters
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    222
  163. Old Picture in the Church
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    224
  164. A Bishop of the Greek Church
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    225
  165. Millennial Monument at Novgorod
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    227
  166. Russian Boats
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    228
  167. Portrait of Catherine II. in the Kremlin Collection
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    229
  168. Street Scene in Moscow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    231
  169. Bivouacking in the Snow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    232
  170. Battle between French and Russians
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    233
  171. Napoleon Retreating from Moscow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    235
  172. Alexander I
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    236
  173. View in the Kremlin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    237
  174. A Prisoner ordered to Execution
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    238
  175. The Kremlin of Moscow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    239
  176. The Great Bell underground
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    240
  177. Visiting the Great Bell
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    241
  178. Empress Anne
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    242
  179. The Empress Elizabeth
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    243
  180. Coronation of Alexander III
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    245
  181. Peter II
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    246
  182. Bishop in his Robes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    247
  183. Great Gun at Moscow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    249
  184. The Cathedral at Moscow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    250
  185. Napoleon's Retreat from Moscow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    251
  186. Dress of Peasants—Scene from a Russian Opera
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    253
    1. A Dressing-room of the Opera-house
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      254
    2. Working the Ship in "L'Africaine"
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      255
    3. Minin-Pojarsky Monument
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      257
    4. Peter's Escape from Assassination
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      258
    5. Peter the Great as Executioner
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      260
    6. Catherine I
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      261
    7. Catherine II
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      263
    8. Grand-duke Nicholas Alexandrovitch
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      264
    9. Skinned and Stuffed Man
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      266
    10. Russian Beggars
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      267
    11. Tartar Coffee-house in Southern Russia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      269
    12. Gallery in the Palace
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      270
    13. Copy of Picture in the Monastery
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      272
    14. Window in Church of the Trinity
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      273
    15. Pity the Poor
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      274
    16. Curious Agate at Troitska
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      275
    17. Paper-knife from Troitska—St. Sergius and the Bear
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      276
    18. Specimens of Ecclesiastical Painting on Glass
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      277
    19. Russian Cooper's Shop and Dwelling
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      278
    20. Nijni Novgorod during the Fair
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      280
    21. Nijni Novgorod after the Fair
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      281
    22. Tartar Merchant
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      282
    23. Returning from the Fair
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      283
    24. Launching a Russian Barge
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      285
    25. Tartar Village near the Volga
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      286
    26. Tartar Baker's Shop
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      287
    27. A Siberian Village
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      289
    28. Petropavlovsk, Kamtchatka.—Mount Avatcha in Background
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      290
    29. A Herd of Reindeer
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      291
    30. Dog-teams and Reindeer
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      293
    31. Light-house at Ghijigha
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      294
    32. Ermine-trap
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      295
    33. Interior of a Native House
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      295
    34. The Reindeer
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      296
    35. Fish-market at Nicolayevsk
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      297
    36. Scenery on the Amoor.
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      298
    37. Gilyak' Woman
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      299
    38. Gilyak Man
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      299
    39. Native Boat—Amoor River
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      300
    40. Goldee Children
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      300
    41. Visiting a Goldee House at Night
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      301
    42. Inauguration of Genghis Khan
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      302
    43. Junction of the Argoon and Shilka to form the Amoor
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      303
    44. Scene in a Posting Station
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      304
    45. A Tarantasse
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      306
    46. Changing Horses at a Siberian Station
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      307
    47. The Right of Way in Russia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      309
    48. Getting out of Difficulty
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      310
    49. Valley of the Amoor above Ouk-se-me
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      312
    50. Interior of an Exile's Hut
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      314
    51. Exiles passing through a Village
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      315
    52. A Town built by Exiles
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      317
    53. Banished for Five Years
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      318
    54. Banished for Three Years
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      318
    55. Colonist's Village in Winter
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      319
    56. Exiles leaving Moscow
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      321
    57. Tagilsk, centre of Iron-mines of Siberia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      322
    58. A Siberian Valley
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      323
    59. Two Exiled Friends Meeting
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      325
    60. Escaping Exiles crossing a Stream
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      326
    61. Ivanoff's Cave
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      327
    62. Exiles among the Mountains
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      329
    63. Siberian Peasants
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      331
    64. Siberian Milk-women
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      332
    65. Siberia in Summer
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      333
    66. An Exile Peasant and his Friends
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      335
    67. A Siberian Landscape
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      336
    68. Girls Playing at Skakiet
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      337
    69. A Village Festival
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      338
    70. Russian Peasant Women
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      340
    71. Making Calls after a Wedding
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      342
    72. Ceremony after a Peasant's Wedding
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      343
    73. The Mountains near Chetah
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      345
    74. A Bouriat Village
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      346
    75. A Wandering Priest
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      347
    76. Crossing the Selenga
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      349
    77. Finding Lodgings at Kiachta
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      351
    78. Chinese Cash from Mai-mai-chin
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      352
    79. Articles of Russian Manufacture
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      353
    80. Scene in a Chinese Temple
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      354
    81. Theatre at Mai-mai-chin
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      355
    82. The Tiger
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      356
    83. A Natural Arch on Lake Baikal
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      357
    84. Caverns on Lake Baikal
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      358
    85. Part of Irkutsk
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      359
    86. View of the Principal Square in Irkutsk
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      360
    87. Dressed for the Road
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      362
    88. Avashok
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      363
    89. My Kibitka
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      364
    90. Farewell to Irkutsk
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      365
    91. Work of the Frost-king
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      367
    92. Interior of a Russian Inn
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      369
    93. Mail-driver and Guard
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      370
    94. Distant View of a Siberian Village
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      371
    95. Soldiers in Siberian Ferry-boats
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      373
    96. View of Krasnoyarsk from the opposite Bank of the Yenisei
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      374
    97. A Dangerous Ride
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      376
    98. Beggar at a Siberian Station
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      378
    99. Policeman at Krasnoyarsk
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      380
    100. Hills near a Siberian River
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      381
    101. Jumping an "Oukhaba"
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      382
    102. Wolves Attacking a Buffalo
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      384
    103. A Siberian Wolf
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      385
    104. Summer and Winter in Russia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      386
    105. Village on a Russian Estate
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      388
    106. A Slight Mishap
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      389
    1. Summer View near Barnaool
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      391
    2. Attacked by a Tiger
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      393
    3. Bearcoots and Wolves
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      394
    4. The Steppe in Summer
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      395
    5. Specimen of Rock-crystal
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      397
    6. Monument at the Boundary
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      397
    7. Western Slope of the Ural Mountains
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      398
    8. Descending a Hill-side Road
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      400
    9. Baptizing through the Ice
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      401
    10. End of the Sleigh-ride
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      402
    11. Offering of the Villagers
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      404
    12. Shoeing an Ox
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      406
    13. Knife-whip
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      407
    14. Armenian Bishop of Astrachan
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      408
    15. A Tartar Khan
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      409
    16. Tartar Postilions
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      410
    17. Tartar Palaces in Southern Russia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      411
    18. Gypsy Family at Astrachan
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      412
    19. An Oil-steamer on the Caspian Sea
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      413
    20. Tanks at a Storage Depot
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      413
    21. View in an Oil Region
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      414
    22. Bits for Drilling Wells
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      415
    23. A Spouting Well
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      416
    24. Derrick and Tanks in the American Oil Region
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      417
    25. An Oil Refinery with Tank Cars
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      419
    26. Tartar Camel-cart at Baku
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      420
    27. Ancient Mound near the Caspian Sea
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      421
    28. Curious Rock Formations
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      422
    29. Modern Fire-worshippers—Parsee Lady and Daughter
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      423
    30. A Burning Tank
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      425
    31. A Fall in Oil
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      426
    32. A Rise in Oil
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      426
    33. Camp Scene near the Altai Mountains
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      429
    34. A Kalmuck Priest
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      430
    35. Scene on the Edge of the Kirghese Steppe
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      431
    36. Kirghese Group
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      432
    37. Kirghese Chief and Family
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      433
    38. Caravan in Russian Territory
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      434
    39. Kirghese Raid on a Hostile Tribe
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      436
    40. Lasgird—A Fortified Village in Northern Persia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      438
    41. Tower of Refuge
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      439
    42. Framework of Turcoman Tent
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      440
    43. The Tent Covered
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      440
    44. Interior of Tent
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      441
    45. Vámbéry's Reception by Turcoman Chief on the Caspian Shore
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      442
    46. Receiving Payment for Human Heads—Khiva
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      443
    47. Turcoman Trophy—A Russian Head
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      445
    48. Kökbüri—A Race for a Bride
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      447
    49. View of the Citadel of Khiva
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      448
    50. An Ozbek Head
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      449
    51. Map showing the Relations of Russia and England in the East
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      451
    52. Sand-storm in the Desert
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      452
    53. Turcoman Court of Justice
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      453
    54. Kirghese Tomb
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      454
    55. Charge of Russian Cavalry against Turcomans
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      455
    56. Russian Army on the Turcoman Steppes
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      457
    57. Winter Camp in Turcomania
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      459
    58. Turcoman Irrigating Wheel
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      460
    59. Scene at a Ferry on the Oxus
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      461
    60. Map of the Russo-Afghan Region
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      462
    61. Turcoman Woman Spinning
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      464
    62. Village of Turcoman Tents
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      465
    63. The New Russo- Afghan Frontier
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      466
    64. Old Sarakhs
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      468
    65. Sarik Turcomau Woman
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      469
    66. Pul-i-Khisti and Ak Tapa
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      470
    67. Penjdeh
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      471
    68. Colonel Alikhanoff
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      472
    69. The Great Highway of Central Asia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      473
    70. Turcoman Farm-yard
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      475
    71. Map of Turkestan, showing Route of Trans-Caspian Railway
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      476
    72. Crossing a River in Central Asia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      478
    73. A Native Traveller
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      479
    74. Looking down on the Steppe
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      481
    75. View of Tiflis
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      483
    76. The Pass of Dariel, Caucasus
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      485
    77. Governor-general of the Caucasus
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      486
    78. Ruined Fortress in the Caucasus
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      487
    79. Ruined Church near Batoum
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      488
    80. Quarantine Harbor, Trebizond
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      489
    81. View of Erzeroom
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      490
    82. Turkish Authority
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      492
    83. View of Sebastopol
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      495
    84. Ruins of the Malakoff, Sebastopol
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      496
    85. Russian Carpenters at Work
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      498
    86. Cossacks and Chasseurs
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      499
    87. British Soldiers in Camp
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      501
    88. Alfred Tennyson
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      502
    89. A Broken Tarantasse
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      503
    90. The Bosporus
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      504
    91. Map to accompany the Boy Travellers in the Russian Empire
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      Front Cover.
    92. Map showing the Russian Empire Routes as Described by the Boy Travellers.
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      Back Cover.