PIOTRKOW, pēy-ŏtr'kŏv, Russian Poland, (1) the capital of a government of the same name, 90 miles by rail southwest of Warsaw. Cotton and wool spinning, with the manufacture of agricultural implements, are the chief industries. The town dates from before the 12th century and is one of the oldest in Poland. In its ancient castle still standing, diets were held in the 15th and 16th centuries and the kings elected. After being captured by the German army in 1915, the fortifications were strengthened. Pop. about 41,181. (2) The government in the west of Russian Poland, south of the government of Warsaw, has an area of 4,730 square miles. The surface is undulating and diversified by hills from 1,000 to 1,600 feet high, extending southwest to northeast. It is rich in coal deposits and iron, zinc and lignite are also mined. Agriculture and stock-raising are important industries and there are manufactures of textiles and ironware. Pop. 2,097,900.