The Land of the Veda
THE PEOPLE OF INDIA—CASTE AND ITS IMMUNITIES.
Great Emergencies of Christianity—Our Narrow Escape—Origin of Caste—The Brahmin—Brahminical Devotions—Prerogatives and Investiture—Discriminations in the Brahmin's Favor by the Law—Four Stages of a Brahmin's Life—Brahminism a Dead Failure—The People of India—The Ladies of the Land—The Nautch Girls—The Gentlemen of India—Conversion and Career of Maharajah Dhuleep Singh—Habits of the Hindoo Aristocracy—Christianity alone Creates a Home—Hindoo Visits of Ceremony—Marriage Expenses—Manners and Customs
STATISTICS, MYTHOLOGY, AND VEDIC LITERATURE.
Civil and Religious Statistics of India—The Languages of India—India Compared to Europe—Trade, Commerce, and Revenue—Railroads and Telegraphs—English Empire—Value of India to England—The Higher Motives for English Rule—Mapping out Eternity—Measurements of Time—Mythology, Geography, and Astronomy of the Hindoos—The Vedas—Beef-eating Sanctioned by the Vedas—Manners of the Hindoos at the Time of the Macedonian Invasion, (326 B. C.)—Vile Character of Vedic Worship—Deception as to the Contents of the Veda—Hindoo Literature—The Ramayana—The Temptation and Abduction of Seeta—The Mahabarata
ARCHITECTURAL MAGNIFICENCE OF INDIA.
Personal Narrative of Appointment and Journey—Our Reception in India—Character of Mohammedan Rule—The Moslem Dynasty Passing Away—Zeenat Mahal—The Khass and the Mogul Sinking Together—Architectural Taste of the Emperors—Moore's Blunder in Lalla Rookh—Paradise and its Privileges—The Dewanee Khass and its Glorious Furniture—Interview of Nadir Shah and Mohammed Shah—Tact of the Courtier—The First Sight of the Taj Mahal—View from the Gate—Inside of the Taj—The Effect of Music over the Tomb—The Taj Matchless—Origin of the Taj—The Lost Opportunity of Romanism at Agra—A Prayer which God will ever Refuse to Answer—Cost of the Taj—Etmad-ood-Doulah's Tomb—The Daughter of the Desert—The Heroine of Moore's Poem—The Kootub Minar—Its Origin and Style—The Government of Jehovah Christ over Nations and Dynasties—The Unfinished Minar—The Palladium of Hindoo Dominion
ORIGINATING CAUSES OF THE SEPOY REBELLION.
Position of the Emperor of Delhi—Terms of the English Bargain with the Mogul—Why the Munificent Provision Failed—The Pageant felt to be a Bore—Moslem Hate of Christ and Christians—The Nana Sahib—His Agent Azeemoolah—A Hypocrite who has no Equal—Mohammedan Monopoly of Place and Power—Sepoy Army and its Disadvantages—Annexation of Oude—Dread of Christian Civilization—The Fakirs of India—Humorous Anecdote of Self-torturing Fakir—The Yogees—Hindoo Rules of Moral Perfection—Number and Expense of Saints in India—Militant Fakirs—Lucknow, its Beauty and Vileness—Those who Needed us Most—Our Mission Field—Joel, our First Native Preacher—Peggy's Sacrifice for her Saviour
“IN PERILS BY THE HEATHEN, IN PERILS IN THE WILDERNESS.”
Reception at Bareilly—A Man who Never Heard of America—The Greased Cartridges—Methods and Motives Employed to Foment Rebellion—Willoughby's Gallant Defense of the Delhi Magazine—Massacre of Meerut and Delhi—Providential Compensations—Our Warning to Flee—Declined to Leave—Reconsideration and Flight—Left in the Terai at Midnight—God's Answer to a Brief Prayer—Our First Sight of Nynee Tal—The Massacre at Bareilly—Joel's Narrative of his Escape and Flight—Death of Maria—Bromfield-street and Bareilly on the Same Day—Massacre at Shahjehanpore—The Murdered Missionaries—“Tempering the Wind to the Shorn Lamb”—Our Measures of Defense at Nynee Tal—The Value of Our Heads—“The Mutiny Baby”—How we Lived, and our Commissariat—Mutilation of our Messengers—Hungry for News—Mrs. Edwards and the Garment of Praise—Lying and Blasphemous Proclamations of the Rebel Authorities—The Spirit of the Moslem Creed—The Delhi Battle of the 23d of June—Scarcity and Dearness of our Provisions—Our Rampore Friend—Le Bas and the Nawab of Kurnal—The Fakir and the Baby—Our Sudden Flight from Nynee Tal to Almorah—Again “in Perils in the Wilderness”—Light in the Darkness—Almorah Reached at Last—The Fearful State of Things before Delhi—Our Battle at Huldwanee
THE CAWNPORE MASSACRE AND THE RELIEF OF LUCKNOW.
American Blood among the First Shed at Cawnpore—“These are They which Came Out of Great Tribulation”—Authorities for the Story—Sir Hugh Wheeler's Preparation—The Beginning of the Long Agony—A Sorrow without a Parallel—The Nana Sahib's Infernal Treachery—Reserves the Ladies for Another Doom—The Darkest Crime in Human History—The Nana Sahib Meets General Havelock—Totally Routed—Havelock's Soldiers at “The Well”—“I Believe in the Resurrection of the Body”—The Shrine erected by a Weeping Country—Blowing Away from Guns and its Motive—Siege of Lucknow — Sir Henry Lawrence's Preparation for Defense—The Disastrous Defeat of Chinhut—The Unequal Conditions of the Conflict—The Muchee Bawun Blown Up—Sir Henry Lawrence's Death—Determined Resolution of the Garrison—Value and Price of Stores—Soothing Influence of Prayer—The Omen of Coming Liberty and Peace—Havelock's Opportune Arrival at Calcutta—Military Services and Career—Begins his Grand March with a Handful of Troops—The Battles of Futtypore and Pandoo Nuddee—Enters Cawnpore July 17th—Too Late after all to Save the Ladies—Crosses the Ganges and Marches for Lucknow—Wins his Seventh Victory—Obliged by Cholera and the Condition of his Troops to Wait for Reinforcements—Sir James Outram's Noble Concession—Reinforced and On his Way again—The Residency Reached and the Ladies Saved—Shut in Again—Sir Colin Campbell's Approach to Lucknow—Jessie Brown and her “Dinnaye Hear the Slogan?”—Meeting of Campbell, Outram, and Havelock—Evacuation of the Residency—Havelock Dying—Reception of the Ladies at Allahabad
THE CAUSES AND FAILURE OF THE SEPOY REBELLION.
England's Misrepresentatives—The East India Company Answered by One of its own Hindoo Subjects—Escape of India from French Rule—Young Bengal's Opinion of Christianity—Native Appreciation of English Government—Hindoo Estimate of Missionaries and Christianity—The Interested Enemies of British Rule—Suttee without Vedic Sanction—The Mode and Extent of Suttee—The Motives of the Immolation—Instances of Suttee—Abolished by Lord Bentinck—The Thugs of India—Our Interview with Two Hundred of Them—Divine Sanction for Thuggeeism—What the Conflict Involved—England's Confession of her Sins—A Missionary Succeeds where a Government Fails—Sir John Lawrence's Christian Courage—Our Position again Assailed—Another Divine Interposition in our Behalf—Delhi Falls at Last—Our Journey Across the Himalayas—In Danger from the Wild Beasts—Arrival of our First Missionaries at Calcutta—In Sorrow, Supposing us Killed—We Reach the Plains and Proceed to Delhi—The Nakedness of the Captured City—Alone at Midnight at the Kotwalie—The Sights of Delhi—Mohammedan Treatment of Hindoo Idols—Our Visit to the Fallen Emperor—Other Royal Captives awaiting Trial—Attending Christian Worship in the Dewanee Khass—Why the Sepoy Rebellion Failed—Constitutional Freedom Foreign to Eastern Minds
RESULTS OF THE REBELLION TO CHRISTIANITY AND CIVILIZATION.
Meeting with One of the Bareilly Refugees—Colonel Gowan's Munificence—Doctor Wentworth's Invitation to China—Sad Service at the Meerut Post-Office—Joined by the Missionaries and their Wives—Lodged in the Taj Mahal—Proceed to Nynee Tal and Commence our Work—The Sheep-House Congregation—The Battle of Bareilly—The Grave of the Great Rebellion—Descent to Bareilly and Visit to my Ruined Home—Conducting Worship for Havelock's Heroes on their Last Battle-field — Visit to Khan Bahadur in Prison—His Trial and How he Died—Journey to Futtyghur and Cawnpore—Re-enter Lucknow—Reception by Sir Robert Montgomery—Marvelous Changes—Results of the Rebellion viewed from the Residency—Effect on the Mohammedans—The Irishman in the Lucknow Court—“One of You shall Chase a Thousand”—Abolition of the East India Company—Condition and Prospects of the Gospel—Martyr Campbell's Prayer Answered—Christianity Invincible and Inevitable
THE CONDITION OF WOMAN UNDER HINDOO LAW.
Woman's Wrongs in India are Legal—Female Infanticide—“Dark Saugor's impious Stain”—Betrothal of Hindoo Girls—Courtship Unknown in India—Legal Age for Marriage—Seclusion follows Betrothal—Education of the Hindoo Maiden—Subordination of Woman Legally Enjoined—The Wife Prohibited from Eating with her Husband—Required to Serve him while he Eats—Illustration of Royal Tyranny—A Woman's Curse Dreaded—Polygamy Allowed by Law—Its Extent—Polyandry—Its Ancient Character illustrated from the Mahabarata—Widowhood in India—Its Condition and Effect—Death and Funeral of the Hindoo Wife and Mother on the Banks of the Ganges
OUR CHRISTIAN ORPHANAGES IN ROHILCUND.
Wages in India—Causes of Famines—Famine of 1860—The Calamity Turned to Account—Condition of the Orphans Received—Our Female Orphanage Erected on the Site of Maria's Home—Aspect of our Congregations before 1860—The First Female Orphan—Present Condition of Efficiency and Hope
RESULTS THUS FAR OF THIS WORK.
Explanatory Note—Our India Theological Seminary and its Encouraging Record—Bishop Thoburn's Article Presenting the Pentecostal Development which God is now Vouchsafing to the Work so Feebly Begun amid the “Great Fight of Afflictions” in 1857—The Statistical Exhibit which the Work has Attained in Preparation for the Great Future on which it is now Entering
Glossary of Indian Terms used in this Work and in Missionary Correspondence
LAND OF THE VEDA
Its People, Castes, Thugs, and Fakirs
ITS RELIGIONS, MYTHOLOGY, PRINCIPAL MONUMENTS, PALACES, AND MAUSOLEUMS
TOGETHER WITH THE
INCIDENTS OF THE GREAT SEPOY REBELLION
By WILLIAM BUTLER, D.D.
NEW YORK: HUNT & EATON
CINCINNATI: CRANSTON & CURTS
CHIEFLY FROM PHOTOGRAPHS.
|Hindoos and their Teachers||17|
|Brahmins at Prayer||26|
|A Lady of India in Full Dress||40|
|The Nautch Girl of India||44|
|The Maharajah Duleep Singh||48|
|The Mohammedans of India||62|
|Mohammed Suraj-oo-deen Shah Gezee, Emperor of Delhi, the Last of the Moguls||106|
|Zeenat Mahal, Empress of Delhi (Photo-Engraving)||111|
|The Dewan Khass, or Hall of Audience, Palace of Delhi||117|
|Weighing of the Emperor in the Dewan Khass||123|
|The Taj Mahal viewed from the River Jumna||128|
|The Gate of the Taj||132|
|The Taj Mahal||136|
|Tomb of Asuf Khan, Agra (Photo-Engraving)||150|
|The Kootub Minar||157|
|The “Nana Sahib,” the Author of the Cawnpore Massacre||180|
|The Fakirs of India||193|
|A Self-torturing Fakir||196|
|The Yogee, or Silent Saint of India||200|
|Wajid Ali Shah, the Last King of Oude||209|
|Joel, Our first Native Preacher||215|
|Nynee Tal as you enter it||243|
|“The House of Massacre”||304|
|“The Well”—inside View||311|
|“The Shrine”—outside View||311|
|“The Residency,” Lucknow, India||317|
|Major-General Sir Henry Havelock||334|
|The Relief of Lucknow by General Havelock||348|
|Preparing for the Immolation of a Hindoo Widow (Photo-Engraving)||375|
|A Group of Thugs||396|
|The First House of Worship of the Methodist Episcopal Church in India||435|
|The Sheep-house Congregation||438|
|Lord Wellesley, who made Female Infanticide Penal||474|
|Hindoo Woman and her Husband||489|
|Hindoo Widow, in her usual dress||499|
|Lord Bentinck, who Terminated the Suttee||502|
|Boys' Orphanage, School-house, and Chapel, at Lodipore, India||507|
|First Theological Class in India||513|
|The Mission House and Female Orphanage at Bareilly||517|
|Graduating Class of the Female Orphanage||523|
|India Theological Seminary at Bareilly (Photo-Engraving)||489|