The Myths of Mexico and Peru/Chapter IX






As the Spanish alphabet was that first employed to represent Mexican or Nahuatl phonology, so Mexican words and names must be pronounced, for the most part, according to the Castilian system. An exception is the letter x, which in Spanish is sometimes written as j and pronounced as h aspirate; and in Nahuatl sometimes as in English, at other times as sh or s. Thus the word "Mexico" is pronounced by the aboriginal Mexican with the hard x, but by the Spaniard as "May-hee-co." The name of the native author Ixtlilxochitl is pronounced "Ishtlishotshitl," the ch being articulated as tsh, for euphony. Xochicalco is "So-chi-cal-co." The vowel sounds are pronounced as in French or Italian. The 'tl sound is pronounced with almost a click of the tongue.


The Maya alphabet consists of twenty-two letters, of which j, ch, k, pp, th, 'tz' are peculiar to the language, and cannot be properly pronounced by Europeans. It is deficient in the letters d,f, g,j, q, r, s. The remaining letters are sounded as in Spanish. The letter x occurring at the beginning of a word is pronounced ex. For example, Xbalanque is pronounced "Exbalanke." The frequent occurrence of elisions in spoken Maya renders its pronunciation a matter of great difficulty, and the few grammars on the language agree as to the hopelessness of conveying any true idea of the exact articulation of the language by means of written directions. Norman in his work entitled Rambles in Yucatan remarks: "This perhaps accounts for the disappearance of all grammars and vocabularies of the Maya tongue from the peninsula of Yucatan, the priests finding it much easier to learn the language directly from the Indian than to acquire it from books."


The two languages spoken in Peru in ancient times were the Quichua, or Inca, and the Aymara. These still survive. The former was the language of the Inca rulers of the country, but both sprang from one common linguistic stock. As these languages were first reduced to writing by means of a European alphabet, their pronunciation presents but little difficulty, the words practically being pronounced as they are written, having regard to the "Continental" pronunciation of the vowels. In Quichua the same sound is given to the intermediate 'c before a consonant and to the final c, as in "chacra" and "Pachacamac." The general accent is most frequently on the penultimate syllable



Aac, Prince. In the story of Queen Móo, 240, 244-245, 246

Acalan. District in Guatemala; race-movements and, 150

Acllacuna (Selected Ones). Body of maidens from whom victims for sacrifice were taken in Peru, 313

Aclla-huasi. Houses in which the Acllacuna lived, 313

Acolhuacan. District in Mexico,26

Acolhuans (or Acolhuaque) (People of the Broad Shoulder). Mexican race, 26; said to have founded Mexico, 26; a pure Nahua race, perhaps the Toltecs, 26; their supremacy, 48

Acolhuaque.See Acolhuans

Acosta, José de. Work on Mexican lore, 58

Acsumama. Guardian spirit of the potato plant in Peru, 295

Acxitl. Toltec king, son of Huemac II, 17, 19

Acxopil. Ruler of the Kiche, 158-159

Agoreros (or Mohanes). Members of Peruvian tribes who claimed power as oracles, 297-298, 314

Ahuizotl. Mexican king, 30

Ah-zotzils. a Maya tribe, 172

Akab-sib (Writing in the Dark). A bas-relief at El Castillo, Chichen-Itza, 190

Aké. Maya ruins at, 186-187

America. Superficial resemblance between peoples, customs, and art-forms of Asia and, I; civilisation, native origin of, 1-2, 3, 328; animal and plant life peculiar to, 2; man, origin of, in, 2; geographical connection between Asia and, 3; traditions of intercourse between Asia and, 3; Chinese Fu-Sang and, 3; possible Chinese and Japanese visits to. 3-4; Coronado's expedition to, 4; legends of intercourse between Europe and, 4; "Great Ireland”' probably the same as, 4; St. Brandan's voyage and, 4; reached by early Norsemen, 5; the legend of Madoc and, 5-6; early belief in, respecting incursions from the east, 6; prophecy of Chilan Balam recoming of white men to, 8

America, Central. Indigenous origin of civilisation of, I; legend of Toltec migration to, 20

Anahuac (By the Water). Native name of the Mexican plateau, 18. See Mexico

Ancestor-worship in Peru, 296

Andeans. The prehistoric civilisation of, 249-250; architectural remains of, 250

Antahuayllas. Peruvian tribe, 284

Antilia.Legends of, have no connection with American myth, 6

Anti-suyu. One of the four racial divisions of ancient Peru, 255

Apinguela. Island on Lake Titicaca; Huaina Ccapac and the lake-goddess and, 299

Apocatequil. Peruvian thunder-god, the "Prince of Evil"; in a creation-myth, 301-302

Apu-Ccapac (Sovereign Chief). Title of the Inca rulers, 248

"Apu-Ollanta." a drama-legend of the Incas, 251-253

Apurimac (Great Speaker). River in Peru; regarded as an oracle, 296

Aqua. A bird-maiden; in the myth of origin of the Canaris, 319

Arara (Fire-bird). Same as Kinich-ahau, which see

Architecture. I. Of the Nahua, 31-34. II. Of the Maya, 149-150, 178-198; the most individual expression of the people, 178; Yucatan exhibits the most perfect specimens, and the decadent phase, 178; methods of building, 178-179; ignorance of some first principles, 179; mural decoration 179; pyramidal buildings, 180 definiteness of design, 180 architectural districts, 181; not of great antiquity, 182; Father Burgoa on the palace at Mitla, 199-201. III. Of the Incas, 268-269; the art in which the race showed greatest advance, 268; Sir Clements Markham on, 269

Arriaga, P. J. de. On stone-worship in Peru, 293

Art. Early American, superficial resemblance to that of Asia, I; native origin and unique character of American, 1-2; Toltec, 23; Peruvians weak in, 248

Asia. Origin of early American culture erroneously attributed to, I; man originally came to America from, 2; former land-connection between America and, 3; traditions of intercourse between America and, 3

Ataguju. Supreme divinity of the Peruvians; in a creation-myth, 301

Atamalqualiztli (Fast of Porridge-balls and Water). Nahua festival, 77

Atatarho. Mythical wizard-king of the Iroquois, 72

Atauhuallpa. Son of the Inca Huaina Ccapac; strives for the crown with Huascar, 289-290

Atl(Water). Mexican deity; often confounded with the moon-goddess, 106

Atlantis. Legends of, have no connection with American myth, 6

Auqui (Warrior). Peruvian order of knighthood; instituted by Pachacutic, 287

Avendano, Hernandez de. And Peruvian fetishes, 295

Avilix. The god assigned to Balam-Agab in the Kiche story of the creation, 230; turned into stone, 231

Axaiacatzin, King. Father of Chachiuhnenetzin, the vicious wife of Nezahualpilli, 129

Axayacatl. Mexican king, 92

Aymara. Peruvian race, 254-255; fusion with Quichua, 285-286

Azangaro. The Sondor-huasi at, 269

Azcapozalco. Mexican town, 26; rivalry with Tezcuco, 49; Aztecs and, 52

Aztecs (or Azteca) (Crane People). A nomad Mexican tribe, 27, 50-51; racial affinities, 27; character, 27-28; Tlascalans and, 26; founders of Tenochtitlan (Mexico), 27; their science, 43; in bondage to Colhuacan, 51; allied with Tecpanecs, 51; war with Tecpanecs, 52; development of the empire, 52; commercial expansion, 52; their tyranny, 52-53; their conception of eternity, 55; the priesthood, 114-117; idea of the origin of mankind, 123; a migration myth of, 233

Aztlan (Crane Land). Traditional place of origin of Nahua, II; Aztecs and, 50, 233


Bacabs. Genii in Maya mythology, 170

Balam-Agab (Tiger of the Night). One of the first men of the Popol Vuh myth, 229, 230

Balam-Quitze (Tiger with the Sweet Smile). An ancestor of the Maya, 188; one of the first men of the Popol Vuh myth, 229, 230

Balon Zacab. Form of the Maya rain-god, 176

Bat. Typical of the underworld, 96

Bat-god. Maya deity, known also as Camazotz, 171-172

Birth-cycle. In Mexican calendar, 39, 41

Bochica. Sun-god of the Chibchas, 276

Bogota. City at which the Zippa of the Chibchas lived, 276

Boturini Benaduci, L. His work on Mexican lore, 58

Bourbourg, The Abbé Bras-

seur de. Version of Nahua flood-myth, 122-133

Brandan, St. Probable voyage to America, 4

Brinton, D. G. Theory as to the Toltecs, 21; on Quetzalcoatl, 81; translation of a poem on the Peruvian thunder god myth, and comments on the myth, 300-301

Burgoa, Father. Account of a confession ceremony, 108-110; description of Mitla, 199-206


Cabrakan (Earthquake) Son of Vukub-Cakix; in a Kiche myth in the Popol Vuh, 211, 213, 216-219

Cabrera, Don Felix. And the Popol Vuh, 207

Cachapucara. Hill; Thonapa and, 319-320

Caha-Paluma (Falling Water). One of the first women of thePopol Vuh myth, 230

Cakixa (Water of Parrots). One of the first women of the Popol Vuh myth, 230

Cakulha-Hurakan (Lightning). A sub-god of Hurakan, 237

Calderon, Don José. And Palenque, 182

Calendar. I. The Mexican, 38-41; an essential feature in the national life, 38; resemblance to Maya and Zapotec calendric systems, 38, 169; possible Toltec origin, 39; the year, 39; the "binding of years," 39, 40; the solar year, 39; the nemon- temi, 39; the "birth-cycle," 39, 41; the cempohualli, or"months," 39-40; the ecclesiastical system, 40; the xiu-malpilli, 40; the ceremony of toxilmolpilia, 41. II. The Maya; similarities to calendar of the Nahua, 38, 169. III. The Peruvian, 265-266, 313

Callca. Place in Peru; sacred rocks found at, 293

Camaxtli. War-god of the Tlascalans, 111

Camazotz. The bat-god, called also Zotzilaha Chimalman, 171-172, 226; a totem of the Ah-zotzils, a Maya tribe, 172

Camulatz. Bird in the Kiche story of the creation, 209

Canaris. Indian tribe; the myth of their origin, 318-319

Canek. King of Chichen-Itza; the story of, 189

Cannibalism. Among the Mexicans, 45

Capacahuana. Houses for pilgrims to Titicaca at, 311

Carapucu. I. Hill; in myth of Thonapa, 320. II. Lake; in myth of Thonapa, 320

Caravaya. Mountain; in myth of Thonapa, 320

Carmenca. The hill of, at Cuzco; pillars on, for determining the solstices, 265-266, 287

Caruyuchu Huayallo. Peruvian deity to whom children were sacrificed; in a myth of Paricaca, 326

Casa del Adivino (The Prophet's House). Ruin at Uxmal, called also "The Dwarf's House," 192; the legend relating to, 192-194

Casa del Gobernador (Governor's Palace). Ruin at Uxmal, 191

Casas Grandes (Large Houses). Mexican ruin, 32

Castillo, El. Ruined pyramid-temple at Chichen-Itza, 188, 190

Cauac. A minor Maya deity, 170

Cavillaca. A maiden; the myth of Coniraya Viracocha and, 321-323

Caxamarca. Inca fortress, 290

Cay Hun-Apu (Royal Hunter). The Kakchiquels and the defeat of, 159 Ccapac-cocha. Sacrificial rite, instituted by Pachacutic, 286

Ccapac-Huari. Eleventh Inca, 288, 289

Ccapac Raymi. The chief Peruvian festival, 267; Auqui, order of knighthood, conferred at, 287

Ccapac Situa (or Ccoya Raymi) (Moon Feast). Peruvian festival, 267

Ccapac Yupanqui. Fifth Inca, 283

Ccompas. Agricultural fetishes of the Peruvians, 294

Cempohualli. The Mexican month, 40

Centeotl. I. Group of maize-gods, 85. II. A male maize-spirit, 85, 90; God E similar to, 174. III. Mother of II, known also as Teteoinnan and Tocitzin. 85, 90

Centzonuitznaua. Mythical Indian tribe; in myth of Huitzilopochtli's origin, 70-72

Chac. Maya rain-god, tutelar of the east, 170; has affinities with Tlaloc, 176; God K not identical with, 176

Chacamarca. River in Peru; Thonapa and, 320

Chachiuhnenetzin. Wife of Nezahualpilli. 129-132

Chacras. Estates dedicated to the sun by the Peruvians, 310

Chalcas. Aztec tribe, 233

Chalchihuitlicue (Lady of the Emerald Robe). Wife of Tlaloc, 75, 77, 110; assists the maize-goddess, 86

Chalchiuh Tlatonac (Shining Precious Stone). First king of the Toltecs, 14

"Chamayhuarisca" (The Song of Joy). Manco Ccapac sings, 321

Chanca. A Peruvian people; and the Incas, 282

Charnay, D. Excavations on the site of Teotihuacan, 33; excavations at Tollan, 34; and Lorillard, 195}}

Chasca. The Peruvian name for the planet Venus; the temple of, at Cuzco. 262

Chiapas. Mexican province; the nucleus of Maya civilisation lay in, 144, 149

Chibchas. A Peruvian race, 275-277

Chichan-Chob. Ruin at Chichen-Itza, 189

Chichen-Itza. Sacred city of the Maya; founded by Itzaes, 153; overthrown by Cocomes, 153, 155; assists in conquering Cocomes. 156; abandoned, 156; ruins at, 188-190; and the story of Canek, 189

Chichicastenango. The Convent of; and the Popol Vuh, 207

Chichics. Agricultural fetishes of the Peruvians, 294

Chichimecs. Aztec tribe; invade Toltec territory, 18; the great migration, 20; supreme in Toltec country, 20; probably related to Otomi, 25; allied with Nahua and adopt Nahua language, 26; conquered by Tecpanecs, 51

Chicomecohuatl (Seven-serpent). Chief maize-goddess of Mexico, 85-88; image of, erroneously called Teoyaominqui by early Americanists, 88-90

Chicomoztoc (The Seven Caverns). Nahua said to have originated at, 11; and Aztec idea of origin of mankind, 123; identified with "seven cities of Cibola" and the Casas Grandes, 123; parallel with the Kiche Tulan-Zuiva, 230

Chicuhcoatl. In the story of the vicious princess, 130

Chihuahua. Mexican province, 31

Chilam Balam. Maya priest; the prophecy of, 8

Chimalmat. Wife of Vukub-Cakix; in a Kiche myth, 211-213

Chimalpahin. Mexicanchronicler, 42

Chimu. The plain of; ruined city on, 271; the palace, 271-272; the ruins display an advanced civilisation, 272-273

Chinchero. Inca ruins at, 269

Chipi-Cakulha (Lightning-flash). A sub-god of Hurakan, 237

Choima (Beautiful Water). One of the first women of the Popol Vuh myth, 230

Cholula. Sacred city inhabited by Acolhuans, 47, 48; the pottery of, 23

Chontals. Aboriginal Mexican race, 23

Choque Suso. Maiden; the myth of Paricaca and, 327

Chulpas. Megalithic mummy tombs of Peru, 263

Churoquella. a name of the Peruvian thunder-god, 299

"Citadel," The, at Teotihuacan, 33

Citallatonac. Mexican deity; in a flood-myth, 123

Citallinicue. Mexican deity; in a flood-myth, 123

Citatli (Moon). A form of the Mexican moon-goddess, 106

Citlalpol (The Great Star). Mexican name of the planet Venus, 96

Citoc Raymi (Gradually Increasing Sun). Peruvian festival, 312-313

Ciuapipiltin (Honoured Women). Spirits of women who had died in childbed, 108, 138

Civilisation. I. Of Mexico, 1-53; indigenous origin of, I; type of, 9. II. Of Peru, 248-290; indigenous origin of, 1,259; inferior to the Mexican and Mayan, 248. III. Of the Andeans, 249

Clavigero, The Abbé. His work on Mexican lore, 57-58

"Cliff-dwellers." Mexican race related to the Nahua, 24, 25

Cliff Palace Cañon, Colorado, 229

Coaapan. Place in Mexico, 65

Coatepec. I. Mexican province, 62, 63. II. Mountain, 70

Coati. An island on Lake Titicaca; ruined temple on, 270-271

Coatlantona (Robe of Serpents). A name of Coatlicue, Huitzilopochtli's mother, 73

Coatlicue. Mother of Huitzilopochtli, 70-71; as Coatlantona, 73

Cocamama. Guardian spirit of the coca-shrub in Peru 295

Cochtan. Place in Mexico, 65

Cocochallo. An irrigation channel; in a myth of Paricaca, 327

Cocomes. A tribe inhabiting Mayapan; overthrow Chichen-Itza, 153; their tyranny and sway, 154-155; conquered by allies, 156; remnant found Zotuta, 156

Codex Perezianus. Maya manuscript, 160

Cogolludo, D. Lopez. And the story of Canek, 189

Coh, Prince. In the story of Queen Móo, 240, 244, 246

Cohuatzincatl (He who has Grandparents). A pulque-god,

Colcampata, The, at Cuzco. The palace on, 269

Colhuacan. I. Mexican city,20, 26, 233. II. King of; father of the sacrificed princess, 124

Colla-suyu. One of the four racial divisions of ancient Peru, 255

Con. Thunder-god of Collao of Peru, 78, 299

Confession among the Mexicans, 106, 108; Tlazolteotl the goddess of, 106; accounts of the ceremony, 106-110

Coniraya Viracocha. A Peruvian nature-spirit; the myth of Cavillaca and, 321-323

Contici (The Thunder Vase). Peruvian deity representing the thunderstorm, 301

Conticsi-Viracocha (He who gives Origin). Peruvian conception of the creative agency, 304

Conti-suyu. One of the four racial divisions of ancient Peru, 255

Copacahuana. Idol associated with the worship of Lake Titicaca, 298

Copacati. Idol associated with the worship of Lake Titicaca, 298

Copal. Prince; in legend of foundation of Mexico, 28

Copan. Maya city; sculptural remains at, 196; evidence at, of a new racial type, 196-197

Coricancha (Town of Gold). Temple of the sun at Cuzco, 260-262; built by Pachacutic, 286; image of the thunder-god in, 300

Cortés. Lands at Vera Cruz, 7; mistaken for Quetzalcoatl, 7, 80; the incident of the death of his horse at Peten-Itza, 195

Cotzbalam. Bird in the Kiche story of the creation, 209

Coxoh Chol dialect, 145

Coyohuacan. Mexican city, 50

Coyolxauhqui. Daughter of Coatlicue, 70-72

Coyotl inaual. A god of the Amantecas; and Quetzalcoatl, 79

Cozaana. A Zapotec deity; in creation-myth, 121

Cozcaapa (Water of Precious Stones). A fountain; in a Quetzalcoatl myth, 65

Cozcatzin Codex, 92

Cozumel. The island of, 154

Creation. Mexican conceptions of, 118-120; the legend given by Ixtlilxochitl, 119-120; the Mixtec legend of, 120-121; the Zapotec legend of, 121-122; the Kiche story of, in the Popol Vuh, 209; of man, the Popol Vuh myth of, 229-230; of man, a Peruvian myth of, 256; the Inca conception of, 257-258, 305; local Peruvian myths, 258-259

Cross, The. A symbol of the four winds in Mexico and Peru, 273; account of the discovery of a wooden, 274-275

Cuchumaquiq. Father of Xquiq; in Popol Vuh myth, 222

Cuitlavacas. Aztec tribe, 233

Curi-Coyllur (Joyful Star). Daughter of Yupanqui Pachacutic; in the drama Apu-Ollanta, 251-253

Cuycha. Peruvian name for the rainbow; temple of, at Cuzco, 262

Cuzco (Navel of the Universe). The ancient capital of the Incas, 248; and the racial division of Peru, 255; in the legend of Manco Ccapac, 256; a great culture-centre, 256; founded by the sun-god, 258; the Coricancha at, 260-262; power under Pachacutic, 285


Discovery. American myths relating to the, 6

Dresden Codex. Maya manuscript, 160

Drink-gods, Mexican, 104-105

"Dwarf's House, The." Ruin at Uxmal, 192; legend relating to, 192-194


Earth-Mother. See Teteoinnan

Education. In Mexico, 115-116

Ehecatl (The Air). Form of Quetzalcoatl, 84

Ekchuah. Maya god of merchants and cacao-planters, 170, 177; God L thought to be, 176; probably parallel to Yacatecutli, 177

"Emerald Fowl," The, 186

Etzalqualiztli (When they eat Bean Food). Festival of Tlaloc, 77


Father and Mother Gods, Mexican, 103-104

Fire-god, Mexican, 95

Fish-gods, Peruvian, 306

Flood-myths, 122-123, 323-324

Food-gods, Mexican, 91

Foörstemann, Dr. And the Maya writing, 162, 163; on God L, 176

Fu Sang and America, 3


Gama, Antonio. His work on Mexican lore and antiquities, 58

Ghanan. Name given to God E by Brinton, 174

God A of Dr. Schellhas' system; a death-god, 172-173; thought to resemble the Aztec Xipe, 174

God B. Doubtless Quetzalcoatl, 173

God C. a god of the pole-star, 173

God D. a moon-god, probably Itzamna, 173

God E. a maize-god, similar to Centeotl, 174

God F. Resembles God A, 174

God G. a sun-god, 174

God H. 174

God K. Probably a god of the Quetzalcoatl group, 175-176

God L. Probably an earth-god, 176

God M. Probably a god of travelling merchants, 176-177

God N. Probably god of the "unlucky days," 177

God P. a frog-god, 177

Goddess I. A water-goddess, 175

Goddess O. Probably tutelar of married women, 177

Gods. Connection of, with war and the food-supply, 74; Nahua conception of the limited productivity of food and rain deities, 77; American myth rich in hero-gods, 237

Gomara, F. L. de. Work on Mexican lore, 58

Guachimines (Darklings). Inhabitants of the primeval earth in Peruvian myth, 301

Guamansuri. The first of mortals in Peruvian myth, 301

Guatemala. I. The state; the Maya of, 157-159. II. The city; the lost Popol Vuh found in, 207

Gucumatz (Serpent with Green Feathers). Kiche form of Quetzalcoatl, worshipped in Guatemala, 83, 167, 236; in the Kiche story of the creation, 209

Gwyneth, Owen, father of Madoc, 5


Hacavitz. I. The god assigned to Mahacutah in the Kiche story of the creation, 230; turned into stone, 231. II. Mountain at which the Kiche first saw the sun, 231

Hakluyt. His English Voyages, cited, 5

Hastu-huaraca. Chieftain of the Antahuayllas; defeated by Pachacutic, 284-285; joins with Pachacutic, 285

Henry VII. His patronage of early American explorers, 6

Hernandez, Father. And the goddess Ix chebel yax, 170

House of Bats. Abode of the bat-god, 171; mentioned in Popol Vuh myth, 226

House of Cold. In the Kiche Hades, 226

House of Darkness. Ruin at Aké, 186

House of Feathers. Toltec edifice, 15

House of Fire. In the Kiche Hades, 226

House of Gloom. In the Kiche Hades, 221, 225

House of Lances. In the Kiche Hades, 226

House of Tigers. In the Kiche Hades, 226

Hrdlicka, Dr. And Mexican cliff-dwellings, 24

Huacaquan. Mountain; in the myth of origin of the Canaris, 318

Huacas. Sacred objects of the Peruvians, 294

Huaina Ccapac (The Young Chief). Eleventh Inca, 7, 288-289; and the lake-goddess of Titicaca, 299

Huamantantac. Peruvian deity-responsible for the gathering of sea-birds, 296

Huanca. Peruvian race; allied against the Incas, 282, 285

Huancas. Agricultural fetishes of the Peruvians, 294

Huantay-sara. Idol representing the tutelary spirit of the maize plant, 295

Huarcans. The Inca Tupac and, 288

Huarco (The Gibbet). The valley of; the Inca Tupac and the natives of, 288

Huaris (Great Ones). Ancestors of the aristocrats of a tribe in Peru; reverence paid to, 296

Huarochiri. Village; in Coniraya myth, 323

Huascar, or Tupaccusi-huallpa (The Sun makes Joy). Son of the Inca Huaina Ccapac, 7; strives for the crown with Atauhuallpa, 289-290

Huasteca. Aboriginal Mexican race of Maya stock, 23, 147-148; probably represent early Maya efforts at colonisation, 147

Huatenay. River in Peru; runs through the Intipampa at Cuzco, 261

Huathiacuri. A hero, son of Paricaca; a myth of, 324-326

Huatulco. Place in Mexico; Toltecs at, 12

Huehuequauhtitlan. Place in Mexico; Quetzalcoatl at, 64

Huehueteotl (Oldest of Gods). A name of the Mexican fire-god, 95

Huehue Tlapallan (Very Old Tlapallan). In Toltec creation-myth, 119

Huehuetzin. Toltec chieftain; rebels against Acxitl, 18,19

Huemac II. Toltec king, 15, 16; abdicates, 17; opposes Huehuetzin, 19

Huexotzinco. Mexican city, 48, 49

Huexotzincos. Aztec tribe, 233

Hueymatzin (Great Hand). Toltec necromancer and sage, 14; reputed author of the Teo-Amoxtli, 46; and Quetzalcoatl, 84

Hueytozoztli (The Great Watch). Festival of Chicomecohuatl, 86

Huichaana. Zapotec deity; in creation-myth, 121, 122

Huillcamayu (Huillca-river). River in Peru; regarded as an oracle, 296

Huillcanuta. Place in Peru, 311

Huillcas. Sacred objects of the nature of oracles, in Peru, 296

Huitzilimitzin. In the story of the vicious princess, 130

Huitzilopocho. Mexican city, 50

Huitzilopochtli (Humming-bird to the Left). Aztec god of war, originally a chieftain, 28, 70; and the foundation of Mexico, 28; the great temple of, at Mexico, 30, 31; plots against the Toltecs and Quetzalcoatl, 60; and the legend of the amusing infant and the pestilence, 63-64; myth of the origin of, 70-72; associated with the serpent and the humming-bird, 72-73; as usually represented, 73; associated with the gladiatorial stone, 73; as Mexitli, 74; as serpent-god of lightning, associated with the summer, 74; in connection with Tlaloc, 74; the Toxcatl festival of, 74; the priesthood of, 75; in connection with the legend of the sacrificed princess, 124

Hun-Apu (Master, or Magician). A hero-god, twin with Xbalanque; in a Kiche myth, 211-219; in the myth in the second book of the Popol Vuh, 220, 223-227; mentioned, 237

Hun-Came. One of the rulers of Xibalba, the Kiche Hades, 220, 221, 224

Hunabku. God of the Maya, representing divine unity, 171

Hunac Eel. Ruler of the Cocomes, 155

Hunbatz. Son of Hunhun-Apu, 220, 222, 223

Hunchouen. Son of Hunhun-Apu, 220, 222, 223

Hunhun-Apu. Son of Xpiyacoc and Xmucane; in the myth in the second book of the Popol Vuh, 220-222, 224, 225, 227

Hunpictok (Commander-in-Chief of Eight Thousand Flints). The palace of, at Itzamal, 187-188

Hunsa. City at which the Zoque of the Chibchas lived, 276

Hurakan (The One-legged). Maya god of lightning; prototype of Tlaloc, 76, 78; the mustachioed image of, at Itzamal, 188; = the mighty wind, in the Kiche story of the creation, 209; and the creation of man in the second book of the Popol Vuh, 229-230; probably same as Nahua Tezcatlipoca, 237; his sub-gods, 237


Icutemal. Ruler of the Kiche, 159

Ilhuicatlan (In the Sky). Column in temple at Mexico, connected with the worship of the planet Venus, 96

Illatici (The Thunder Vase), Peruvian deity representing the thunderstorm, 301

Inca Roca. Sixth Inca, 283

Incas (People of the Sun). The Peruvian ruling race; a composite people, 254; place of origin, 254; inferior to the Mexicans in general culture, 248; mythology of, 255-258, 317-327; character of their civilisation, 259; no personal freedom, 260; age of marriage, 260; their system of mummification, 262-264; severity of their legal code, 264; social system, 264-265; calendar, 265-266; religious festivals, 267; architecture, 268-269; architectural remains, 270-273; irrigation works, 273; possessed no system of writing, 278; the quipos, 278-279; as craftsmen, 279-281; the pottery of, 280-281; period and extent of their dominion, 281-282; fusion of the constituent peoples, 285-285; splitting of the race, 286; their despotism, 290; religion of, 291; sun-worship of, 307-131

Incas. The rulers of Peru, 282-290; the Inca the representative of the sun, 260; unlimited power of, 260; the moon the mythic mother of the dynasty, 262

Inti-huasi. Building sacred to the sun in Peruvian villages, 308

Intihuatana, Inca device for marking the date of the sun-festivals, 265

Intip Raymi (Great Feast of the Sun). Peruvian festival, 267, 311-312

Intipampa (Field of the Sun), Garden in which the Coricancha of Cuzco stood, 260-261

Ipalnemohuani (He by whom Men Live). Mexican name of the sun-god, 97

Ioi-Balam (Tiger of the Moon). One of the first men of the ‘‘Popol Vuh’’ myth, 229, 230

Irma. District in Peru; local creation-myth of, 258-259

Itzaes. a warlike race, founders of Chichen-Itza, 153

Itzamal. Maya city-state in Yucatan, 8, 152, 154; ruins at, 187-188

Itzamna. Maya moon -god, father of gods and men, tutelar of the west, 170; founder of the state of Itzamal, 152; God D probably is, 173; the temple of, at Itzamal, 187; called also Kab-ul (The Miraculous Hand), 187; the gigantic image of, at Itzamal, 188

Ix. A minor Maya deity, 170

Ix chebel yax. Maya goddess; identified with Virgin Mary by Hernandez, 170

Ix ch'el. Maya goddess of medicine, 170

Ixcoatl. Mexican king, 35

Ixcuiname. Mexican goddesses of carnal things, 108

Ixtlilton (The Little Black One). Mexican god of medicine and healing, 112; called brother of Macuilxochitl, 112

Ixtlilxochitl, Don Fernando de Alva. Mexican chronicler, II, 46; account of the early Toltec migrations, 11, 12; and myths of the Toltecs, 13; reference to the Teo-Amoxtli, 45; his Historia Chichimeca and Relaciones, 46, 58; his value as historian, 46; legend of the creation related by, 119-120

Izimin Chac. The image of Cortés' horse, 195

Izpuzteque. Demon in the Mexican Other-world, 38

Iztacmixcohuatl. Father of Quetzalcoatl, 79


Jaguar-Snake. Mixtec deer-goddess; in creation-myth, 120

Jalisco. Mexican province; cliff-dwellings in, 24, 25


Kabah. Maya city; ruins at, 190-191

Kab-ul (The Miraculous Hand). Name given to Itzamna, 187

Kakchiquel dialect, 145

Kakchiquels. a Maya people of Guatemala, 157-159; and the episode of the defeat of Cay Hun-Apu, 159

"Kamucu" (We see). The song of the Kiche at the first appearance of the sun, and at death of the first men, 232

Kan. A minor Maya deity, 170

Kanikilak. Indian deity, 83, 84

Ki Pixab (Corner of the Earth). Name given by the Kiche to their land of origin, 254

Kiche. A Maya people of Guatemala, 157-159; their rulers supreme in Guatemala, 158; their story of the creation as related in the Popol Vuh, 209; origin of, as related in the Popol Vuh, 229-230; fond of ceremonial dances and chants, 238

Kiche (or Quiche) dialect, 145, 209; the Popol Vuh originally written in, 207, 209

"Kingdom of the GreatSnake." Semi-historical Maya empire, 144

Kinich-ahau (Lord of the Face of the Sun). Same as Arara and Kinich-Kakmno. Sun-god of the Maya of Yucatan, tutelar of the north, 170

Kinich-Kakmo (Sun-bird). I. Same as Kanich-ahau, which see. II. The pyramid of, ruin at Itzamal, 187

Klaproth, H. J. von. And the Fu Sang fallacy, 3

Knuc (Palace of Owls). Ruin at Aké, 186

Kuicatecs. Aboriginal Mexican race, 24; a medium through which Maya civilisation filtered to the north, 147

Kukulcan. Maya form of Quetzalcoatl, 83, 167; regarded as King of Mayapan, 152

Kumsnöotl. God of the Salish Indians, 83


Lamacazton (Little Priests). Lowest order of the Aztec priesthood, 116

Landa, Bishop. And the Maya alphabet, 161; discovers the Maya numeral system, 165

"Lands of the Sun." Name given to Inca territories, 308

Language. Mexican or Nahuan, 42-43, 342; Mayan, 161, 342; Peruvian, 342

Le Plongeon, Dr. Augustus. His theories as to the Maya, 239; and the Maya hieroglyphs, 239; his story of Queen Móo, 239-247

Leguicano, Mancio Serra de. And the golden plate from the Coricancha, 262

Liyobaa. Village near Mitla; mentioned by Father Burgoa, 204

Lizana, Father. And the prophecy of Chilan Balam, 8

Llama. Importance of, among the Incas, 268

Lloque Yupanqui. The third Inca, 283

Lorillard. Maya city; architectural remains found at, 195


Macuilxochitl (or Xochipilli) (Five-Flower, Source of Flowers). God of luck in gaming, 103; Ixtlilton called brother of, 112

Madoc. The legend of, 5, 6

Mahacutah (The Distinguished Name). One of the first men of the ‘‘Popol Vuh’’ myth, 229, 230

Maize-gods. Mexican, 85-91; Peruvian, 295

Mallinalcas. Aztec tribe, 233

Mama Oullo Huaca. Wife of Manco Ccapac, 256

Mama-cocha (Mother-sea). Conception under which the Peruvians worshipped the sea, 306

Mamacota. Name given to Lake Titicaca by people of the Collao, 298

Mamacuna. Matrons who had charge of the Acllacuna, in Peru, 313

Mamapacha (or Pachamama). The Peruvian earth-goddess, 303

Mamas (Mothers). Tutelary spirits of the maize and other plants in Peru, 295

Mames. District in Guatemala, 158

Man of the Sun. Quetzalcoatl as, 81; other conceptions of, 82

Manco. The Inca appointed by Pizarro; and an oracle, 302-303

Manco Ccapac. I. Divine being, son of the Life-giver; sent to instruct the primitive Peruvians, 255-256; a legend in connection with, 256. II. The first Inca, identical with the foregoing, 282, 283; regarded as son of the sun, 306; a myth of, 320-321

Mani. Mexican city, founded by the Tutul Xius, 155

Mannikins. In the Kiche story of the creation related in the Popol Vuh, 209-210

Markham, Sir Clements. On Inca architecture, 269

Matlatzincas. Aztec tribe, 233

Maxtla. I. King of the Tecpanecs; and Nezahualcoyotl, 125-128. II. A noble; in the story of the vicious princess, 130

Maya. The most highly civilised of ancient American peoples, I, 143; their culture erroneously stated to be of Asiatic origin, I; theory as to Toltec relationship, 143; sphere of the civilisation, 144; the nucleus of the civilisation, 144-145, 149; the dialects, 145; origin of the race, 145, their civilisation self-developed, 143, 146; blood and cultural relationships with Nahua, 146-147; efforts at expansion, 147-148; climatic influence on the civilisation and religion, 148; sources of their history, 148-149; division of the aristocratic and labouring classes, 150; influence of the Nahua invasions, 151; cleavage between Yucatan and Guatemala peoples, 151; the Yucatec race, 151-152; incidents in migration myths represent genuine experience, 152; the race in Guatemala, 157; the writing system, 159-166; the manuscripts, 160-161; the numeral system, 165; the mythology, 166-169, 207-247; the calendar, 38, 39, 169; the pantheon, 168, 170-177; architecture, 178-198; relationship of the mythology to that of the Nahua, 166; Dr. Le Plongeon's theories as to, 239

Mayapan. City-state in Yucatan, 152; rises into prominence, 153 155; overthrown by allies, 156

Mayta Ccapac. The fourth Inca, 283

Meahuan, Mount. In the Kiche myth of Vukub-Cakix, 216

Medicine-men. Account of the methods of, among Peruvians, 314-315

Metztli (or Yohualticitl) (The Lady of Night). Mexican goddess of the moon, 106; in myth of Nanahuatl, 93, 106

Mexicatl Teohuatzin (Mexican Lord of Divine Matters). Head of the Aztec priesthood, 116

Mexico. I. The city; capital of the Aztecs, native name Tenochtitlan, 26, 47; origin of the name, 73; said to have been founded by Acolhuans, 26; Huitzilopochtli and, 28, 73; legends of the foundation of, 28-29; at the period of the conquest, 29-30; the annual "bloodless battle" with Tlascala, 48. II. The state; the civilisation of, 1, 9; possibly reached by early Norsemen, 5

Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Native name of city of Mexico, 29

Mexitli (Hare of the Aloes). A name of Huitzilopochtli, 74

Mictecaciuatl. Wife of Mictlan, 96

Mictlan (or Mictlanteculti) (Lord of Hades). I. Mexican god of the dead and the underworld, 37, 76, 95-96; God A probably identical with, 173. II. The abode of the god Mictlan; Mitla identified with, 198. III. Village mentioned by Torquemada, 199

Migration Myths. Probably reflect actual migrations, 234-235

Mitla. Maya city, 31, 144; ruins at, 197-198; identified with Mictlan, the Mexican Hades, 198; description of, by Father Torquemada, 199; description of, by Father Burgoa, 199-206

Mixcoatl (Cloud Serpent). Aztec god of the chase, 110-111; Camaxtli identified with, 111

Mixe. Aboriginal Mexican race, 24

Mixteca. Aboriginal Mexican race, 23; creation-myth of, 120-121; a medium through which Maya civilisation passed north, 147

Moche. Place in Peru; sepulchral mound at, 271

Mohanes (or Agoreros). Members of Peruvian tribes who claimed power as oracles, 297-298, 314

Moneneque (The Claimer of Prayer). A name of Tezcatlipoca, 67

Montezuma II. Mexican emperor, native name Motequauhzoma; mentioned, 35, 44; and the coming of Cortés, 7; in the story of Tlalhuicole, 136-137; in the story of Princess Papan, 139-142

Móo, Queen. The story of, 239-247

Moon, The. Mythic mother of the Inca dynasty, 262; temple of, at Cuzco, 261-262; wife, of the sun, in the mythology of the Chibchas, 276

Muluc. A minor Maya deity, 170

Mummification. Among the Peruvians, 262-264


Nadaillac, Marquis de. Account of the use of quipos, 278-279

Nahua (Those who live by Rule). Ancient Mexican race, 9; civilisation, features in, and character of, 9, 146, 148; compared with Oriental peoples, 10; meaning of the name, 10; place of origin, 10-11; route of migrations to Mexico, 12; theory of Toltec influence upon, 22; and cliff-dwellers, 24-25; territories occupied by, 25; writing system of, 34-35; calendric system of, 38-41; language of, 42-43; science of, 43; form of government, 43-44; domestic life of, 44-45; distribution of the component tribes, 47; authentic history of the nation, 48-53; religion, 54; Tezcatlipoca and, 67; influence of the Maya civilisation upon, 147; culture and religion influenced by climatic conditions, 148; invade Maya territory, 150-151; influence Maya cleavage, 151; in the Maya conflict in Guatemala, 159; the relationship of the mythology of, to that of the Maya, 166; difference in sun-worship of, from Peruvian, 307-308

Nahuatlatolli. The Nahua tongue, 25

Nanahuatl (Poor Leper) (or Nanauatzin). Mexican god of skin diseases, 93; the myth of, 93; Xolotl probably identical with, 93

Nanauatzin. Same as Nanahuatl, which see

Nanihehecatl. Form of Quetzalcoatl, 84

Nata. The Mexican Noah, 122-123

Nauhollin (The Four Motions). Mexican sacrificial ceremonies, 99

Nauhyotl. Toltec ruler of Colhuacan, 20

Nemontemi (unlucky days). In Mexican calendar, 39, 40

Nena. Wife of Nata, the Mexican Noah, 122-123

Nexiuhilpilitztli (binding of years). In Mexican calendar, 39, 40

Nextepehua. Fiend in the Mexican Other-world, 38

Nezahualcoyotl (Fasting Coyote). King of Tezcuco; the story of, 125-128; his enlightened rule, 128; as a poet, 128; his theology, 128; and his son's offence, 129; his palace, 132; his villa of Tezcotzinco, 133-136

Nezahualpilli (The Hungry Chief). I. A manifestation of Tezcatlipoca, 66. II. Son of Nezahualcoyotl; story of his wife's crime, 129-132; in the story of Princess Papan, 140

Nima-Kiche. The ancestor of the Kiche race; the legend of, 158

Ninxor-Carchah. Place in Guatemala; mentioned in Popol Vuh myth, 224

Nitiçapoloa. Ceremony connected with worship of Centeotl the son, 90

Nonohualco. Place in Mexico; Tutul Xins may have come from, 153

Norsemen. Voyages of the, to America, 5

Nunnery. The ruin at Chichen-Itza, 189-190


Obsequies. In Peru; a description of, 316-317

Ocosingo. Ruined Maya city, 149

Ollanta. Inca chieftain; in the drama. Apu-Ollanta, 251-253

Ollantay-Tampu. Prehistoric ruins at, 250-251; Apu-Ollanta, the drama legend of, 251-253

Omacatl (Two Reeds). Mexican god of festivity, 11 2-1 13

Omeciuatl. Mexican mother god of the human species, associated with Ometecutli, 103-104, 118; Xmucane the Kiche equivalent of, 236

Ometecutli (Two-Lord). Father god of the human species, associated with Omeciuatl, 103-104, 118; Xpiyacoc the Kiche equivalent of, 236

Ometochtli. I. A pulque-god, 104. II. A day in the Mexican calendar, 105

Opochtli (The Left-handed). Mexican god of fishers and bird-catchers, 113-114

Oracles in Peru, 296-297; a legend connected with an oracle, 302-303

Otomi. Aboriginal Mexican race, 23, 25, 50

Owen, Guttyn. Mentioned, 6

Oxford Codex, 37


Paapiti. Island on Lake Titicaca; Huaina Ccapac and the lake-goddess and, 299

Pacari Tampu (House of the Dawn). Place of origin of four brothers and sisters who initiated the systems of worship and civilised Peru, 305, 307

Pacaw. a sorcerer mentioned in Popol Vuh myth, 227

Paccariscas. Holy places of origin of the Peruvian tribes, 292, 293, 305

Pachacamac. I. The supreme divinity of the Incas, known also as Pacharurac, 257, 303-304; not a primitive conception, 257; in the local creation-myth of Irma, 258-259; the Ccapac Raymi the national festival of, 267; Yatiri the Aymara name for, 299; symbol of, in the Coricancha, 304; regarded as son of the sun, 306; daughters of, in the Coniraya myth, 323. II. Sacred city of the Incas, 310; ruins of, 273; in the Coniraya myth, 322

Pachacamama (Earth-Mother). Name given by the Incas to their conception of the earth, 257

Pachacta unanchac. Inca device for determining the solstices, 265-266

Pachacutic (or Yupanqui Pachacutic) (He who changes the World). Ninth Inca; in the drama Apu-Ollanta, 251-252; defeats Hastu-huaraca, 282, 284-285; formerly known as Yupanqui, 285; his extensive dominion, 286; his achievements as ruler, 286-287; a man like the Mexican Nezahualcoyotl, 291; and the legend of the stones that turned into warriors, 294; and the thunder-god, 300; and the conception of the creator, 304; introduces sun-worship, 308; the vision of, 317-318

Pachamama (or Mamapacha) (Earth-Mother). The Peruvian earth-goddess, 303

Pacharurac. A name of Pachacamac, which see

Pachayachachic. a form of Pachacamac, regarded as direct ruler of the universe, 299, 304 Viracocha called, 307

"Palace of Owls." Ruin at Aké, 186

Palace, The, at Palenque, 183-185

Palenque. Maya city, 144, 149, 182-186; the Palace at, 183-185; Temple of Inscriptions at 185; Temple of the Sun, 185 Temple of the Cross, 185 Temple of the Cross No. II, 186 "Tablet of the Cross" at, 161, 185,186

Palpan. Hill near Tollan; excavations at, 34

Papantzin. Sister of Montezuma II; the story of her return from the tomb, 139-142

Papaztac (The Nerveless). A pulque-god, 104

Pariacaca. I. A name of the Peruvian thunder-god, 299-300; and the lake of Pariacaca, 300. II. The lake of, 300

Paricaca. A hero, father of Huathiacuri; in the Huathiacuri myth, 324-326; in a flood-myth, 326-327; and the Choque Suso myth, 327

Paris (or Tellerio-Remensis) Codex, 37

Patecatl. A pulque-god, 104.

"Path of the Dead, The," at Teotihuacan, 33

Payne, E. J. On the origin of the Maya culture, I; on the origin of the Nahua, 10; on the Toltecs, 21; on the Teoyaominqui fallacy, 88-90

Peru. The civilisation of, I, 248-290; the country, 248-249; the people, 253-255; the mythology, 255-259, 291-327; government, 259-260, 290; laws and customs, 264-265; the calendar, 265-266; the festivals, 267; architecture and architectural remains, 259, 268-273; irrigation works, 273; no writing or numeral system, 278; craftsmanship, 259, 279-281; history, 281-290; religion, 291-313; human sacrifice, 313

Peten-Itza. Maya city, founded by a prince of Chichen-Itza, 156; the incident of Cortés and his horse at, 195-196; a city "filled with idols," 196

Petlac. Place mentioned in myth of Huitzilopochtli's origin, 72

Piedras Negras. Ruined Maya city, 149

"Pigeon House." Ruin at Uxmal, 194

Piguerao. Peruvian deity, brother of Apocatequil; in a creation-myth, 301

Pillan. Thunder-god of aborigines of Chile, analogous to Tlaloc, 78

Pillco-puncu. Door to be passed before reaching Rock of Titicaca, 311

Pinturas. Mexican hieroglyphs, or picture-writing, 7, 34-37

Pipil dialect, 145

Piqui-Chaqui (Flea-footed). Servant of Ollanta, 251

Pissac. Ruined Inca fortress at, 250

Pitu Salla. Guardian of Yma Sumac, 253

Pizarro, Francisco. Conqueror of Peru, 255

Pizarro, Pedro. Cousin of Francisco Pizarro, 262

"Place of Fruits." Valley in which Tollan stood, 14

Pleiades. Kiche myth of the origin of, 215

Pocomams. District in Guatemala, 158

Popocatepetl. The mountain; sacred to Tlaloc, 77

Popolcan. Aboriginal Mexican race, 24

"Popol Vuh" (The Collection of Written Leaves). A volume of Maya-Kiche mythology and history, 152, 157, 158; description, 207-209; genuine character, 208; probable date of composition, 235; antiquity, 236, 238; the gods and others mentioned in, 236-237; probably a metrical composition originally, 237-238. The first book: The creation, 209; the downfall of man, 209-210; story of Vukub-Cakix, 210-213; the undoing of Zipacna, 213-216; the overthrow of Cabrakan, 216-219; the creation-story probably the result of the fusion of several myths, 235. The second book: Hunhun-Apu and Vukub-Hunapu descend to the Under-world, 220-221; Hunhun-Apu and Xquiq, 222; birth and exploits of Hun-Apu and Xbalanque, 223-224; the hero-brothers in Xibalba, and the discomfiture of the Lords of Hell, 225-227; the conception in this book common to other mythologies, 228; the savage dread of death probably responsible for the conception of its vanquishment, 228; other sources of the myth, 228. The third book: Man is created, 229; woman is created, 230; gods are vouchsafed to man, 230; Tohil provides fire, 230-231; the race is confounded in speech and migrates, 231; the sun appears, 231; death of the first men, 232; resemblance of the myth to those of other American peoples, 232; similarity of the migration-story to others, 233-234; probable origin of the migration-myth, 234-235. The fourth book, 238-239

Potosi. Peruvian city, 248

Powell. History of Wales, cited, 5

Poyauhtecatl, Mount. In Quetzalcoatl myth, 65

Ppapp-Hol-Chac (The House of Heads and Lightnings). Ruin at Itzamal, 187

Priesthood, Mexican, 114-117; power of, 114; beneficent ministrations of, 115; revenues of, 115; education conducted by, 115-116; orders of, 116; rigorous existence of, 116-117

Pucara. Peruvian fortress-city; leader in the Huanca alliance, 282

Pueblo Indians. Probably related to Nahua, 24

Pulque The universal Mexican beverage, 45

Pulque-gods, 104-105

Puma-puncu. Door to be passed before reaching Rock of Titicaca, 311

Puma-Snake. Mixtec deer-god; in creation-myth, 120

Pumatampu. Place in Peru; Inca Roca defeats the Conti-suyu at, 283

Purunpacha. The period after the deluge when there was no king, in Peru, 324

Pyramid of Sacrifice. Ruin at Uxmal, 194


Quäaqua. Sun-god of the Salish Indians, 83

Quacamayo Birds. In a myth of the Canaris Indians, 319

Quaquiutl. Indian tribe, 83

Quatlapanqui (The Head-splitter). A pulgue-god, 104

Quatavita, The Lake of. The Chibchas and, 276

Quauhquauhtinchan (House of the Eagles). Sacrifice to the sun in, 99

Quauhtitlan. Place mentioned in legend of Quetzalcoatl's journey from Tollan, 64

Quauhxicalli (Cup of the Eagles). Mexican sacrificial stone, 99, 100

Quauitleua. Festival of Tlaloc, 77

Quauitlicac. In myth of Huitzilopochtli's origin, 71,72

Quemada. Place in Mexico; cyclopean ruins at, 32

Quenti-Puncu. Door to be passed before reaching Rock of Titicaca, 311

Quetzalcoatl ("Feathered Serpent" or "Feathered Staff"). The Kukulcan of the Maya, god of the sun, the wind, and thunder, common to Mexican and Maya mythologies; Mexican legend of, 6-7; probably cognate with Yetl, 12; king of the Toltecs in Nahua myth, 21; Tezcatlipoca and, 60, 79; Huitzilopochtli, Tezcatlipoca, and Tlacahuepan plot against, 60; quits Tollan and proceeds to Tlapallan, 64-65, 79; probably a god of pre-Nahua people, 78; "Father of the Toltecs," 79; enlightened sway as ruler of Tollan, 79; consequences of his exile, 79; legend of, in connection with the morning star, 80, 96; whether rightly considered god of the sun, 80; conception of, as god of the air, 80; as wind-god and god of fire and light, 80-81; whether originating from a "culture-hero," 81; the "St. Thomas" idea, 81; as Man of the Sun, 81-82; as usually represented, 82; regarded as a liberator, 82; various conceptions of, 82-84, 167; probable northern origin, 83; Hueymatzin and, 84; the worship of, 84-85; the priesthood of, 116; place in the Mexican calendar, 122; vogue among Maya, 144, 167; regarded as foreign to the soil in Mexico, 167; differences in the Maya and Nahua conceptions of, 167; called Kukulcan by the Maya, 167; called Gucumatz in Guatemala, 167, 236; God B probably is, 173

Quetzalpetlatl. Female counterpart of Quetzalcoatl, 79

Quiche. Same as Kiche, which see

Quichua. Peruvian race, 254-255; fusion of, with Aymara, 285-286

Quichua-Aymara. The Inca race. See Incas

Quichua Chinchay-suyu. One of the four racial divisions of ancient Peru, 255

Quinames. Earth-giants; in Toltec creation-myth, 120

Quineveyan. Grotto, mentioned in Aztec migration-myth, 233

Quinuamama. Guardian spirit of the quinua plant, in Peru,

Quipos. Cords used by the Incas for records and communications, 278-279; account of the use of, by the Marquis de Nadaillac, 278-279

Quito. Sometime centre of the northern district of Peru, 286, 289


Raxa-Cakulha. A sub-god of Hurakan, 237

Religion. I. Of the Nahua, 54-55; the worship of one god, 28-59. II. Of the Peruvians, 291; inferior to the Mexican, 248; the legend relating to the evolution of, 305-306

Riopampa. Sometime centre of the northern district of Peru, 286

Rosny, Léon de. Research on the Maya writing by, 161-162

Rumi-Ñaui. Inca general; in the drama Apu-Ollanta, 252-253


Sacrifice, Human, In connection with Teotleco festival, 69; with Toxcatl festival, 69-70; with Tlaloc, 76-77; displaced by "substitution of part for whole," 85, 116; in the Xalaquia festival, 87; in connection with Xipe, 93; Xolotl the representative of, 93; in worship of the planet Venus, 96; in sun-worship, 98-100, 101; the keynote of Nahua mythology, 166; among the Maya, 166; at Mitla, described by Father Burgoa, 202-203; among the Chibchas, 276; in Peru, 313

Sacrificed Princess, the legend of the, 123-124

Sacsahuaman. Inca fortress; the ruins of, 250; built by Pachacutic, 287

Sahagun, Father Bernardino. His work on Mexican lore, 56-57; account of the Teotleco festival, 68-69; account of a confession ceremony, 106-108

Salish Indians, 83

"Salvador," The. A curious Inca vase, 281

San Carlos. The University of, in Guatemala; the lost Popol Vuh found in, 207

San Lorenzo. Village; in a myth of Paricaca, 327

Saramama. Guardian spirit of the maize plant, in Peru, 295

Schellhas, Dr. And the Maya writing, 162; and names of the Maya deities, 168

Scherzer, Dr. C. Finds the lost Popol Vuh, 207

Sea. Worshipped by the Peruvians as Mama-cocha, 306

Seler, Dr. On Quetzalcoatl, 80-81; on Xolotl, 93-94; and the Maya writing, 162, 164; on God K, 175-176; on God P, 177; on Mitla and the origin of the American race, 198

Serpent. Varied significance of the, 72, 74, 76; association of Huitzilopochtli with, 72-73; associated with the bird, 73

Seven Caverns. Myth of the, 123

Sierra Nevada (Mountain of Snow). In legend of Quetzalcoatl's migration, 65

Sinchi Roca (Wise Chief). The second Inca, 283

Skinner, J. Account of the discovery of a wooden cross, 274-275; on mohanes, 297-298; account of the methods of medicine men in Peru, 314-315; account of obsequies among a Peruvian tribe, 315-317

Slaalekam. Sun-god of the Salish Indians, 83

Sondor-huasi. An Inca building bearing a thatched roof, 269

Soto, Hernando de. Mentioned, 7

Squier, E. G. On the Coricancha, 261

Stephens, J. L. Legend of the dwarf related by, 192-194; story of the unknown city, 195

Stones, worship of, in Peru, 292-293

Suarez. Lorillard City discovered by, 195

Sun. Prophecy as to coming of white men from, 7; symbolised as a serpent by Hopi Indians, 82; pictured as abode of Quetzalcoatl, 82; "father" of Totonacs, 82; Quaquiutl myth respecting, 83-84; worship of the, in Mexico, 97-102; the supreme Mexican deity, 97; the heart his special sacrifice, 97; blood his especial food, 98; destruction of successive suns, 98; human sacrifice to, in Mexico, 98-100; as god of warriors, 99; conception of the warrior's after-life with, 101; the feast of Totec, the chief Mexican festival of, 101-102; the supreme Maya deity, 171; in Inca creation-myth, 258, 305; in the mythology of the Chibchas, 276; worship of, in Peru, 306, 307-313; the possessions of, and service rendered to, 308-309; and the Rock of Titicaca, 309-311; especially worshipped by the aged, 310; the Intip-Raymi festival of, 311-312; the Citoc-Raymi festival, 312-313; human sacrifice to, in Peru, 313

Sunrise, Land of. In early American belief, 6

"Suns," the Four. In Aztec theology, 55

Susur-pugaio. A fountain; and the vision of Yupanqui, 318


Tabasco. Same as Tlapallan, which see

"Tablet of the Cross," 161, 185,186

Tancah. Maya city, 8

Tapac-yauri. The royal sceptre of the Incas, 321

Tarahumare. Mexican tribe; and cliff-dwellings, 25

Tarma. Place in Peru; Huanca defeated at, 285

Tarpuntaita-cuma. Incas who conducted sacrifice, 311

Tata (Our Father). A name of the Mexican fire-god, 95

Tayasal. Maya city, 196

Teatlahuiani. A pulque-god, 104

Tecpanecs. Confederacy of Nahua tribes, 26, 50; significance of the name, 26, 50; rivals of the Chichimecs, 27; of Huexotzinco, defeated by Tlascaltecs, 49; Aztecs allies of, 51; growth of their empire, 51; conquer Tezcuco and Chichimecs, 51

Tecumbalam. Bird in the Kiche story of the creation, 209

Telpochtli (The Youthful Warrior). A name of Tezcatlipoca, 66

Temacpalco. Place mentioned in the myth of Quetzalcoatl's journey to Tlapallan, 65

Temalacatl. The Mexican gladiatorial stone of combat, 100

Temple of the Cross No. I, The, at Palenque, 185, 186; No. II, 186

Temple of Inscriptions, The, at Palenque, 185

Temple of the Sun, The. I. At Palenque, 185. II. At Tikal, 196

Tenayucan. Chichimec city, 26

Tenochtitlan. Same as Mexico, which see Teo-Amoxtli (Divine Book). A Nahua native chronicle, 45-46

Teocalli. The Mexican temple, 30

Teocuinani. Mountain; sacred to Tlaloc, 77

Teohuatzin. High-priest of Huitzilopochtli, 75

Teotihuacan. Sacred city of the Toltecs, 18, 47; the fiend at the convention at, 18; the Mecca of the Nahua races, 32; architectural remains at, 32, 33; rebuilt by Xolotl, Chichimec king, 33; Charnay's excavations at, 33

Teotleco (Coming of the Gods). Mexican festival, 68-69

Teoyaominqui. Name given to the image of Chicomecohuatl by early investigators, 88; Payne on the error, 88-90

Tepeolotlec. a distortion of the name of Tepeyollotl, 103

Tepeyollotl (Heart of the Mountain). A god of desert places, 102-103; called Tepeolotlec, 102

Tepoxtecatl. The pulque-god of Tepoztlan, 105, 117

Tepoztlan. Mexican city, 105

Tequechmecauiani. a pulque-god, 104

Tequiua. Disguise of Tezcatlipoca, 63

Ternaux-Compans, H. Cited, 4

Teteoinnan (Mother of the Gods). Mexican maize-goddess, known also as Tocitzin, and identical with Centeotl the mother, 85, 90

Tezcatlipoca (Fiery Mirror). Same as Titlacahuan and Tlamatzincatl. The Mexican god of the air, the Jupiter of the Nahua pantheon, 37, 59, 67; tribal god of the Tezcucans, 59; development of the conception, 59-60; in legends of the overthrow of Tollan, 60; adversary of Quetzalcoatl, 60, 79; plots against Quetzalcoatl, and overcomes him, 60-61; as Toueyo, and the daughter of Uemac, 61-62; and the dance at the feast in Tollan, 63; as Tequiua, and the garden of Xochitla, 63; and the legend of the amusing infant and the pestilence, 63-64; as Nezahualpilli, 66; as Yaotzin, 66; as Telpochtli, 66; as usually depicted, 66; Aztec conception of, as wind-god, 66; as Yoalli Ehecatl, 66; extent and development of the cult of, 67-68; as Moneneque, 67; and the Teotleco festival, 68-69; the Toxcatl festival of, 69-70,74; in the character of Tlazolteotl, 107, 108

Tezcotzinco. The villa of Nezahualcoyotl, 133-136

Tezcuco. I. Chichimec city, 26, 47; rivalry with Azcapozalco, 49; its hegemony, 49; conquered by Tecpanecs, 51; allied with Aztecs, 52; Tezcatlipoca the tribal god, 59; the story of Nezahualcoyotl, the prince of, 125-128. II. Lake, 26; in legend of the foundation of Mexico, 28; the cities upon, 47, 49-50

Tezozomoc, F. de A. On Mexican mythology, 58

Theozapotlan. Mexican city, 203

Thlingit. Indian tribe, 83

Thomas, Professor C. Research on Maya writing, 162; on God L, 176

Thomas, St. The Apostle; Cortés believed to be, 7; associated with the Maya cross, 187,275; and the wooden cross found in the valley of the Chichas, 274

Thonapa. Son of the creator in Peruvian myth; in connection with stone-worship, 293; myths of, 319-320

Thunder-god, Peruvian, 299-302

Tiahuanaco. Prehistoric city of the Andeans, 249-250; the great doorway at, 249; in a legend of Manco Ccapac, 256; in Inca creation-myth, 258; and legend of Thonapa the Civiliser, 293

Ticotzicatzin. In the story of Princess Papan, 140

Tikal. Maya city; architectural remains at, 196

Titicaca. I. Lake, 249; settlements of the Quichua-Aymaraon the shores of, 254; Manco Ccapac and Mama Oullo Huacadescend to earth near, 256; regarded by Peruvians as place where men and animals were created, 298; called Mamacota by people of the Collao, 298; idols connected with, 298-299.II. Island on Lake Titicaca; the most sacred of the Peruvian shrines, 270; ruined palace on, 270; sacred rock on, the paccarisca of the sun, 293, 309; sun-worship and the Rock of Titicaca, 309-311; the Inca Tupac and the Rock, 309-310; effect on the island of the Inca worship of the Rock, 310; pilgrimage to, 310-311; Thonapa on, 320

Titlacahuan. Same as Tezcatlipoca, which see

Titlacahuan-Tezcatlipoca, 123

Tiya-manacu. Town in Peru; Thonapa at, 320

Tlacahuepan. Mexican deity; plots against Quetzalcoatl, 60; and the legend of the amusing infant and the pestilence, 63-64

Tlachtli. National ballgame of the Nahua and Maya, 33, 220,224, 227

Tlacopan. Mexican city, 26, 50; Aztecs allied with, 52

Tlaelquani (Filth-eater). A name of Tlazolteotl, which see

Tlalhuicole. Tlascalan warrior; the story of, 136-138

Tlaloc. The Mexican rain-god, or god of waters, 29, 75; and the foundation of Mexico, 29; in association with Huitzilopochtli, 74; as usually represented, 75-76; espoused to Chalchihuitlicue, 75; Tlalocs his offspring, 75; Kiche god Hurakan his prototype, 76; manifestations of, 76; festivals of, 77; human sacrifice in connection with, 76-77; and Atamalqualiztli festival, 77-78; similarities to, in other mythologies, 78

Tlalocan (The Country of Tlaloc). Abode of Tlaloc, 76

Tlalocs. Gods of moisture; and Huemac II, 16; offspring of Tlaloc, 75

Tlalxicco (Navel of the Earth). Name of the abode of Mictlan, 95

Tlamatzincatl. Same as Tezcatlipoca, which see

Tlapallan (The Country of Bright Colours). Legendary region, 11; Nahua said to have originated at, 11; the Toltecs and, II; Quetzalcoatl proceeds to, from Tollan, 64-65, 79

Tlapallan, Huehue (Very Old Tlapallan). In Toltec creation-myth, 119

Tlapallantzinco. Place in Mexico; Toltecs at, 12

Tlascala (or Tlaxcallan). Mexican city, 47, 48; and the "bloodless battle" with Mexico, 48,98,99; decline, 49

Tlascalans. Mexican race, offshoot of the Acolhuans, 26; helped Cortés against Aztecs, 26, 47

Tlauizcalpantecutli (Lord of the Dawn). Name of the planet Venus; myth of Quetzalcoatl and, 80, 96; Quetzalcoatl called, 84; worship of, 96; in the Mexican calendar, 96

Tlaxcallan. Same as Tlascala, which see

Tlazolteotl (God of Ordure) (or Tlaelquani). Mexican goddess of confession, 106-108

Tlenamacac (Ordinary Priests). Lesser order of the Mexican priesthood, 116

Tloque Nahuaque (Lord of All Existence). Toltec deity, 119

Tobacco. Use of, among the Nahua, 45

Tochtepec. Place in Mexico; Toltecs at, 12

Tocitzin (Our Grandmother). See Teteoinnan

Tohil (The Rumbler). Form of Quetzalcoatl, 84; guides the Kiche-Maya to their first city, 152; the god assigned to Balam-Quitze in the Kichemyth of the creation, 230; gives fire to the Kiche, 230-231; turned into stone, 231

Tollan. Toltec city, modern Tula; founded, 13, 26; its magnificence, 14; afflicted by the gods, 16-17; Huehuetzin's rebellions, 18, 19; overthrown,19; Charnay's excavations at, 34; Tezcatlipoca and the overthrow of, 60; Quetzalcoatl leaves, 64, 79

Tollantzinco. City of the Acolhuans, 48; Toltecs at, 12

Toltecs. First Nahua immigrants to Mexico, II; whether a real or a mythical race, II, 20-22; at Tlapallan, 11,12; migration route, 12; their migration a forced one, 12; imaginative quality of their myths, 13; elect a king, 14; progress in arts and crafts, 14, 23; under plagues, 17; their empire destroyed, 19, 20; and the civilisation of Central America, 20; Dr. Brinton's theory, 21; Quetzalcoatl king of, 21; possible influence upon Nahua civilisation, 22; Acolhuans may have been, 26; Tezcatlipoca opposes, and plots against, 60-65; and creation-myth recounted by Ixtlilxochitl, 119; theory that the Maya were, 143

Tonacaciuatl (Lady of our Flesh). A name of Omeciuatl, which see

Tonacatecutli (Lord of our Flesh). A name of Ometecutli, which see

Tonalamatl (Book of the Calendar), 107

Torito. A bird-maiden; in the myth of origin of the Canaris, 319

Torquemada, Father, His work on Mexican lore, 57; on Mitla, 199

Totec (Our Great Chief). A sun-god, 101-102; his feast, the chief solar festival, 101-102

Totemism. Among the primitive Peruvians, 291-293

Totonacs. Aboriginal Mexican race, 23; and the sun, 82

Toueyo. Tezcatlipoca's disguise, 61-63

Toveyo. Toltec sorcerer; and the magic drum, 16

Toxcatl. Festival; of Tezcatlipoca, 69-70; of Huitzilopochtli, 74

Toxilmolpilia. Mexican calendar ceremony; and the native dread of the last day, 41

Troano Codex. Maya manuscript, 160; Dr. Le Plongeon and the reference to Queen Móo in, 246

Tucuman (World's End). Name given by the Quichua-Aymara to their land of origin, 254

Tulan (or Tulan-Zuiva). City; the starting-point of the Kiche migrations, 157-158, 231; the Kiche arrive at, and receive their gods, 230; parallel with the Mexican Chicomoztoc, 230; the Kiche confounded in their speech at, 231

Tumipampa. Sometime centre of the northern district of Peru, 286, 289, 290

Tupac-atau-huallpa (The Sun makes Good Fortune). Son of Huaina Ccapac, 289

Tupac-Yupanqui (Bright). Tenth Inca, son of Pachacutic, 252-253, 287-288; achievements as ruler, 287; and the Huarcans, 288; and the Rock of Titicaca, 309-310

Tutul Xius. Ruling caste among the Itzaes; found Ziyan Caan and Chichen-Itza, 153; expelled from Chichen-Itza by Cocomes, 153; settle in Potonchan, build Uxmal, and regain power, 154; again overthrown, and found Mani, 155; finally assist in conquering the Cocomes, 156

Tzitzimimes. Demons attendant on Mictlan, 96

Tzompantitlan. Place mentioned in the myth of Huitzilopochtli's origin, 71

Tzompantli (Pyramid of Skulls). Minor temple of Huitzilopochtli, 31

Tzununiha (House of the Water). One of the first women of the Popol Vuh myth, 230

Tzutuhils. A Maya people of Guatemala, 158, 159


Uayayab. Demon who presided over the nemontemi (unluckydays), 177; God N identified with, 177

Uemac. Tezcatlipoca and the daughter of, 61-63

Uitzlampa. Place in Mexico; in myth of Huitzilopochtli's origin, 72

Urco-Inca. Inca superseded by Pachacutic, 284

Uricaechea, M. His collection of Chibcha antiquities, 277

Uxmal. Mexican city, founded By Tutul Xius, 154; abandoned, 155; ruins at, 191-194; primitive type of its architecture, 194


Vatican MSS., 37; description of the journey of the soul in, 37-38

Vega, Garcilasso el Inca de la. Hist. des Incas, cited, 7; on the gods of the early Peruvians, 291

Venus. The planet; worship of, 96-97; the only star worshipped by Mexicans, 96; Camaxtli identified with, 111; temple of, at Cuzco, 262

Vera Cruz. Quetzalcoatl lands at, 6

Verapaz. District in Guatemala, 158

Vetancurt, A. de. On Mexican mythology, 58

Villa-coto. Mountain; in a Peruvian flood-myth, 323-324

Villagutierre, J. de Sotomayor. And the prophecy of Chilan Balam, 8

Viollet-le-Duc, E. On the ruined palace at Mitla, 197

Viracocha. I. Eighth Inca, 284, 318. II. Peruvian deity; temple of, at Cacha, 270; regarded as son of the sun, 306; worshipped by Quichua-Aymara as a culture hero, and called Pachayachachic, 307. III. A higher class of sacred objects of the Peruvians, 294. IV. Name given to any more than usually sacred being, 301

Vitzillopochtli. Same as Huitzilopochtli; in an Aztec migration-myth, 233

Voc. A bird, the messenger of Hurakan; in Popol Vuh myth, 225

Votan. Maya god, identical with Tepeyollotl; God L probably is, 176

Vukub-Cakix (Seven-times-the-colour-of-fire). A sun-and-moon god (Dr. Seler); in a Kiche myth recounted in the Popol Vuh, 210-213; possibly an earth-god, 237

Vukub-Came. One of the rulers of Xibalba, the Kiche Hades, 220, 221, 224

Vukub-Hunapu. Son of Xpiyacoc and Xmucane; in the myth in the second book of the Popol Vuh, 220-221, 224, 225, 227


"Wallum Olum." Records of the Leni-Lenape Indians; a migration-myth in, resembles Kiche and Aztec myths, 233-234

Wind-Nine-Cave, Mixtec deity; in creation-myth, 120-121, 122

Wind-Nine-Snake. Mixtec deity; in creation-myth, 120-121, 122

Women of the Sun. Women dedicated to the service of the sun in Peru, 308

Writing. Of the Nahua, 34-35; of the Maya, 159-166; Dr. Le Plongeon and the Maya hieroglyphs, 239


Xalaquia. I. Festival of Chicomecohuatl, 86-87. II. The victim sacrificed at the Xalaquia festival, 87, 90

Xalisco. District in Mexico Toltecs in, 12

Xaltocan. Mexican city, 50

Xan. An animal mentioned in Popol Vuh myth, 225

Xaquixahuana. Place in Peru, 284

Xauxa. Place in Peru, 285

Xbakiyalo. Wife of Hunhun-Apu, 220

Xbalanque (Little Tiger). A hero-god, twin with Hun-Apu; in a Kiche myth, 211-219; in the myth in the second book of the Popol Vuh, 220, 223-227; mentioned, 237

Xecotcovach. Bird in the Kiche story of the creation, 209

Xibalba. I. A semi-legendary empire of the Maya, 144. II. The Kiche Hades, "Place of Phantoms"; in the myth in the second book of the Popol Vuh, 220-222, 225-227; possible origin of the conception, 229; properly a "place of the dead," 229; origin of the name, 229

Xibalbans. In the myth in the second book of the Popol Vuh, 221, 225-227; the originals of, 228-229; nature of, 229

Xilonen. Form of Chicomecohuatl, 85

Ximenes, Francisco. Copied and translated the Popol Vuh, 207

Xipe (The Flayed). Mexican god, 91-92; his dress assumed by Aztec monarchs and leaders, 91-92; Xolotl has affinities with, 95; God A thought to resemble, 174

Xiuhteculti (Lord of the Year). A name of the Mexican fire-god, 95

Xiumalpilli. In Mexican calendar, 40

Xiyan Caan. City in Yucatan, 153

Xmucane (Female Vigour). The mother-god in the Kiche story of the creation in the Popol Vuh, 209; in the Vukub-Cakix myth, 212-213; in the myth in the second book of the Popol Vuh, 220—225; equivalent to the Mexican Omeciuatl, 236

Xochicalco (The Hill of Flowers). A teocalli near Tezcuco, 33-34

Xochimilcos. Aztec tribe, 233

Xochipilli. A name of Macuilxochitl, which see

Xochitla. A flower-garden near Tollan; the legend of Tezcatlipoca and, 63

Xochitonal. Monster in the Mexican Other-world, 38

Xochiyayotl (The War of Flowers). Campaign for the capture of victims for sacrifice, 98-99, 100

Xolotl. I. King of the Chichimecs, 20; Teotihuacan rebuilt by, 33. II. A sun-god, 93-94; of southern origin and foreign to Mexico, 93; probably identical with Nanahuatl, 93; representative of human sacrifice, 93; has affinities with Xipe, 93; representations of, 94

Xpiyacoc. The father god in the Popol Vuh story of the creation, 209; in the Vukub-Cakix myth, 212-213; in the myth in the second book of the Popol Vuh, 220; equivalent to the Mexican Ometecutli, 236

Xquiq (Blood). A princess of Xibalba, daughter of Cuchumaquiq; in Popol Vuh myth, 222

Xulu. A sorcerer mentioned in Popol Vuh myth, 227


Yacatecutli. Tutelar god of travellers of the merchant class in Mexico, 114; the Maya Ekchuah probably parallel with, 177

Yahuarhuaccac. Seventh Inca, 283

Yahuar-pampa (Plain of Blood). Battle of, 285

Yamquisupa. Village; Thonapa and, 319

Yanacaca. Rock; in a myth of Paricaca, 327

Yaotzin (The Enemy). A manifestation of Tezcatlipoca, 66

Yatiri (The Ruler). Aymara name of Pachacamac in his form of Pachayachachic; Huaina Ccapac and, 299

Year. The Mexican, 39, 40

Yetl. God of natives of British Columbia, 12; probably cognate with Quetzalcoatl, 12, 83

Yma Sumac (How Beautiful). Daughter of Curi-Coyllur; in the drama Apu-Ollanta, 252-253

Yoalli Ehecatl (The Night Wind). A manifestation of Tezcatlipoca, 66

Yohualticitl. A name of Metztli, which see

Yolcuat. Form of Quetzalcoatl, 84

Yopi. Indian tribe; Xipe adopted from, 92

Yucatan. Settlement of the Maya in, 151-152; architectural remains in, 178

Yucay. Inca ruins at, 269

Yum Kaax (Lord of the Harvest Fields). Maya deity; God E probably identical with, 174

Yunca. Name given to the tropical and lowland districts of Peru, 255

Yupanqui Pachacutic. Ninth Inca, known also as Pachacutic. See Pachacutic


Zacatecas. Mexican province, 32

Zapoteca. Aboriginal Mexican race, 23; builders of Mitla, 31; their calendric system, 38; and Quetzalcoatl, 84-85; creation-myth of, 121-122; Maya influences transmitted to the Nahua through, 147; in effect a border people, influenced by and influencing Maya and Nahua, 147; of Nahua stock, 147

Zaque. Aboriginal Mexican race, 24

Zipacna (Cockspur or Earth-heaper). Son of Vukub-Cakix; in a Kiche myth in the Popol Vuh, 211-213, 216

Zippa. A chieftain of the Chibchas, 276

Zoque, A chieftain of the Chibchas, 276

Zotuta. Region in Yucatan inhabited by remnant of Cocomes, 156

Zotzilaha Chimalman. The Maya bat-god, called also Camazotz, 171-172

Zumarraga. Mexican chronicler, 13

Zutugil dialect, 145