The Nestorians and their Rituals/Volume 2

The Nestorians and their rituals, volume 2.djvu

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F. C. Cooper, lith.

Printed by C. Graf. 1, Gt Castle St.

MAR SHIMOUN,
Patriarch of the Nestorians.

THE


Nestorians and their Rituals:


WITH THE NARRATIVE OF

A MISSION TO MESOPOTAMIA AND COORDISTAN

IN 1842-1844,

AND OF A

LATE VISIT TO THOSE COUNTRIES IN 1850;

ALSO,

RESEARCHES INTO THE PRESENT CONDITION OF THE SYRIAN JACOBITES, PAPAL SYRIANS, AND CHALDEANS, AND AN INQUIRY INTO THE RELIGIOUS TENETS OF THE YEZEEDEES.



BY THE

REV. GEORGE PERCY BADGER,

One of the Honourable East India Company's Chaplains in the Diocese of Bombay.



VOLUME II.



LONDON:

JOSEPH MASTERS, ALDERSGATE STREET,
AND NEW BOND STREET.

MDCCCLII.

CONTENTS OF VOLUME II.


Introductory. Reasons why the Nestorians should be heard in self-defence.—Nature of their heresy, 2; God's disapprobation manifested towards them, 3; Supposed by some to hold the true Catholic doctrine, 4; Progress of the Church retarded by their estrangement, ib.; Their doctrines hitherto but superficially investigated, 5.

Writings of the Nestorians.—Not strictly confined to divinity, 8; Their intercourse with Grecian, Persian, and Arabian authors, 9; Their Syriac compositions, 10; Cause of the dearth of their ancient literature, 11; Its use at the present day, 14; Character of Nestorian and Jacobite alphabets, ib.

Of the hours of prayer and of the rituals and liturgies of the Nestorians.—Ancient order of the hours of prayer, 16; Cause of their change, 17; Reasons for their observance, 18; Service books, the Euanghelion, Shlieha, Karyâne, and Turgâma, 19; The Daweedha, or Psalter, 21; Its use at different seasons, 22; The Khudhra and Kash kôl, ib.; The Kdham oo d'Wathar, Gezza, Aboo Haleem, and Baootha d'Ninwâyé, 23; The Taxa d'Amadha, 24; Liturgies of Nestorius, Theodore and the Apostles, ib.; The Kthawa d'Burrakha, or Book of Matrimony, ib.; The Kahneita and Anneedha, Burial Services, ib.; The Taxa d'Siameedha, or Ordination Service, ib.; The Khamees and Warda, collections of hymns, 25; The Taxa d'Hoosaya, or Office of Pardon, ib.; Striking uniformity in the manuscript rituals, ib.

Plan of the following inquiry into the tenets of the Nestorians.—Their external forms useful in preserving essentials, 27; Want of a standard confession of faith, 28.

Of faith in the Holy Trinity.—Quotations from the Khudhra, 30; and from the Gezza, 31; Mar Abd Yeshua and Sir Isaac Newton on the attributes of God, ib.

Of the Word of God, which was made Very Man.—Anthem from the Khudhra, 33; Quotations from the Gezza, 34; From the Khudhra and Gezza, 35; Hymn from the Khâmees, 38; The Creed of the Nestorians by Abd Yeshua, 49; Quotation from the Warda, on the attributes of the Blessed Virgin, 51; Remarks, Quotations, and notes on the Incarnation, 57; Mosheim and Nelson on the title "Θεότοκος" of the Blessed Virgin, 69; How understood by the Nestorians, 70.

Of the going down of Christ into hell.—Quotations from the Khudhra, 72; Remarks, ib.

Of the Resurrection of Christ.—Quotations from the Khudhra, 75; Remarks, 76.

Of the Holy Ghost.—Quotations from the Nestorian Nicene Creed and the Gezza, 78; Remarks, ib.; Quotations from the Gezza against those impugning the doctrine of the Holy Trinity, 80.

Of the sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for salvation.—Quotations from the Gezza, Warda, and Sinhadòs, 82; the books received by the Nestorians, ib.; Hymn from the Warda, 83; Holy Scripture, the proof of the Nestorian faith, 84; Read by the laity, 85; The Bibles supplied by the London Bible Society, ib.; The divisions of the Nestorian Bible, 87.

Of the Old Testament.—Extracts from the Warda, Sinhadòs, and Aboo Haleem, 89; Remarks and quotations, 90.

Of the three Creeds.—The Nicene Creed, the only one used by the Nestorians, 92; Their ignorance of the other two, ib.

Of original or birth sin.—Extracts from the Gezza and Khudhra, 94; and from the Warda, 96; Remarks and Quotations, ib.

Of free-will.—Quotations from the Khudhra and Kdham oo d'Wathâr, 98, 99; the doctrine of our Article held by the Nestorians, ib.

Of the justification of man.—Quotations from the Warda, Khudhra, and Khâmees, 101.

Of good works.—Quotations from the Khudhra, Khâmees, and Liturgies, 103; Remarks on the Nestorian doctrine of justification and good works, 104; Extracts from the Homily on Aims-Deeds, 105; and from the Khudhra and Warda, 106.

Of works before justification.—The doctrine of the Nestorians, 109; Corroborative extracts thereon, 110.

Of works of supererogation.—Quotation from Poem on the Khâmees, 111; The error unknown by name to the Nestorians, 112.

Of Christ alone without sin.—Quotations from the Warda, 113; remarks, 114.

Of sin after baptism.—Quotations from the Khudhra and Kdham oo d' Wathâr, 115; remarks, 116.

Of predestination and election.—The doctrine not noticed in the Nestorian writings, 117; Prayer from the Khudhra, 118.

Of obtaining Eternal Salvation only by the name of Christ.—Quotations from the Khâmees, Khudhra, and liturgy of Theodoras, 119; Prayers for vengeance upon unbelievers, 120.

Of the Church.—Import of the term, 121; Quotations from the Khudhra, ib.; Remarks, 122.

Of the authority of the Church.—Quotations from the Khudhra, Sinhadòs, and Remarks, 124.

Of the authority of General Councils.—Mar Abd Yeshua on the Councils of Nice and Chalcedon, 126; That of Ephesus, not formally condemned in the Nestorian Rituals, ib.; How the Easterns came to be styled Nestorians, 127; Quotations from the Khudhra, 129.

Of Purgatory.—The Nestorian Rituals repugnant to the doctrine, but teach the efficacy of prayers for the dead, 130; Extracts from the Sinhadòs, ib.; Pardons or indulgences repugnant to the Nestorian doctrines, 131; Censure of Mar Abd Yeshua thereon, ib.; Their aversion to images, 132; The symbol of the cross highly venerated by them, ib.; Their festival in its commemoration, ib.; Quotations from the Gezza, Khudhra, and Sinhadòs, 133; The use of the Cross among the Nestorians, 135; Extracts showing that no idolatry is held by them, ib.; Of relics, 136; Nestorian belief concerning the remains of martyrs and saints, ib.; Quotations from the Kdham oo d'Wathâr, 137; Invocation of saints, 138; Quotations from Kdham oo d'Wathâr, Khudhra and Gezza, ib.

Of ministering in the congregation.—Quotations from the Sinhadòs, 140; Remarks, 144.

Of speaking in the congregation in such a tongue as the people understandeth.—Language of the ancient Nestorian Rituals, 146; But partially understood at the present day, ib.; The ancient Nestorians anxious for the progress of education and the study of the Holy Scriptures, 147; Canon from the Sinhadòs, ib.

Of the Sacraments.—That they are not bare signs, 148; Quotations from the Khudhra, ib.; Mar Abd Yeshua on the subject, 149; Number of the Sacraments not determined by the Nestorian Rituals, 150; Said to be seven by some of their authors, ib.; Examination of this discrepancy, ib.; Tradition tending to prove their belief in two only, 151; Confirmation, how regarded by the Nestorians, 153; Mar Abd Yeshua on the subject, ib.; Of penance, 154; Confession and absolution, ib.; In perfect agreement with our own Rituals, ib.; Auricular confession unknown to the Nestorians, ib.; General practice with regard to confession, ib.; Form of absolution still in use among them, 155; Of orders, matrimony, and extreme unction, 160; Of the holy leaven, 161; Ingredients of the sacramental bread, ib.; Of the sign of the life-giving cross, 162.

Of the unworthiness of the ministers, which hinders not the effect of the Sacraments.—The Nestorians agree with the above doctrine, 163; Mar Abd Yeshua and extract from ancient MS. on the subject, ib.

Of Baptism.—Quotations from the Gezza and Khudhra, 165; Remarks, 166.

Of the Lord's Supper.—Quotations from the Khudhra, Warda and Khamees, 167; Believed by the Nestorians to be a real partaking of the body and blood of Christ, 169; On the change of the elements, ib.; Transubstantiation unknown by name to the Nestorians, 170; Additional extracts in support thereof, ib.; The body of Christ eaten by them through faith, 172; Extracts proving the same, ib.; No elevation of the elements, ib.

Of the wicked who eat not of the body of Christ in the use of the Lord's Supper.—Agreement of the Nestorians with the teaching of this article, 173; Extracts from the Khudhra, ib.

Of both kinds.—Both administered to the Nestorians, except in a few instances, 174.

Of the one oblation of Christ finished upon the cross.—Extracts from the Khâmees and Khudhra, 175; Remarks, 176; Quotation from Mar Abd Yeshua, ib.; The Eucharist never celebrated without communion, 177; Of prayers for the dead, ib.

Of the Marriage of Priests.—Marriage lawful for Nestorian Priests and Deacons, 178; Convents of the ancient Nestorians, ib.; None existing at the present day, ib.; Of Monks and Nuns who shall fall from their vows, 179; No such establishment as nunneries among the Nestorians, ib.; Marriage prohibited to their Bishops, Metropolitans, and Patriarchs, 180; The restriction in opposition to the Canons in the Sinhadòs, ib.; Mar Abd Yeshua on "Matrimony and Virginity," 181.

Of Excommunicate Persons, how they are to be avoided.—This ecclesiastical discipline maintained in full vigour by the Nestorians, 182; Instance related by Dr. Grant, ib.; Extract from the Sinhados, ib.

Of the Traditions of the Church.—Traditions and Ceremonies not permitted to be changed by private judgment, 185; Synodal decrees, ib.

Of the Homilies.—Their doctrines having been already considered, the Fasts of the Nestorians are treated of in this chapter, 187; Canons on the subject, ib.; Days of fasting and abstinence, ib.; Strictly observed by the Nestorians, 188; The Fast from which laymen are exempt, ib.

Of the Consecration of Bishops and Ministers.—The doctrine of the Apostolical Succession maintained by the Nestorians, 189; Extract from the Khudhra, ib.; Mar Abd Yeshua on the Orders of Ministers, 190; The Episcopate, ib.; Bishop Onderdonk of America on the subject, ib.; The Patriarchate, 191; Qualifications for the office, ib.; Formerly not of the same family, and how elected, ib.; Election of Bishops, 192; Quotations from the Sinhados and remarks, 193.

Office for the administration of Holy Baptism according to the Nestorian Ritual.

Liturgy of Nestorius.—Chaldæan alterations of the Nestorian Liturgies, and the periods of their celebration, 241.

Taxa d'Burrakha or the Form of the Solemnization of Matrimony.—The Espousals, 244; The Marriage, 245; The blessing of the bridal attire, 254; The benediction of the colours and crowns, 258; The coronation, ib.; The setting up of the bridal chamber, 271; Persons with whom it is unlawful to marry, 277; Celebration of matrimony without a priest, 280; Prayer over the bride forty days after marriage, ib.; The churching of women, ib.

The Kahneita, or the Order for the burial of the Priests.—First Moutwa or Cathisma, 283; Third Moutwa, 289; Processional Chant, 297; The consolation, 316; How unbaptized children are to be interred, 321.

The Form for the Ordination of the Clergy by the imposition of hands.—The ordering of Readers, 322; Of Sub-deacons, 324; Of Deacons, 325; Of Presbyters, 330; Of an Archdeacon, 336; Of the Patriarch's Archdeacon, 339; Of Bishops, 340; Of Metropolitans, 347; Consecration of churches, 349; Restoration of offending Priests, 350.

Conclusion.—Character of the Nestorian Theology, 351; Grounds for Nestorian claims upon our sympathy, ib.; Difficulties in the way, 352; Course of proceeding recommended, ib.; Rough sketch of proposal, 353; Benefits of intercommunion with them, 357.

Index of Biblical and Ecclesiastical writings drawn up by Mar Abd Yeshua. — Old Testament Scriptures, 361; New Testament Scriptures, 362; Writings of the Western Fathers, 363; Writings of the Syrian Fathers, 367.

A Translation of The Jewel by Mar Abd Yeshua.—Part I. Of God.—That there is a God, and that the world is created, made, and temporal, 382; That God is one and not many, 383; That God is Eternal, 394; That God is incomprehensible, ib.; Of the Trinity, 385.

Part II.—On the Creation.—On the Creation of the Universe, 388; On man's first sin, 389; On the Divine Laws and Ordinances, and of the Prophets, 390; Prophecies concerning Christ, 391.

Part III. On the Christian Dispensation.—On the Advent of Christ, and of His union [of the divine with the human nature], 393; On the life and actions of Christ, 394; On the truth of Christianity, 395; On the different Sects, 397; Refutation of the foregoing Creeds, 400; On the title "Mother of God," 401; Of four Persons, 402; Of the Church, ib.

Part IV. Of the Church Sacraments. On the number of the Church Sacraments, 404; Of the Priesthood, 405; Of Baptism, 407; Of the Oil of Unction, ib.; Of the Oblation, 408; Of the Holy Leaven, 409; Of Absolution and Repentance, 411; Of Matrimony and of Virginity, 412.

Part V. On the theory of those things which prefigure the world to come, of worshipping towards the East, 413; On the worship of the Lord's Cross, 414; Of the holy First Day of the Week, and of the Festivals commemorative of our Lord, 415; Of Friday, 416; Of Fasting, Prayer, and Almsgiving, 417; Of the Girdle, 418; Of the Resurrection, the Judgment to come, and Everlasting Life, 419.

This work was published before January 1, 1927, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.