The Nestorians and their Rituals/Volume 2/Chapter 42

The Nestorians and their Rituals, Volume 2 by George Percy Badger
Chapter 42
The Liturgy of Nestorius
by the Church of the East, translated by George Percy Badger

CHAPTER XLII.

LITURGY OF NESTORIUS.[1]

Priest. Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.

Our Father, which art in heaven, &c.

Prayer.[2]

In Thy compassion, O Lord, our God, strengthen our weakness, that we may administer the holy sacraments which were given for the salvation of our race, through the mercies of Thy well-beloved Son, Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen.

Then shall follow [a portion of one of the cathisma called] a marmeetha, [consisting of two or more psalms, as appointed in the Khudhra for Sundays and for all the greater festivals. On all other days Ps. xv. cl. and cxvii. are used.]

Canon.

Make me to stand before Thy altar, O Lord, with a pure heart.

Deacon. Peace be with us.

Prayer.[2]

Before the habitation of Thy Majesty, and the high and exalted throne of Thy Excellency, and the awful seat of the power of Thy love, and the altar of forgiveness raised by Thy will, and the place of the abode of Thy glory, we Thy people and sheep of Thy pasture, with thousands of cherubim who sing hallelujahs, and with myriads of seraphim and archangels who celebrate Thee with their song of Holy, Holy, Holy, kneel, worship, give thanks, and praise at all times, O Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen.

Then shall follow the Oneetha d'Kanké [or the anthem of the altar, as appointed in the Khudhra for Sundays and the principal holidays. This anthem is sung by the Deacons at the door of the bema.]

Prayer.

When the sweet odour of Thy love, O Lord our God, penetrates our minds, and our souls are enlightened by the knowledge of Thy truth, we thereby become fit to meet Thy well-beloved when He shall appear from heaven, and there to give thanks unto Thee, and to praise Thee unceasingly, in Thy Church triumphant endowed with all aid and blessing; for Thou art the sovereign Creator of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen.

Deacon. Unto Thee, O Lord, we give thanks; unto Thee, O Christ Jesus, we offer praise; because Thou art He Who quickeneth our bodies, and saveth our souls.

Prayer.

Thou, O Lord, art in truth the Quickener of our bodies, and Thou art the Saviour of our souls, and the Preserver of our frames continually. Unto Thee, O Lord, we are bound at all times to offer thanksgiving, worship, and praise, O Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen.

Deacon. O Holy God, O Holy Mighty, O Holy Immortal, have mercy upon us.

Priest. O Thou Holy and Adorable, Thou Strong and Immortal One, Who dwellest in the saints who perform Thy will, we pray that Thou wouldest regard, pity, and have mercy upon us, as is ever Thy wont, O Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen.

Then shall follow the two lessons as appointed in the Karyâna, Before the deacon begins to read the priest shall say:

Blessed is God, Who endueth us with wisdom through His holy teaching, and Who poureth out His mercy upon the reader and hearers, at all times. Amen.

The lessons ended, the προκείμενον shall follow, after which the priest shall say this

Prayer.

Enlighten, O Lord God, the motions of our thoughts that we may attend to and understand the sweet sound of Thy lifegiving and divine commandments: and in Thy grace and mercy vouchsafe that we may derive therefrom the fruits of love, hope, and salvation, which may be profitable to our souls and bodies, and we will ever and unceasingly sing praises unto Thee, O Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen.

Before he begins the reading of the Epistle, the deacon shall say: Give Thy blessing, O Lord. To which the priest shall answer: The Lord endue thee with wisdom by His holy teaching, and make thee profitable to all who shall listen to thee. The epistle ended the deacon shall say: Glory be to Christ our Lord. After which the priest shall silently pray as follows:

Unto Thee, ray of the glory of the Father, Thou Image of the person of the Father, Who appearedst in the body of our humanity, and enlightenedst the darkness of our minds through the light of Thy Gospel, unto Thee we give thanks, worship, and praise, at all times, O Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen.

Whilst the priest is opening the Gospel, he shall say silently:

Glory be to the everlasting mercies which sent Thee unto us, O Christ, the Light of the world, and the life of all, for ever and ever. Amen.

As he bears the Gospel from the altar to the door of the bema the priest shall say silently:

Make us wise through Thy law, enlighten the motions of our hearts through Thy wisdom, sanctify our souls by Thy truth, and grant that we may be obedient to Thy words, and that we may fulfil Thy commandments at all times, O Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen.

Whilst incense is being put into the censer the priest shall say the following:

O Lord, let that same sweet odour, which came forth from Thee when Mary the sinner poured upon Thy head the precious ointment, mingle with this incense which we offer before Thy Majesty for the forgiveness of our sins and transgressions, O Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen.

Deacon. Stand prepared to hear the holy Gospel.

Then the priest shall read the Gospel for the day, beginning with the salutation: Peace be with you. To which all shall respond: With thee, and with thy spirit. After the proclamation of the Gospel from which the lesson is taken, the deacon shall say: Glory be to Christ our Lord. The Gospel ended, the deacon shall add: Glory be to Christ our Lord; and let us all commit ourselves and one another to the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
Here followeth the ectene, which whilst the deacon is reciting the priest shall take the paten and chalice from the prothesis, and shall say this anthem:

Ant. The poor shall eat and be satisfied.

The body of Christ and His precious blood are upon the holy altar; let us all therefore come before Him in fear and love, and with the angels sing unto Him, Holy, Holy, Holy, is the Lord of hosts. [To be repeated.]

Then the priest shall take the chalice in his right hand and the paten in the left, and crossing his arms he shall say:

Let us ever and at all times offer praise to Thy glorious Trinity, O Christ, Who wast sacrificed for our sins, and Who commandedst us to keep up a remembrance of Thy death and resurrection. In Thy grace and mercy accept this oblation at our hands. Amen.

Then he shall strike the chalice and paten together three times, saying:

According to Thy commandment, O Lord our God, let these adorable, holy, life-giving, and divine sacraments, be placed and ordered upon the sin-forgiving altar until the second coming of our Lord from heaven, to whom be glory at all times and for ever. Amen.

Having placed the chalice and paten upon the altar the priest shall cover them carefully with a napkin, and shall say:

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost.

On the holy altar let there be a remembrance of Mary the Mother of Christ.

Deacon. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end.

O ye apostles of the Son, and lovers of the Only-begotten, pray for peace in all the world.

Priest. And let all the people say Amen, Amen.

Let thy memorial, O —— [Here the name of the saint to whom the Church is dedicated is to be inserted] be upon the holy altar, together with that of the just who have overcome, and with that of the martyrs who have received their crowns.

Deacon. All the dead have slept in the hope of Thee, that by Thy glorious resurrection Thou wouldest raise them up in glory.

Then the Priest shall give the Cross and Gospel into the hands of the Deacons, who shall go out therewith into the chancel, and shall say:

Christ our Lord make you fit to meet Him with open face. Amen.

The ectene ended, the Priest shall say,

We pray and beseech Thee, O Lord God Almighty, to perfect in us Thy will, and to pour out through us Thy gift, and the mercies and compassion of Thy godhead, and grant that they may convey to Thy people the forgiveness of their sins, and to the sheep of Thy pasture which Thou hast chosen to Thyself the pardon of their iniquities, through Thy grace and mercy, O Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen.

Then the Deacon shall say with a loud voice. Bow your heads for the imposition of hands, and receive the blessing. At this the Deacons and people shall bow their heads, and the Priest shall say the following in a low voice:

O Lord, the mighty God, [to be repeated,] Thine is the holy Catholic Church, which was purchased by the passion of Thy Christ, and Thine are the sheep of Thy pasture, and through the grace of the Holy Ghost of Thine own glorious Essence are given the different degrees of the imposition of hands appertaining to the office of the true priesthood. In Thy mercy, O Lord, Thou hast made our frail nature meet to become very members in the great body of the holy Catholic Church, and to administer spiritual benefits to the souls of believers. O Lord, perfect Thy grace in us, and pour it out through our hands, and suffer Thy mercies and Thy divine compassion to rest upon us, and upon this people which Thou hast chosen for Thyself. [Then with a loud voice.] And grant, O Lord, in Thy mercy, that throughout the days of our life we all may approve ourselves before Thy Godhead in such good works of righteousness as Thy adorable will shall be pleased with and accept, that through the help of Thy grace we may be fit to offer unto Thee glory, honour, praise, and worship, at all times, O Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen.

Then the Deacons shall enter the bema, and shall proclaim as follows:

Let every one who is unbaptized depart. Whosoever has not received the sign of life, let him depart. And whosoever is unwilling to receive the same, let him depart. Go, ye hearers, and watch the doors.

The veil shall then be drawn aside; after which the appointed anthem shall be sung by the Deacons and people, and the Priest shall repeat the same, singing himself the meanwhile, in the name of the Holy Trinity. And as he descends from the steps of the altar, the Deacons shall bow before him, and he shall say:

The Lord God accept your ministrations, adorn you with all beauty, and enrich you with every good gift, for ever and ever. Amen.

Then approaching the door of the bema he shall bow and say:

With our hearts sprinkled and cleansed from all evil thoughts, we are fit to enter into the holy of holies above, and to appear before Thine altar in purity and holiness, and in true faith to offer unto Thee spiritual and reasonable sacrifices.

Then he shall stand in front of the altar with uplifted hands and shall say in a loud voice the Nicene Creed. After which the Deacon shall approach the altar with three genuflexions, and whilst the Priest is worshipping before the altar the latter shall say:

God, the Lord of all, be with us, in His grace and mercy, now and for ever. Amen.

Deacon. Let us pray. Peace be with us. Let us offer the prayer of commemoration.

Priest. [To the deacon.] God, the Lord of all, strengthen thee to sing His praise.

Then the Priest shall turn his face to the altar, and shall worship thrice, approaching nearer at each genuflexion. [Here follows a long rubric directing how the genuflexions are to be performed.] Whilst worshipping he shall say the following prayer in a low voice:[3]

O Lord our God, we give thanks to the overflowing riches of Thy grace towards us, [to be repeated,] inasmuch as that whilst we were yet sinners and imperfect, in the abundance of Thy mercy Thou didst fit us to administer the holy sacraments of the body and blood of Thy Christ. We pray Thee to strengthen our souls with Thy help, that in perfect love, and true faith, we may now administer Thy gift towards us. Look not, Lord, look not upon the multitude of our sins, neither let Thy majesty despise us on account of the burden of our iniquities; but in Thy unutterable grace receive this oblation at our hands, and endue it with virtue and efficacy that thereby our sins may be blotted out, so that when Thou shalt appear at the last day in the humanity which Thou didst take from us, we may find grace and mercy with Thee, and be meet to praise Thee with all the spiritual company above, saying: [Here the priest shall say the prayer of Mar Barsoma, still bending before the altar.] Glory be to Thee Who dost find the lost; glory be to Thee, O Thou, Who dost gather together the dispersed: glory be to Thee, O Thou Who dost bring near those who are afar off; glory be to Thee, O Thou Who dost restore those who err to a knowledge of the truth; glory be to Thee, O Lord, for having called my frail self, by Thy grace, and for having caused me to draw near unto Thee in Thy pity, and made me a very member in the great body of the holy Church, to offer up unto Thee this lively, holy, and acceptable sacrifice, in remembrance of the passion, death, and resurrection, of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, through whom Thou art well pleased to forgive the sins of all mankind;

Canon.

That unto Thee, God the very Father, and to Thy Only-begotten Son, and to Thy Holy and life-giving Spirit, we may ascribe glory, honour, praise, and worship, now and for ever and ever. [Whilst saying this the priest shall sign himself, and the people shall answer.] Amen.

Priest. Peace be with you all.

R. With thee, and with thy spirit.

Deacon. Salute one another in the love of Christ.

Then the Deacon shall read the prayer of commemoration styled diopatkeen;[4] after which he shall say as follows:

Let us all in purity and in contrition give thanks unto the Lord, and offer up our prayers and supplications unto Him. With reverence stand and behold the things which are about to be performed,—the awful sacraments which are about to be consecrated,—for the priest hath drawn near to pray that through him peace may be multiplied unto you. Cast your eyes downwards, and lift up your hearts in watchfulness, and earnestly pray and supplicate at this time. Let none dare to speak, and whosoever prays let him pray mentally, and let all in fear and silence stand and pray. Peace be with us.

Whilst the Deacon is repeating the above the Priest shall say silently the following:

O Lord, the mighty God, [to be repeated,] Who in Thy mercy art the support of our weakness, by the aid of Thy grace make me fit to offer before Thee this oblation, that it may be for the help of all this congregation, and to the praise of Thy glorious Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen.

THE ANAPHORA.

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with us all. [Whilst saying this he shall sign the elements.]

R. Amen.

Priest. Above in the height of the highest, and in the awful place of praise, where the fluttering of the wings of the cherubims ceases not, neither is there any intermission to their hallelujahs, or to the song of Holy, Holy, Holy, of the seraphim, thither lift up your hearts.

R. Unto Thee, O God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the King of glory.

Priest. The living and reasonable oblation of the First-begotten of us, and the unsacrificed and acceptable sacrifice of the Son of our race, which the prophets prefigured mystically, and which the Apostles preached openly, and which martyrs purchased with their blood, and which wise men have expounded in the churches, and which priests have sacrificed upon the holy altar, and which the Levites have borne in their hands, and which the people have received for the forgiveness of their sins,—be this offered unto God, the Lord of all, for all mankind.

R. It is meet and right.

Deacon. Call to mind the wonderful providence of Christ our Saviour, which He perfected for us, how by His body He hath turned our mourning into joy, and by His living blood He hath sprinkled our hearts. Be watchful, and pray in purity, Peace be with us.

Then the priest shall say the two following prayers silently.

Prayer.

O Lord, I adore Thy grace, [to be repeated,] and give thanks unto Thy mercy, because in Thy compassion Thou hast made me, who am unworthy, fit to offer unto Thee adorable and divine sacraments. I beseech Thee, O Lord, and supplicate that Thy grace may cause them to be for the quiet of the world, the peace of the creation, the resurrection of Thy believing Church, the prosperity of Thy priests, the edification of all those who believe on Thee, the preservation of those who are justified by Thee, the pardon and forgiveness of the sins of the penitent, the reclaiming of the wandering, the salvation of all mankind, and, in Thy grace and mercy, for the blotting out of the ignorances of all Thy people and servants who now stand before Thee, for ever and ever. Amen.

Another.

Unto Thee, O Lord, the mighty God, whose essence is eternal, the Father Almighty, [to be repeated,] He who for ever was, is, and shall be, the same; it is meet and right that we should ever and at all times offer praise, worship, honour, and glory. Thou art the true God, incomprehensible, infinite, inexplicable, invisible, uncompounded, impassible, immortal, and far above the thoughts and understandings of all creatures, every where present, and yet not to be contained in any place,—the Father, the Only-Begotten Son, and Holy Ghost. Put a good word in our mouth, O Lord, that with a contrite heart, and humble spirit, we may offer unto Thee the spiritual fruits of our lips, a reasonable service; for Thou art the one only God, the Father of our King, and Lord, and Saviour, Jesus Christ our hope, in whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, and from whom we have received the knowledge of the Holy Ghost, the Spirit of truth, who proceedeth forth from Thee, O Father, and who is of the hidden essence of Thy Godhead, and through whom all rational creatures, visible and invisible, are strengthened, sanctified, and perfected. We offer up unto Thee unceasingly, and at all times, and to Thy Only-Begotten Son, and to the Holy Ghost, endless praise and thanksgiving, for all the work of Thy hands; for that Thou from nothing didst bring us into existence, and didst form us; and when we stumbled and fell and became corrupt. Thou didst renew us, and raise us up, and make us Thine own again, and didst not cease to visit us, and constantly to care for us, until Thou didst exalt us to heaven, and in Thy pity didst give us the kingdom to come. For all these Thy benefits we thank Thee, God the Father of truth, and Thy Only-Begotten Son our Lord Jesus Christ, and Thy living Spirit the Holy Ghost, and we worship Thee also for all Thy benefits towards us, such as are known to us and such as we do not know, both hidden and open. And we also thank Thee for this service, and beseech Thee to accept it at our hands. Who can utter Thy wondrous power, or declare all Thy praise? for even if all created beings should join in one mouth and in one tongue they could not publish Thy greatness.

Canon.

For before Thy Trinity, O Lord, thousands of thousands, and myriads of myriads, of angels and archangels stand and fly, and with a loud voice cry out to one another without ceasing, saying:—

R. Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts, heaven and earth are full of Thy glory. Hosanna in the highest. Hosanna to the Son of David. Blessed is He who cometh in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest.

Prayer [in a low voice.]

I, Thy weak and sinful servant beseech Thee, O Lord the mighty God, and supplicate Thy abundant mercy in behalf of my weak and sinful estate, that Thou wouldest forgive my sins and iniquities, and accept at my frail hands this lively and holy sacrifice in my own behalf, and in behalf of this Thy people who wait for Thy salvation, that it may be effectual for the forgiveness of sins, and for health, help, and mercy. And grant that when Thy holy Body and Blood shall mingle with the bodies and souls of Thy servants, they may cleanse us from all the pollution of sin, deliver us from all evil, and from the crafts of the enemy of our race, and fill us with true faith, with the light of the knowledge of Thy providence, with the perfect love of Thy Majesty, and with the good hope of Thy grace. And now accept this pure service which is spread out before Thee, that in one place and with one heart and soul we may be fitted to fulfil Thy will in true faith and perfect love, and to ascribe glory to Thy Majesty for all Thy unspeakable benefits towards us.

And we, with the heavenly hosts, [to be repeated,] O Thou righteous Lord, God the merciful Father, will cry out and say: Holy art Thou in truth, and praised art Thou in very deed, because Thou hast made Thy earthly worshippers fit to be likened unto those who worship Thee in heaven. Holy is Thine Only-Begotten Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, with the Holy Ghost, who is with Thee from eternity, the Son of Thine essence, the Creator of all. We bless, O Lord, God the Word, the hidden Begotten One of Thy bosom, who is Thine Image, Bay, and the Likeness of Thy Self-existence; who, being Thy Likeness, Ray, and the Image of Thy Self-existence, thought it no robbery to be equal with Thee, but emptied Himself, and took upon Him the form of a servant in a perfect man, of a reasonable, intelligent, and immortal soul, and of a human and mortal body subsisting, having joined and united with Himself in one honour, dominion, and glory, the offspring of a passible body formed by the power of the Holy Ghost for the salvation of all, and was made of a woman, made under the law, that He might redeem them that were under the law, and that He might quicken all those who had died in Adam, having abolished in His flesh the law of commandments contained in ordinances, opened the blind eyes of our minds, made known to us the way of salvation, and enlightened us with the light of the knowledge of divine truth: and such as received Him to them gave He power to become the sons of God, and purified and cleansed us by the holy baptism of water, and sanctified us, in His grace, by the gift of the Holy Spirit; and them that have been buried with Him in baptism unto death He hath raised up and exalted and hath made them to sit down with Him in heaven, according to His promise, and having loved His own which are in this world, He loved them unto the end, and became the propitiation for the sins of our race and for the life of all, and yielded Himself up unto death for every man, under whose sentence they were, to whose power all were subject, and to whom we were sold through our sins. And He descended into sheol and loosed the bands of death; and because it was not possible that the First-begotten of our salvation should be holden of sheol, He arose from the dead on the third day, and became the first-fruits of them that slept, that in everything He might have the pre-eminence, and ascended into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of Thy Majesty, O God, and committed to us the memorial of our salvation in this sacrament which we now offer up before Thee. For when the time came when He was about to suffer, and to offer Himself up unto death, in that same night in which He was to be betrayed for the life of the world, after the Paschal supper of Moses, He took bread in His holy, immaculate, and pure hands, and blessed, and brake, and ate, and gave it to His disciples, saying: Take, eat ye all of this. This is My body, which is broken for you for the remission of sins. And also the cup, after He had mixed it with wine and water. He blessed, gave thanks, and drank, and gave it to His disciples, saying: Drink ye all of this, for this is My blood of the New Testament which is shed for many for the remission of sins. Do this in remembrance of Me until My coming again; for as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show My death till I come. Whosoever shall approach and partake of these in true faith, they shall be effectual for the forgiveness of his sins, for the pardon of his iniquities, for the resurrection from the dead, and for a new life in the kingdom of heaven.

Canon

We offer glory, honour, praise, and worship, unto Thee, Thou adorable Father, and to Thy glorious Son, and to Thy living and life-giving Spirit, now and for ever and ever. Amen. [Here the Priest shall sign the sacraments.]

R. Amen.

Deacon. With the enlightened eyes of the mind behold the meekness, humility, and lowliness of Christ our Saviour, and with the thought of pure intention let us discern and see the Son, the Only-begotten of the Father, led away to the passion of the cross, and let us pray. Peace be with us.

Priest [silently]. O Lord God, the compassionate, the merciful, the pitiful, now that I have taken upon me to speak, which am but dust and ashes,—I Thy sinful and weak servant, who am Thy debtor from the womb, a stranger to Thee from the belly, and poor with respect unto Thee from the bowels of my mother, in Thy mercy have pity upon me, save me from the ocean of my sins, and draw me and lift me out of the depth of my iniquities, and in Thy goodness heal the wounds and sores of my ignorances with Thy all-healing medicine, and grant that I may open my mouth before Thee, and move my lips unto Thee, and suffer me to plead with Thee for my ignorances, and for the pardon of my sins and iniquities, and for the washing out of my stains, and also for those of these sinners my companions, and make me fit to ask from Thee such things as we ought to ask of Thy Godhead; for unto Thee, O Thou whose riches cannot be impoverished. Thou inexhaustible Treasure, are ever offered up right prayers, and from Thee proceed answers of liberal gifts, and Thou upbraidest not. Be not angry with me, O Thou righteous and long-suffering God, because I am not innocent before Thee. With confidence I address Thy majesty, and with boldness I beseech Thee to accept my person, for I am called by Thy name. Receive this sacrifice at my frail hands in behalf of Thy people and the sheep of Thy pasture, and I will give thanks unto Thy name, and adore Thy majesty, now and for ever and ever. Amen.

Another.

And we also, O Thou mighty Lord, God the Father, [To be repeated,] in commemorating this which was given for our salvation, and in bringing to mind all those things which have been done for us, would before all believe and confess Thee, God the very Father, and the divinity of the eternal birth of the Only-begotten of Thee, with whom, in the co-equality of His essence with Thee, Thou art joined in His wonderful providence towards us, which took place in our humanity [which He assumed,] in His cross and passion, in His death and in the grave, in His resurrection after three days and ascension into heaven, in His session on the right hand, and in the glorious advent of our Lord Jesus Christ unto us a second time, in and through whom Thou wilt judge the quick and the dead, and reward every man according to his works. And we also confess the Holy Ghost, of the glorious essence of Thy Godhead, who proceeds forth from Thee, O Father, and with Thee, and with Thine Only-begotten Son, is praised, worshipped, and revered by all. We offer unto Thee this lively, holy, acceptable, glorious, awful, and great and immaculate sacrament, for all men; for the holy, apostolic, and Catholic Church throughout the earth, that Thou wouldest vouchsafe to keep it from all doubtfulness, immoveable, and indefectible, [Repeat from for the holy, &c.,] without spot, blemish, wrinkle, or any such thing, even as Thy well-beloved Son our Lord Jesus Christ has said, that the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And for all our fathers, the bishops who in every place preach the word of truth of the orthodox faith, and for all the priests who exercise Thy priesthood before Thee in righteousness and true holiness, in the mystery of the faith, and in a pure conscience. And for all congregations of Thy sanctified people here and every where; and for all who have sinned and transgressed against Thee knowingly and ignorantly, and for me, Thy frail servant, whom Thou hast, in Thy grace, made meet to offer before Thee this oblation. And for all those who serve Thy Church in works of righteousness, for all who give alms to the poor, for all believing kings, and for the establishment of their kingdoms, and for all the heads and sovereigns of the world. And we beseech Thee to confirm all these in Thy fear, and to pour out upon them Thy truth, and to put all barbarous nations in subjection unto them. And we pray of Thy Godhead, O Lord, to cause violence to cease in all the earth, and to scatter the people that delight in war, that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty. And for all the fruits of the earth, and for the seasons, that the year may be crowned with Thy goodness. [The last period to be repeated thrice.] And for this city and those who dwell therein, and for all who reside round about it; and for all places and the inhabitants thereof, that Thou mayest have mercy upon them, bless, keep, and preserve them in Thy compassion. And for all who travel afar off by sea or land, for all who are in trouble or adversity, for the outcast, and for such as suffer persecution for Thy name's sake. And for all prisoners and captives in tribulation, for all who in distant islands are made to serve in hard slavery, and for all our believing brethren in bondage. And we beseech Thee, O Lord, that Thou wouldest succour all such as are sick and distressed. And we supplicate Thy mercy, O Lord, in behalf of our enemies, and those who hate us, and those who think evil of us; enter not into judgment with them, O Lord, neither take vengeance upon them, O Thou mighty God; but fit them for mercy and salvation, and for the forgiveness of sins, since Thou desirest that all men should be saved, and come to a knowledge of the truth, and by Thy only-begotten Son our Lord Jesus Christ Thou hast commanded us to pray for our enemies, and for all those who hate us, and who despitefully use us.

Canon.

And now, O Lord, forgive, pardon, absolve, and pass by, whereinsoever we have sinned and transgressed, O Thou Good One, Who dost govern all in Thy mercy, that with one accord we may offer unto Thee glory, honour, praise, and worship, now and for ever and ever. Amen. [Here the priest shall sign himself.]

R. Amen.

Deacon. Lift up your sight to the height of the highest above, and behold with the eyes of your minds, and contemplate that whicli is being done at this time. The Seraphim stand in awe before the throne of the glory of Christ, and with one loud voice sing unceasing alleluias and praises to the Body which is laid out, and to the Cup which is mingled, whilst the people pray, and the priest intercedes for mercy for all the world; and mentally say: Peace be with us.

Prayer.

Praise be unto Thee, O our Lord Jesus Christ, Who in Thy mercy hast numbered me among the number of Thy high priests. [Repeat.] Praise be unto Thee, O Lord, for having mingled me with the choirs of Thy priests. Praise be unto Thee, O Lord, for having made me of the congregation of Thy saints. Praise be unto Thee, O Lord, for having raised me up at this time to pray for Thy people. Praise be unto Thee, O Lord, for having made me meet to intercede with confidence in behalf of Thy people, and to lay hold of the robes of Thy mercy. Have mercy upon Thy people who now stand awaiting Thy compassion. Turn towards the wanderers which have been lost from the sheep of Thy fold; pardon the sinners who have trodden upon the ordinances of Thy laws; and in Thy overflowing mercy be merciful to every creature. In Thy pity forgive the sinful, and in Thy compassion be favourable unto the transgressors; restore the wandering to Thy fold, gather together the dispersed, and make them of Thine own household. In Thy grace solace all such as are in trouble, give rest to the weary in Thy rest, perfect the alms which are bestowed for Thy Name's sake, and succour all those who live in the way of truth trusting in Thee. Quicken the dead who have slept in Thy hope, and in Thy grace make them to stand at Thy right hand, and finally to exult in the heavenly bliss of Thy kingdom with all the righteous and good who have been approved before Thee from the beginning. And now behold this Thy people met together in Thy Name, pardon their sins, blot out their ignorances, cleanse them from their faults, pass over their transgressions, heal their sicknesses, cure their diseases, put far off all their enemies, destroy those who hate them, forgive their shortcomings, wash their wounds and their sores, perfect what is wanting in them, bring them back from their wanderings, quicken their mortality, comfort their mourning, quiet their anxiety, enlighten their darkness, support their weakness, enrich their poverty, give them rest in adversity, and humble Thyself to listen to my intercessions in their behalf. Look also upon me, me Thy frail and sinful servant, whom Thou hast this day moved by Thy grace to pray before Thee at this time; come to my help, turn Thee unto me for my salvation, raise me up from my dejection, set me up above my imperfections, pardon my sins, blot out my follies, and hear my prayer, and hearken unto my supplication, and make me to walk in Thy path, to attain unto Thy promise, and to be a partaker of Thy sacraments, and finally number me with those who shall be on Thy right hand in the world of happiness, and cause me to sit down in the abode of bliss, with all the members of Thy household, and fit me to stand in confidence before the throne of Thy glory with all Thy saints; and pour out upon my sinful estate the gift of Thy mercy through the prayers of such as are still in the body, those of earth who honour Thee, and through the prayers of the spirits who praise Thee above the firmament, the Cherubim, and Seraphim, and the angels of light, who sing Holy, Holy, Holy, before Thee. Amen.

After which the Priest shall say the following, bending his body the meanwhile.

O Lord God the Father, strong and mighty, we beseech Thee, [Repeat,] and we kneel and worship before Thee, that Thou wouldest restore the wandering, enlighten those who are in darkness, support the weak, raise up the fallen, confirm such as stand, and in Thy mercy do unto every one according as his wants may be. And we beseech Thee, O Lord, and supplicate before Thee, to remember through this oblation the fathers, the patriarchs, prophets, apostles, martyrs, confessors, bishops, doctors, priests, and deacons, and all those of our ministry who have departed this life, and all our brethren in Christ, and all who have departed from this world in the true faith, whose names are known unto Thee. Pardon and forgive them in whatsoever they have sinned or transgressed against Thee, seeing that they were by nature inclined to evil, and, as men, clothed with iniquity. And through the prayers and supplications of all who have been approved before Thee turn Thee unto us,36 and have mercy upon us, and upon Thy servants and people who are now standing before Thy holy altar, and make us all meet to be partakers in that portion and inheritance unto which the saints in light have attained. And grant, O Lord, that we may live before Thee in this abode of our pilgrimage in pure love, in clean thoughts, and that with a right knowledge of the true faith of Thee we may partake of Thy holy, awful, and divine sacraments, so that when we shall appear before the dreadful seat of Thy majesty we may not be ashamed or confounded. And as in this world Thou hast made us meet to administer Thy holy and awful sacraments, so in the world to come make us meet with open face to partake of all those blessings which do not decay or fade away. And when Thou shalt bring to an end all those things which we now see as in a glass or figure, may we then take sure hold of the heavenly holy of holies. And now, O Lord, we Thy frail and sinful servants, [Here the Priest shall fall with his face to the ground, and repeat from the words, And now, &c.] who were once afar off from Thee, but whom in Thine abundant mercy Thou hast made to stand and to administer before Thee this awful and holy service, and with one accord to make our supplications to Thy adorable Godhead, * [Here the Deacon shall say,]37 How awful is this moment, and how dreadful is this hour, in which the Priest invokes the Spirit, Who descends from on high to perform His will, and Who sanctifies this heavenly Eucharist of the Body and Blood of our Saviour for the forgiveness of sins, and the pardon of the transgressions of all those who partake thereof. In stillness and in fear, and with trembling and amazement, stand and pray. Peace be with us.Which reneweth all creation, * beseech Thee that the grace of the Holy Spirit may descend and abide and rest upon this oblation which we have offered before Thee, bless it, sanctify it, and make this Bread and this Cup the Body and Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ. Change Thou them38 by the operation of the Holy Ghost, that these glorious and holy sacraments may be effectual in all such as shall partake of them unto everlasting life, the resurrection from the dead, the forgiveness of body and soul, the light of wisdom, openness of face before Thee, and eternal salvation which Thou hast promised us in our Lord Jesus Christ, and that we may all agree together in one concord, in one bond of love and peace, and become one body and one spirit, even as we are called in one hope of our calling. May no one eat and drink hereof to the damnation of his body and soul, or to sickness and disease; through eating this Body and drinking this Blood unworthily; but may it be to our strengthening and refreshing in all those things which are approved before Thee, so that with a good conscience we all may be made meet to partake of the Body and Blood of Thine Anointed;—

Canon.

That when we shall stand in Thy presence in the glorious and awful day of judgment, we may find mercy and compassion before the throne of Thy majesty, and rejoice with all those who through the grace and mercy of Thy Only Begotten have pleased Thee from the beginning, to Whom with Thee and the holy, living, and life-giving Spirit, we ascribe glory, honour, dominion and power, now and for ever and ever. Amen. [Here the Priest shall sign the sacraments.]

R. Amen.

Then the priest shall bow before the altar without suffering his knee to touch the ground, and shall say:[5]

I thank Thee, O my Father, Lord of heaven and earth, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, because that in the abundance of Thy mercy Thou hast by Thy grace fitted me, who am a sinner and imperfect, to offer unto Thee these awful, holy, lifegiving, and divine sacraments of the body and blood of Thine Anointed, and through them to administer to Thy people and the sheep of Thy pasture the pardon of their sins, the forgiveness of their transgressions, and the salvation of their souls, the reconciliation of the whole world, and peace and safety to all creatures.

O Christ, the Peace of those above, and the great safety of those below, let Thy peace and safety, O Lord, rest upon the four corners of the earth, and especially upon Thy holy Catholic Church. Make Thy priests and kings to dwell in unity, cause violence to cease in all the world, scatter the nations that delight in war, that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty.

Then shall be sung Ps. li. 1—14; cxxiii. 1—4. After which shall follow this prayer over the incense.

Be pleased with our prayers and supplications, Lord our God, and let this sweet odour of our censer be acceptable unto Thee as was the censer of Aaron in the tabernacle. Renew our bodies and souls, and in the multitude of Thy mercies be Thou favourable to Thy creatures, O Thou Creator of all fragrant spices and delicious odours, O Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen.

Then the priest shall prepare to sign and break. He shall draw near with his hands stretched out, and not folded after the manner of some who lack understanding. And he shall incense his hands and face with the cloud of the incense, and shall say:

O Lord our God, sweeten the offensive odour of our pollution with the fragrance of Thy love, and wash us therewith from the defilement of sin, O Thou good Shepherd Who didst go forth to seek after us, and didst find out our wanderings, and Who desirest that we should return unto Thee. Pardon my known and unknown iniquities, through Thy grace and mercy. [To be repeated thrice.] Give Thy blessing, give Thy blessing, O Lord; and O Lord our God, cause the mercies of Thy grace to make us to approach these adorable, holy, life-giving, and divine sacraments, though we be unworthy. [To be repeated thrice from the words: O Lord, our God, cause, &c. And at each repetition of the last sentence the priest shall fold his hands upon his breast in the form of a cross, and shall kiss the centre and the two horns of the altar. After which he shall take the uppermost loaf [or, cake] from the paten with both hands, and lifting his eyes upwards he shall say:]

Praise be to Thy holy name, O Jesus Christ our Lord, and praise be to Thy majesty at all times.

R. Amen.

Priest. Thou living and life-giving Bread which camest down from heaven, and which givest life unto the world, so that whosoever eateth thereof shall never die, and whosoever partaketh thereof shall thereby obtain pardon and salvation, and shall live for ever. Amen.

R. Amen.

Here the priest shall kiss towards the bread in the form of a cross from above downwards, and from right to left, without touching it with his lips, and shall say:

Glory be to Thee, O Lord, [To be repeated thrice,] for Thy unspeakable gift towards us for ever and ever. Amen.

R. Amen.

Then he shall proceed to break the bread with both hands, and shall say:

We now approach in the true faith of Thy name, O Lord, and through Thy compassion we break, and through Thy mercy we sign, the Body and Blood of our Quickener, the Lord Jesus Christ, in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.

R. Amen. [Whilst naming the Trinity he shall break the bread which is in his hands into two pieces, and shall put the piece which is in his left hand back into its place, yet not as it was before, but in such wise as that the broken part shall face the cup. With the piece in his right hand he shall sign the Blood which is in the cup from east to west, and from right to left, and shall dip a third part thereof into the cup in such a way as that the broken part may be wetted, and shall say:]

May the precious blood be signed with the life-giving Body of our Lord Jesus Christ, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

He shall then sign the body which is upon the paten in the same way, viz., with the body which is in his hand, and shall say:

May the holy body be signed with the sin-forgiving blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.

R. Amen.

Then he shall take the two parts into his hands, and shall join them together, as if they had not been broken, and shall say:

These glorious, holy, life-giving, and divine sacraments, have been set apart, consecrated, perfected, joined together, and commingled, in the glorious name of the adorable Trinity, the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, to be unto us, O Lord, for the forgiveness of our sins, the washing out of our iniquities, the great hope of the resurrection from the dead, and a new life in the kingdom, unto us, and unto the Church of Christ our Lord, here and every where, now and for ever and ever. Amen.

As he repeats the word Now, he shall separate the two pieces at the part where the one piece was steeped in the Blood, and he shall lay them on the paten in the form of a cross with the broken part of the under piece facing the chalice, and the broken part of the upper piece facing the priest, in such a way as that the broken part facing the cup may serve for a representation of the wound which was opened in our Lord's side by the spear. After which he shall wipe his hands thoroughly, and shall cross himself between the eyes with his thumb, and shall sign towards the deacons in like manner, saying:

Christ accept your ministry; Christ shed His light upon your countenance; Christ preserve your life; Christ nourish your youth.

Then the priest shall remove the napkin from around the paten, and shall say:

Glory be to Thee, O Lord Jesus Christ, for having made me, who am unworthy, a minister and channel of Thy glorious, holy, life-giving, and divine sacraments. Fit me, by Thy grace, to receive the forgiveness of my sins, and the pardon of my iniquities.

Glory be to Thee, O God the Father. Glory be to Thee, O everlasting Son. Glory be to Thee, O Thou all-sanctifying Spirit. Amen.

Then he shall kiss the centre of the altar, and shall say this

Canon.

The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with us all evermore. Amen.

R. Amen.

In saying this he shall sign himself from above the head, and from behind each shoulder in such way as that the congregation may see the end of his fingers. [After which a long exhortation, beginning with: Let us all with awe and reverence draw near, &c., is read by the deacon. As this is never found bound up with the liturgies I omit it.] The priest shall then say silently:

Blessed art Thou, O Lord, the God of our fathers, and magnified and glorified be Thy Name for ever, because Thou hast not dealt with us after our sins, but in the abundance of Thy mercy, hast delivered us from the power of darkness, and hast called us to the kingdom of Thy well-beloved Son, our Lord Jesus Christ.

Here the priest shall divide the body, and shall dye one of the cakes with a few drops of the [blood] for the children. After which the deacon shall say:

Let us pray. Peace be with us.

Priest. [Silently.] Let Thy peace, O Lord, rest among us; let Thy peace dwell in our hearts, that our tongues may declare Thy truth, and keep Thou us by Thy cross whilst with enlightened hearts we frame our lips into new harps. Fit us, O Lord, with that confidence which cometh from Thee, to offer before Thee this pure and holy prayer which Thy life-giving lips taught to Thy true disciples, the children of Thy sacraments, saying: When ye pray, give thanks and say:

Our Father, &c. [Here all join in repeating the Lord's prayer.]

Priest. [With a loud voice.] Yea, O Lord our God, we pray and beseech the mercy of Thy grace, lead us not, lead us not into temptation, O Lord, but deliver us from evil and the power thereof, for Thine is the kingdom, the power, the glory, the dominion, and majesty, in heaven and in earth, now and for ever and ever. Amen.

Priest. [Signing himself.] Peace be with you all.

R. With thee, and with thy spirit.

Priest. Holy things for holy persons.

R. The one Father is holy, the one Son is holy, the one Holy Spirit is holy. Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning, is now and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.[6]

Then the deacon who read the litany shall approach unto the priest, and shall say:

Let us pray. Peace be with us.

Then the Priest shall take the hand of the deacon, and lay it upon the chalice, and shall say:

The grace of the Holy Ghost be with thee, and us, and with all who shall partake of this, in the kingdom of heaven, for ever and ever. Amen.

Deacon. With thee, with us, and with all who shall partake thereof, in the kingdom of heaven.

Then the deacon shall proclaim aloud: Praise the living God. After which followeth the anthem of the Bema, to be chanted by the deacons at the entrance of the Bema; a different anthem being appointed for the different festivals.
Then the deacon who read the Epistle shall approach unto the Priest, and shall say: Let us pray. Peace be with us. And the deacon shall throw the napkin over his shoulders and arms, and the Priest shall place the paten in his hands above the napkin, and shall say:

The grace of God be with thee, and with us, and with all who shall partake of this, for ever. Amen.

Then the deacon who had given the salutation of peace to the people, shall draw near unto the priest, and say: Let us pray. Peace be with us. After which the Priest shall put the chalice into his hands, and shall say:

The grace of the Holy Ghost be with thee, and us, and with all those who shall partake of this, in the kingdom of heaven for ever and ever. Amen.

Deacon. [With a loud voice.] Give Thy blessing, O Lord.39

Then the Priest shall sign over the people with the sign of the cross, and shall say in an audible voice:

The gift of the grace of Him Who quickeneth us, our Lord Jesus Christ, be perfected in us all through mercy.

R. For ever and ever. Amen.

Deacon. My brethren, receive the body of the Son, saith the Church, and in faith drink of the cup in the kingdom.

When the Priest gives the body to a Priest, he shall say: The body of our Lord to the chaste Priest for the forgiveness of sins. If to a deacon, he shall say: The body of our Lord to the minister of God for the forgiveness of sins. If to a layman: The body of our Lord to the pure believer for the forgiveness of sins.
When the deacon gives to drink of the cup, he shall say: The precious blood to the chaste priest, [or, to the minister of God; or, to the pure believer,] for the forgiveness of sins; a spiritual feast unto life everlasting.

Whilst the people are communicating, the deacons shall chant an anthem;40 and after all have communicated, the Priest shall put the table of the sacraments [the paten] back into its place, and the deacon shall say:

Let us all who through the gift of the grace of the Holy Ghost have drawn nigh, and were made meet to partake in the communion of these glorious, holy, life-giving, and divine sacraments, unitedly give thanks, and praise unto God Who gave them.

R. Praise be unto Him for His unspeakable gift.

Priest. [Audibly.] It is meet, O Lord, that we should every day, [Repeat,] it is fit that we should at all times, it is right that we should every hour, thank, worship, and praise, the awful name of Thy majesty, because in Thy grace Thou hast vouchsafed unto the frail and mortal nature of man, that he should glorify Thy Name with all the spiritual essences, be partaker in the sacraments of Thy gift, take delight in Thy gracious words, and send up the voice of praise and thanksgiving to Thy great Majesty at all times, O Lord of all, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.

R. Amen. Give Thy blessing, O Lord.

Priest. Christ, our God and Lord, our King, and Saviour, and Quickener, who in His grace has made us meet to take of His precious and all-sanctifying body and blood, may He vouchsafe to make us please Him in all our words, actions, and thoughts. And may this pledge, O Lord, which we have received, and which we are yet to receive, be effectual in us for the forgiveness of our sins, for the pardon of our iniquities, for the great hope of the resurrection from the dead, and for newness of life in the kingdom of heaven, with all those who approved themselves before Him, through His grace and mercy, for ever and ever. Amen.

As the priest is saying this one of the deacons shall draw the veil of the bema, and the priests shall salute each other, and shall chant together Ps. cxlviii. and cl. and the Lord's Prayer. Then the Priest shall go beyond the screen, and shall stand on the right side of the door of the bema, and shall bless the people in an audible voice, saying:

O Thou Who hast blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places through Christ Jesus our Lord, Who hath called us unto His kingdom and glory, and hath advanced us to those desirable blessings which pass not away, and which never fade, even as He promised to His disciples, saying: Verily, verily, I say unto you, whosoever eateth My body, and drinketh My blood, dwelleth in Me and I in him, and I will raise him up at the last day, and he shall not come into condemnation, but is passed from death unto eternal life; bless, keep, and sanctify this congregation which has now feasted on the power of His glorious, holy, life-giving, and divine sacraments; and be ye sealed and kept through the sign of the vivifying and glorious cross from all evil seen and unseen, now and for ever and ever. Amen.

The following prayers are to be said at the consumption of the elements that remain, and at the washing of the vessels:

Sanctify our bodies by Thy holy body, and pardon our sins through Thy precious blood, and purify our consciences with the hyssop of Thy compassion, O Christ, the hope of our nature.

Another.

O Lord, let not Thy living body which we have eaten, and Thy precious blood which we have drunk, be to our judgment and condemnation; but to the pardoning of our sins, the forgiveness of our iniquities, the great hope of the resurrection from the dead, and for a new life in the kingdom of heaven, with all the righteous and just who have approved themselves before Thee, O Christ, the hope of our nature.

Another.

Having openly partaken of Thy body, O Christ, the hope of our nature, let Thy hidden power dwell in us, that we may go forth to meet Thee with joy, and to sing to Thee the triple song of praise with the righteous who have perfected Thy will.

Another.

Having taken of Thy body from the paten, and drunk of Thy blood from the chalice, make us fit to sing praises unto Thee in paradise with the thief, and with all the righteous who have perfected Thy Will, in the Jerusalem above, O Lord of all.

Concluding Prayer.

Having made us meet, O Lord, to feast on Thy holy body and blood, fit us in like manner to feast in Thy kingdom which passeth not away, and which fadeth not, with all Thy saints, now and for ever.

The Chaldeans still use the three liturgies of the Nestorians with some alterations, the principal of which are the following:

1. They use unleavened bread in the form of hosts or wafers, instead of the leavened cakes used by the Nestorians.

2. After the invocation of the Holy Ghost to bless and change the elements, and to make the bread and the cup the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, (which invocation is called Gahanta, or the Prayer of Bending, corresponding with the ἐπικλήσις of the Eastern Church,) and just before the priest is directed in the liturgy of Nestorius to "take the uppermost cake in the paten with both hands, and to lift up his eyes," the Chaldeans have introduced the commemoration of the Institution of the body of Christ, which they believe, after the Western Church, to be the formula by which the bread is transubstantiated; and after signing the host, without having broken it at the words, "which is broken for you," the priest is ordered to elevate it above his head, and to say, whilst the people worship, "Praise be to Thy holy name, O Jesus Christ our Lord, and praise be to Thy Majesty at all times," as in the liturgy of Nestorius.

Then the priest proceeds to break and sign the bread, and to consecrate therewith the wine which is in the cup, as is directed in the Nestorian liturgy; after which he repeats the commemoration of the Institution of the blood of Christ, in a low voice; and lifting the chalice, whilst the people worship, he repeats the prayer from the liturgy: "These glorious, holy, life-giving, and divine sacraments, have been separated, consecrated," &c

It is worthy of observation that the words of Institution precede the Invocation of the Holy Ghost in the liturgies of Nestorius and Theodorus, whilst in that of the Apostles they are entirely omitted.41 From which we may gather that the Nestorians believe the consecration and change of the elements to take place through the mysterious influence of the Spirit of God.

3. The Chaldeans are communicated with the host dipped in the wine; whereas the Nestorians, laymen, and clergy, partake of the body and of the blood separately.

The practice of the present day is for the officiating priest to put the bread into the mouths of the communicants; but this is evidently a departure from the ancient practice among the Nestorians, as from one of the prefaces appointed for the greater festivals, we learn that formerly it was put into their hands. The preface is as follows, and is still chanted by the deacons whilst the people are communicating:

"Strengthen, O Lord, the hands which are stretched out, and those which have taken this holy thing for the forgiveness of sins, and enable them to bring forth fruit unto Thee. O Lord, fit the mouths which have praised Thee in Thy holy house to sing and to glorify Thee. Let not the ears which have listened to the sound of Thy praises hear the voice of terror. The eyes which have beheld Thy great compassion, grant that they may look upon the hope of Thy glory. So order the tongues which have sung Holy, Holy, Holy, unto Thee, that they may ever declare Thy truth. Guide the feet which have trodden in the church to the city of light. Renew the bodies of them who have eaten of Thy holy body with a new life. Increase to this our congregation which worships Thee all needful succour; and so confirm Thy love in us that we may grow thereby, and ever glorify Thee. Open the door to these our prayers, and let our service be acceptable unto Thee."

4. The Chaldeans reserve what is left of the consecrated elements; whereas the Nestorian liturgies direct that the officiating priest shall consume what is over and above after the communicants have partaken.

5. According to the order of the Nestorian rituals there should be a celebration of the Lord's Supper every Sunday and Friday, and on every Church festival throughout the year; but the Lectionaries do not provide Gospels and Epistles for the Fridays. It is also directed that there should be a celebration every day of the first, middle, and last week in Lent, with the exception of Good Friday, also on every day of the week following the feast of Easter. At the present day, however, the celebration of the Holy Eucharist is restricted to Sundays and the principal holidays, and in some churches it is not offered for weeks together,—a departure from the rules laid down by their canons which the more intelligent among them deplore and censure. On such occasions it is usual for the priest to read the liturgy, omitting the prayer of consecration and other parts of the office, and this is called d'Sh-heemé or Simple, and approaches very nearly to the Dry office, as enjoined by the Church of England when there is no communion. The Chaldeans, however, who have adopted the doctrine of the Church of Rome on this sacrament, offer masses every day.

6. The canons of the Nestorians forbid the priests to celebrate the liturgy more than once in the day, except in cases of urgent necessity; and although there be two or more priests attached to a church, not more than one can celebrate on the same day.42 On the contrary, whatever number of Chaldean priests may belong to a single church, every one of them offers up a solitary mass, for which he is paid by the relatives of the deceased in whose behalf this service is performed. The receiving of money for the celebration of the liturgy, though I have heard of a few instances of the kind, is very strongly censured by the Nestorian clergy generally.

  1. I have chosen this of the three liturgies in use among the Nestorians, because it is more likely to comprise the peculiar views attributed to their reputed head. It has been translated by Renaudot and Asseman; but not with perfect correctness. For the great age of the normal form, see Neale's Introduction, Vol. i. p. 320.

    A part of the ante-communion and the post-communion office in the liturgies of Nestorius and Theodorus are taken from that styled the "Liturgy of the Apostles," and ascribed to Mar Addai and Mar Mari of the Seventy.

  2. 2.0 2.1 Two different collects are substituted in the place of these on the lesser festivals and on ordinary occasions.
  3. The service thus far is taken from the "Liturgy of the Apostles;" what follows is the part attributed to Nestorius.
  4. i. e. The Diptychs.
  5. Here ends the part of the Liturgy ascribed to Nestorius; what follows is from the "Liturgy of the Apostles."
  6. On the greater festivals, different Prefaces are inserted after this Doxology.