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CZERMAK, chĕr’măk, Jaroslaw (1831-78). A Bohemian painter, brother of Johann Nepomuk Czermak, the physiologist. He was born in Prague, and studied in that city under Christian Ruben, in Antwerp under Gallait, in Brussels, and finally in Paris under Robert Fleury. His early paintings treated chiefly subjects from the history of Bohemia, but later he devoted himself more and more to genre scenes. After a journey in 1858 through Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia, Dalmatia, and Montenegro, when he made abundant studies in national types and costumes, the life of the southern Slavs became his favorite field. Among his most noteworthy pictures are: “Murder of Wallenstein's Companions at Eger,” “Slavonian Emigrants,” “Norman Fishermen in a Boat Reading the Bible” (1850); “The Court Poet of Rudolf II. Begging on the Bridge of Prague” (1854) ; "Hungarian Swineherd" (1854); “Montenegrin Woman and Child” (1861); “Rape of a Herzogovinian Woman by Bashi-Bazouks” (1867); “Return of Montenegrins to Their Devastated Village” (1877).