The New International Encyclopædia/Czermak, Johann Nepomuk
CZERMAK, Johann Nepomuk (1828-73). A German physician, born in Prague. He studied at the universities of Vienna, Breslau, and Würzburg, and was appointed a lecturer on physiology and microscopic anatomy at the University of Prague. Subsequently he held a professorship of zoölogy and comparative anatomy at Graz (1855-56), and of physiology at Cracow (1856-58), Pest (1858-60), Jena (1865-09), and Leipzig (1869-73). At Leipzig he erected at his own expense a laboratory and an auditorium specially arranged for demonstrations in experimental physiology. He is best known for having made notable improvements in the laryngoscope and for having been the first systematically to employ that instrument. His publications include Der Kehlkopfspiegel und seine Verwertung für Physiologie und Medezin (1860; 2d ed. 1863). Consult the biography by Springer in the Gesammelte Schriften (2 vols., Leipzig, 1879).