# The New International Encyclopædia/Iowa (State)

IOWA, ī′ō̇-wȧ (popularly known as the ‘Hawkeye State’). One of the North Central States of the United States. It lies between latitudes 40° 30′ and 43° 30′ N., and between longitudes 89° 5′ and 90° 31′ W., and is bounded on the north by Minnesota, on the east by Wisconsin and Illinois, from which States it is separated by the Mississippi River, on the south by Missouri, and on the west by Nebraska, from which it is separated by the Missouri River, and by South Dakota. Its shape is nearly that of a rectangle, measuring 310 miles from east to west and 205 miles from north to south; its area is 56,025 square miles, and it ranks twenty-second in size among the States of the Union.

Topography. Iowa lies entirely within the great central prairie belt. Its surface is a plateau with an average height of 1000 feet in the northwestern corner of the State, the highest point, Waneta in O'Brien County, being 1562 feet above sea-level. The plateau slopes gradually in gently rolling prairies toward the southeast, where its average altitude is about 400 feet. It is only where the rivers have eroded their channels through the glacial drift, forming steep bluffs, and in some places rocky cañons, that the country is at all rugged. The greater portion of its area, though not perfectly level, is so free from natural obstructions that the country roads are laid out in squares, crossing at right angles with the absolute regularity of a checker-board. The State is divided into two hydrographic systems, the eastern two-thirds being drained by the direct affluents of the Mississippi, and the western third by those of the Missouri. The divide between the two systems runs obliquely across the State from northwest to southeast. From this the Mississippi affluents flow all in a southeast direction, and the Missouri affluents all to the southwest. The principal of the former are the Turkey, Wapsipinicon, Red Cedar, Iowa, Skunk, and Des Moines rivers, the last being the largest river within the State. The principal Missouri affluents are the Big Sioux, forming most of the South Dakota boundary, the Little Sioux, the Nishnabotna, and the Nodaway. Many of these streams are navigable for very small craft, but, owing to the railroads, they are unnecessary as waterways and little used. Like all typical glaciated areas, Iowa is dotted, especially in the northern part, with numerous small but often beautiful lakes, several of which are favorite resorts, such as Spirit Lake in Dickinson County near the north boundary, a beautiful sheet of water, 2½ by 5 miles, with picturesque, wooded shores. Forest areas are small in Iowa; they are chiefly confined to the faces of the bluffs along the river-courses. The most common trees are the oak, elm, cottonwood, hickory, and maple, while scanty forests of pine and cedar are found on some of the bluffs. Grasses are the predominating feature of the landscape as well as of the flora of the State.

AREA AND POPULATION OF IOWA BY COUNTIES.

 County Map Index. County Seat. Area in squaremiles. Population. 1890. 1900. Adair C 3 Greenfield 576 14,534 16,192 Adams C 4 Corning 432 12,292 13,601 Allamakee F 1 Waukon 615 17,907 18,711 Appanoose E 4 Centerville 500 18,961 25,927 Audubon B 3 Audubon 432 12,412 13,626 Benton E 3 Vinton 720 24,178 25,177 Blackhawk E 2 Waterloo 576 24,219 32,399 Boone C 3 Boone 576 28,772 28,200 Bremer E 2 Waverley 432 14,630 16,305 Buchanan F 2 Independence 576 18,997 21,427 Buena Vista B 2 Storm Lake 576 13,518 16,975 Butler E 2 Allison 576 15,463 17,955 Calhoun C 2 Rockwell City 576 13,107 18,569 Carroll C 3 Carroll 576 18,828 20,319 Cass B 3 Atlantic 576 19,645 21,274 Cedar F 3 Tipton 576 18,253 19,371 .mw-parser-output .nowrap,.mw-parser-output .nowrap a:before,.mw-parser-output .nowrap .selflink:before{white-space:nowrap}Cerro Gordo D 1 Mason City 576 14,864 20,672 Cherokee B 2 Cherokee 576 15,659 16,570 Chickasaw E 1 New Hampton 504 15,019 17,037 Clarke D 4 Osceola 432 11,332 12,440 Clay B 1 Spencer 576 9,309 13,401 Clayton F 2 Elkader 745 26,733 27,750 Clinton G 3 Clinton 680 41,199 43,832 Crawford B 2 Denison 720 18,894 21,685 Dallas C 3 Adel 576 20,479 23,058 Davis E 4 Bloomfield 500 15,258 15,620 Decatur D 4 Leon 534 15,643 18,115 Delaware F 2 Manchester 576 17,349 19,185 Des Moines F 4 Burlington 400 35,324 35,989 Dickinson B 1 Spirit Lake 408 4,328 7,995 Dubuque F 2 Dubuque 604 49,848 56,403 Emmet C 1 Estherville 408 4,274 9,936 Fayette F 2 West Union 720 23,141 29,845 Floyd D 1 Charles City 504 15,424 17,754 Franklin D 2 Hampton 576 12,871 14,996 Fremont B 4 Sidney 514 16,842 18,546 Greene C 2 Jefferson 570 15,797 17,820 Grundy E 2 Grundy Center 504 13,215 13,757 Guthrie C 3 Guthrie Center 576 17,380 18,729 Hamilton D 2 Webster City 576 15,319 19,514 Hancock D 1 Carthage 576 7,621 13,752 Hardin D 2 Eldora 576 19,003 22,794 Harrison B 3 Logan 684 21,356 25,597 Henry F 4 Mount Pleasant 432 18,895 20,022 Howard E 1 Cresco 460 11,182 14,512 Humboldt C 2 Dakotah 432 9,836 12,667 Ida B 2 Idagrove 432 10,705 12,327 Iowa E 3 Marengo 576 18,270 19,544 Jackson G 2 Maquoketa 619 22,771 23,615 Jasper D 3 Newton 720 24,943 26,976 Jefferson E 3 Fairfield 432 15,184 17,437 Johnson F 3 Iowa City 578 23,082 24,817 Jones F 2 Anamosa 576 20,233 21,954 Keokuk E 3 Sigourney 576 23,862 24,979 Kossuth C 1 Algona 984 13,120 22,720 Lee F 4 Fort Madison 490 37,715 39,719 Linn F 2 Marion 720 45,303 55,392 Louisa F 3 Wapello 396 11,873 13,516 Lucas D 4 Charlton 432 14,563 16,126 Lyon A 1 Rock Rapids 600 8,680 13,165 Madison C 3 Winterset 576 15,977 17,710 Mahaska E 3 Oskaloosa 576 28,805 34,273 Marion D 3 Knoxville 576 23,058 24,159 Marshall D 2 Marshalltown 576 25,842 29,991 Mills B 3 Glenwood 445 14,548 16,764 Mitchell E 1 Osage 480 13,299 14,916 Monona A 2 Onawa 482 14,515 17,980 Monroe E 4 Albia 432 13,666 17,985 Montgomery B 4 Redoak 432 15,848 17,803 Muscatine F 3 Muscatine 435 24,504 28,242 O'Brien B 1 Primghar 576 13,060 16,985 Osceola B 1 Sibley 408 5,574 8,725 Page B 4 Clarinda 528 21,341 24,187 Palo Alto C 1 Emmetsburg 576 9,318 14,354 Plymouth A 2 Lemars 820 19,568 22,209 Pocahontas C 2 Pocahontas 576 9,553 15,339 Polk D 3 Des Moines 576 65,410 82,624 Pottawattamie B 3 Council Bluffs 876 47,430 54,336 Poweshiek E 3 Montezuma 576 18,394 19,414 Ringgold C 4 Mountayr 545 13,556 15,325 Sac B 2 Sac City 576 14,522 17,639 Scott C 3 Davenport 447 43,164 51,558 Shelby B 3 Harlan 576 17,611 17,932 Sioux A 1 Orange City 768 18,370 23,337 Story D 2 Nevada 576 18,127 23,159 Tama E 2 Toledo 720 21,651 21,585 Taylor C 4 Bedford 549 16,384 18,784 Union C 3 Creston 432 16,900 19,928 Van Buren E 4 Keosauqua 502 16,253 17,354 Wapello E 3 Ottumwa 432 30,426 35,426 Warren D 3 Indianola 576 18,269 20,376 Washington F 3 Washington 576 18,468 20,718 Wayne D 4 Corydon 528 15,670 17,491 Webster C 2 Fort Dodge 720 21,582 31,757 Winnebago D 1 Forest City 408 7,325 12,725 Winneshiek F 1 Decorah 696 22,528 23,731 Woodbury A 2 Sioux City 864 55,632 54,610 Worth D 1 Northwood 408 9,217 10,887 Wright D 2 Clarion 576 12,057 18,227

Climate and Soil. The climate in different parts of the State shows only slight variations, which are due to differences in latitude and altitude. It is of the continental type, with great variations in temperature between summer and winter. The mean annual temperature is 47.4° F., and the extremes recorded during the past decade are -40° and 110°, showing an extreme range of 150°. The average annual rainfall is 30.11 inches, more than two-thirds of which usually falls during the six crop months, April to October. These copious but not excessive rains, coinciding with continued high temperature during the summer months, are, next to the rich soil, the chief cause of Iowa's agricultural prosperity.

Practically the whole of Iowa is arable land. The soil may be divided into three distinct kinds, alluvial soil, glacial drift, and loess. The alluvial soil consists of recent deposits on the bottom lands of the principal rivers; the principal tract is the Missouri Bottoms, 150 miles long, and from a to 20 miles wide. This is, of course, the richest soil of the State, but is, nevertheless, rivaled by the drift soil. The latter consists of a fine loamy mixture of clay and sand, with a little gravel. It is of almost inexhaustible richness, and scarcely needs fertilizing. It covers by far the greater part of the State. The loess is a fine yellowish sand highly charged with carbonate of lime. It is found in various parts of the State, generally along the margins of the various drift areas, and is generally considered to be of glacial origin.

For flora and fauna, see United States.

Geology and Mineral Resources. Owing to the heavy covering of drift, a thorough geological survey of Iowa is attended with diliiculties. Nevertheless our knowledge of the rock formations is fairly complete. In more than three-fourths of the State the surface consists of Paleozoic rocks appearing in parallel belts running northwest to southeast. Beginning at the northeastern corner, there is a narrow belt of Cambrian formation consisting of Potsdam sandstone; then follow the Silurian, Devonian, and the Lower and Upper Carboniferous formations, the latter occupying the southwest corner of the State. The northwestern part is covered by extensive Cretaceous beds deposited across and over the belts of the older strata. Finally, in the extreme northwest corner there are outcroppings of metamorphosed rock of the Algonkian period, known as Sioux quartzite, the oldest formation in the State. Over the entire surface, with the exception of a small driftless area in the northeastern corner, is a deposit of glacial drift from a few inches to several hundred feet in thickness. It consists mainly of fine rock fragments with but few boulders and pebbles. The limits of the various drift sheets, the older in the south and the later in the north, are clearly defined, although there are no typical moraines.

The most valuable of Iowa's mineral resources are the extensive bituminous coal beds found in the southeastern quarter of the State. Lead and zinc ores have been mined in considerable quantities in the Galena limestone of the Lower Silurian formation of the northeast. Extensive deposits of gypsum are also found, and various other minerals occur in smaller quantities, limonite iron ore being the only metallic deposit besides lead which seems at all promising. The limestones of the Devonian and Upper Silurian formations furnish an inexhaustible supply of building-stone of the finest quality.

Mining. Bituminous coal is extensively mined in the eastern part of the State. An average of over 10,000 men are employed annually in the industry. In the early part of the decade 1890-1900, the production averaged a little in excess of 4,000,000 tons annually, but in the latter years of that period it exceeded 5,000,000 tons annually. The value of the product at the mine in 1900 was $6,968,866. Only one State west of the Mississippi River, Colorado, exceeds Iowa in the value of its coal output. The coal-fields are of great importance, not only to the State, but to the northwest region. Increasing quantities of limestone are quarried in the State, the value of the annual output having nearly doubled in the decade 1890-1900, being estimated in the latter year at$800,000. Clays suitable for brick manufacture are abundant and are extensively utilized. Small quantities of zinc and gypsum are mined.

Agriculture. Iowa is preëminently an agricultural State, and in the census year 1900 exceeded every other State in the value of farm products. Of its total land area, 97.4 per cent. is included in farms, and of this, 86.5 per cent. is improved. In neither of these respects was Iowa exceeded in 1900. The average size of farms decreased decidedly between 1850 and 1880, but increased again during the two succeeding decades, the average number of acres per farm in 1900 being 151.2. In the northwestern part of the State the average was much in excess of this figure, exceeding 200 acres in a few counties. There are indications of a considerable decrease in the number of farm laborers as compared with the number of owners and tenants since the census year 1880. For the succeeding two decades the number of farms operated by tenants increased 80.5 per cent., as compared with an increase of only 5.5 per cent. for the farms operated by owners. The increase in the number of rented farms was wholly on the part of those rented according to the cash system, the number of these being five times greater in 1900 than in 1880, and constituting 19.5 per cent. of the total number of farms, while the farms rented on shares were but 15.4 per cent. of the total. The soil is well drained, producing abundantly without the aid of artificial fertilizers. The greater certainty of the rainfall exempts the State from crop failures such as occur in the States farther west. There are only two or three States which rival Iowa in the production of cereals. Nearly one-half of its entire land surface is devoted to these products. The State is noted especially for its corn crops, the acreage for which amounts to over one-fourth of its total area, and contributes about one-half of the total value for all crops. Every decade in the State's history shows an increase in the acreage and production of this crop, the largest gain being in the decade 1870-80. The crop is grown most extensively in the central and southwestern counties. Oats rank next in importance, with about one-half the acreage and one-third the value of corn. The State usually takes first place in the production of this cereal. Like corn, each census has shown a large gain over the preceding. The crop is grown most extensively in the northern part of the State. The attention given to wheat is in marked contrast with that given to corn and oats. In 1880 it was five times as great as in 1890. There has since been a revival in the cultivation of wheat, the increase during the decade 1890-1900 being nearly threefold. It is raised most extensively in the northern and northwestern counties. The State ranks second in the production of barley, this crop also being most extensively grown in the northern part. Less important cereals are rye and buckwheat. Flaxseed is also grown. The large stock interests of the State make heavy demands upon hay and forage crops, and the State ranks second in the acreage devoted to these products. The area devoted to them continued to increase rapidly until 1890, but in the following decade it fell off 15.4 per cent. The soil is well adapted to vegetables, and the State ranks second in the production of Irish potatoes. The fruit industry is rapidly developing, the total number of trees for all fruits having more than doubled during the decade 1890-1900. Over 71 per cent. of the total are apple-trees. Grapes and small fruits are successfully grown.

Stock-Raising. Stock-raising is naturally associated with the raising of corn, oats, and forage crops. Compared with other States, stock-raising holds a still higher rank than the raising of crops. Texas alone rivals Iowa in the value of live stock, and is the only State which exceeds it in the number of cattle. Iowa is far in advance of all others in the number of swine, and leads also in the number of horses. A very low rank, however, is taken in the number of mules and sheep. The number of neat cattle, horses, and swine has increased for every decade between 1850 and 1900. The decrease in the number of dairy cows, as shown by the census for the decade 1890-1900, is probably due to the change in the method of making the count, and is therefore more apparent than real. Much attention is given to the improvement of the breed of stock, and the effect of this is shown in the high average of the per head value. The number of dairy cows being exceeded only in New York, the value of the dairy product is naturally great. $18,819,000 being realized from the sales of these products for the year 1899, of which amount$12,275,000 represented the receipts from milk. The value of poultry and eggs was even greater, being $19,508,000. The following tables show the number of acres devoted to the leading crops and the number of domestic animals for the census years 1890 and 1900:  YEAR Corn,acres Oats,acres Wheat,acres Barley,acres Flax,acres Hay andforage,(acres) Potatoes, acres 1900 9,804,076 4,695,391 1,689,705 627,851 126,453 4,644,378 175,888 1890 7,585,522 3,752,141 585,548 518,729 230,085 5,490,027 ?  YEAR Dairycows Other neat cattle Horses Mules and asses Sheep Swine 1900 1,423,648 3,943,982 1,392,573 57,579 657,568 9,723,791 1890 1,498,418 3,397,132 1,312,079 41,648 547,394 8,266,779 Manufactures. Iowa's prosperity is based upon agriculture and not manufacturing. Notwithstanding the excellence of the transportation facilities and the abundant coal-supply, the State depends upon the East in a large measure for its manufactured supplies, and a large portion of the farm products of the State are shipped to outside points to be manufactured. In the decade 1880-90 the number of wage-earners engaged in manufacturing increased 79.9 per cent., while in the following decade the increase was 14.7 per cent. The wage-earners in 1900 numbered 58,500, or 2.6 per cent. of the population. The total value of products, including custom work and repairing, was$164,617,800. Of this, $22,236,700 represented the products of hand trades. The remainder represents manufactures proper, which include a great variety of industries. Comparative Summary of Eleven Leading Industries INDUSTRIES Year Number of establishments Wage-earners, average number Value of products, including custom work and repairing  ⁠Total for selected industries for State ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 3,821 27,108$95,924,681
1890 2,613  28,707  79,751,171

Increase, 1890 to 1900 ...... 1,208  1,659  $16,173,510 Per cent. of increase ...... 46.2 5.8 20.3  Per cent. of total of all industries in State ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 25.8 46.3 58.3 1890 35.1 56.4 63.8  Slaughtering and meat-packing ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 27 2,887 25,695,044 1890 29 2,575 23,425,576  Cheese, butter, and condensed milk, factory product ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 907 1,133 15,846,077 1890 497 2,355 10,545,182  Flouring and grist-mill products ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 702 1,285 13,823,083 1890 441 1,248 11,833,737  Food preparations ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 16 609 3,604,031 1890 147 900,811  Lumber and timber products ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 264 2,793 8,677,058 1890 143 6,819 12,056,302  Lumber, planing-mill products, ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ including sash, doors, and blinds 1900 65 2,372 5,295,546 1890 46 1,983 3,588,856  Carriages and wagons ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 211 1,692 3,931,067 1890 294 1,602 3,168,545  Cars and general shop construction ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ and repairs by steam railroad companies 1900 58 5,497 6,221,378 1890 41 3,812 4,473,089  Printing and publishing: Total ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 1,025 4,248 6,145,563 1890 699 3,296 4,551,548  Foundry and machine-shop products ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 190 2,372 4,460,914 1890 126 2,142 3,432,360  Clay products: Total ${\displaystyle \scriptstyle {\left\{{\begin{matrix}\ \\\ \end{matrix}}\right.}}$ 1900 356 2,220 2,224,920 1890 289 2,768 1,775,165 The table above covers the eleven leading industries for the census years 1890 and 1900. It will be seen that considerably over half of the total product of these industries is obtained from the manufacture of food products, and is the natural outgrowth of the great agricultural importance of the State. Over a fourth of the product, or 15.6 per cent. of the total value of the products, is represented by the slaughtering and meat-packing industry. This, however, falls much below the value of the same products in a number of the other Mississippi Valley States. The factory products of cheese, butter, and condensed milk rank next in importance. In this industry the State is surpassed by only two others. During the decade 1890-1900 the industry increased 50.3 per cent. Flouring and grist mill products are next in rank, but the value of these is much less than it is in most of the other North Central States. The manufacturing of food preparations is still of minor importance, but showed a very significant gain during the decade. Another important group of manufactures depends upon the timber resources of the State for its raw materials. The forests, largely limited to the river-courses in the eastern part of the State, have now become greatly reduced. The larger and finer trees throughout the forest area have generally been removed. There has been a resulting decrease in the value of the lumber and timber products. Nevertheless, the products of the planing-mills and of the carriage and wagon factories have recently increased in value. The extensive development of railroads in the State gives occasion for the construction of cars and for repair-shop works, and this industry employs more wage-earners than does any other branch of manufacturing. Printing and publishing, and the making of foundry and machine-shop products, are important industries. The manufacture of pearl buttons has developed during the decade into a thriving industry. The material out of which the buttons are made is the shell of the fresh-water mussel. None of the foregoing industries is centralized at any one place. The lumber industry is greatest along the Mississippi River, but the industries in general are well distributed throughout the State. Sioux City, Davenport, Dubuque, and Des Moines are the leading centres. Transportation. Iowa is admirably provided with transportation facilities. Water transportation is afforded by the Mississippi River on the east. Owing to the State's situation, a large number of the most important railroad lines of the country pass through it. Des Moines is the centre of a large number of lines, and every section of the State is amply provided. It is interesting to note that in the western part most of the railroads follow the course of some river, so that all the larger tributaries to the Missouri River are paralleled by a railroad, thus giving them a northeast and southwest direction. The first railroad was constructed in Scott County, in 1854. In 1860 there were 655 miles of railroad; in 1890, 8416; and in 1900, 9391 miles. The decade of greatest increase was that between the years 1880 and 1890. There are 16.56 miles of line to every 100 square miles of territory, and 41.15 miles to every 10,000 inhabitants. Only three States exceed Iowa in actual mileage, and only one of these—Texas—is west of the Mississippi River. A railroad commission fixes rates, and its schedules are to be deemed reasonable until disproved. Banking. Iowa is remarkable in that it has a larger number of banks and banking houses than has any other State in the Union. In 1902 it had 230 national banks, with loans amounting to$74,032,000; cash, etc., $5,533,000; capital,$15,485,000; and deposits, $66,585,000. The 508 State banks had in the same year a capital of$18,131,400, and a surplus of $2,312,061. The private banks numbered 667 and had a capital of$12,612,339 and a surplus of $1,754,489. Finance. According to the Constitution, the credit of the State cannot be loaned to any individual, association, or corporation, nor can the State become responsible for the debts or liabilities of any of these. Unless for war purposes, the State cannot incur an indebtedness greater than$250,000. No county or other political or municipal corporation can incur an indebtedness exceeding 5 per cent. of the value of its taxable property. In 1900 the State indebtedness amounted to only $10,936. For the year ending June, 1900, the receipts amounted to$2,592,496; the disbursements to $2,056,027. Property is assessed at its full value, one-fourth of which constitutes its taxable value. Government. Iowa has its second Constitution, the present one being adopted in a convention, and in turn by a general election in 1857. Each tenth year the question “Shall there be a convention to revise the Constitution and amend the same?” is voted upon at a general election, and if a majority of the qualified electors approve the proposition, a convention must be called by the General Assembly. A proposed amendment must receive a majority vote of the members elected to each of the two Houses at two consecutively chosen Legislatures and then be approved by a majority of the State electors at a popular election. Male citizens who have resided in the State six months, and in the county sixty days, and who are accounted of sane mind and have not been convicted of any infamous crime, are allowed to vote. Legislative. The capital is Des Moines. The day on which elections occur is the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November. The Legislature consists of a Senate of not exceeding fifty members, elected for four years, half of them biennially, and a House of not exceeding one hundred members, elected biennially. Each member receives a compensation fixed by law. The sessions are biennial, occurring in the even years. Senators must be twenty-five years of age; Representatives, twenty-one years; and the Governor and Lieutenant-Governor, thirty years. Bills may originate in either House, and every bill requires the assent of a majority of all the members elected to each branch in order to become a law. A majority of two-thirds of the members of each House overcomes the Governor's veto. All impeachments must be made by the House and tried by the Senate. Executive. The Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary of State, Auditor, Attorney-General, and Treasurer, are elected for terms of two years. The Lieutenant-Governor, president pro tempore of the Senate, and the Speaker of the House, are in the line of succession to the Governorship, in case of vacancy in that office. The Governor has the usual pardoning power, under regulations, and may convoke extraordinary sessions of the Legislature. Judicial. The Supreme Court consists of a chief judge and five associate justices. The State is divided by the Legislature into districts, in each of which a district judge is elected for a term of four years. Other courts are established by the Legislature. Each county elects a county attorney, who serves for two years. The property rights of husbands and wives are equal, each upon the death of the other inheriting one-third in value of his or of her real estate, while neither is liable for the separate debts of the other. The contracts made by the wife in her own name are enforced by or against her precisely as if she were unmarried. A married woman may sue or be sued without the husband being joined in the action. Women are by law eligible to all offices connected with the public schools. The legal rate of interest is 6 per cent., but 8 per cent. is allowed by contract. The State sends eleven members to the National House of Representatives. Militia. In 1900 the total number of males of militia age was 475,760. In 1899 the organized militia, including men and officers, numbered 1873. Population. The population of Iowa by decades is as follows: in 1840, 43,112; in 1850, 192,214; in 1860, 674,913; in 1870, 1,194,020; in 1880, 1,624,615; in 1890, 1,911,896; in 1900, 2,231,853. From twenty-seventh in rank in 1850, it advanced to tenth in 1880, which position it has since held. The per cent. of increase for the last decade of the century was 16.7, as compared with 20.7 for the United States. The native American settlers in Iowa came almost wholly from the older Northern States. The State was being settled during the period of heavy German and Scandinavian immigration, and a large number of these immigrants, particularly the former, secured homes; and the two combined constitute nearly two-thirds of the foreign-born population, which numbered, in 1900, 305,920. The negro population numbered 12,693. In the total population the males are about 81,000 in excess of the females. There were, at the last census, 40.2 people to the square mile. There is no large centre of population in Iowa, and the percentage of the urban population is resultingly small as compared with most of the North Central States. In 1900 the 33 towns having a population exceeding 4000 each, contained 20.5 of the total population. In 1900 the following cities exceeded 25,000 in population: Des Moines, 62,139; Dubuque, 36,297; Davenport, 35,254; Sioux City, 33,111: Council Bluffs, 25,802; Cedar Rapids, 25,656. Religion. While the Catholics have the largest number of members of any Church, the membership of the Methodist Church, together with its adherents, is much stronger, and is almost twice as great as that of any other Protestant denomination. Among a large number of other churches represented, the largest in their order are: Lutherans, Presbyterians, Baptists, Disciples of Christ, and Congregationalists. Charitable and Penal. There is a Board of Control of State Institutions appointed by the Governor and Senate. The board is vested with full power to manage, control, and govern the charitable and penal institutions of the State and to fix the salaries of officers and employees other than the chief executive officers. The following table shows the situation of the various institutions, the number of inmates on June 30, 1890, and the total and per capita expenditure of each for the year ending with that date:  INSTITUTIONS No. of Inmates Total expenditure Per capita expenditure Soldiers' Orphans' Home, Davenport 445$47,599 $102.96 Soldiers' Home, Marshalltown 665 75,428 139.40 College for Blind, Vinton 228 25,692 164.10 Industrial Home for Blind, Knoxville 50 8,348 School for the Deaf, Council Bluffs 265 43,321 157.18 Institution for Feeble-Minded Children, Glenwood 815 115,222 152.01 Industrial School for Boys, Eldora 473 50,668 104.15 Industrial School for Girls, Mitchellville 189 19,497 110.40 Hospital for Insane, Mount Pleasant 896 119,885 139.57 Hospital for Insane, Independence 1,050 137,563 136.60 Hospital for Insane, Clarinda 851 120,922 148.00 State Penitentiary, Fort Madison 524 81,493 156.72 State Penitentiary, Anamosa 529 120,849 207.28 6,980$966,487

The expenditure for the year given is considerably reduced from that of the preceding, although the care of the inmates improved decidedly during the same period. Under the new board, supplies for the various institutions are purchased at wholesale prices and under competitive bids. The graded system has been introduced in the penitentiaries, and the Anamosa prison has adopted the Bertillon system of measurements. On June 30, 1899, the various counties supported 621 insane patients in county asylums and 659 others at poorhouses. More than twenty counties have erected asylums for the care of the insane. There are also four private asylums, containing about 400 insane patients.

High schools are maintained in nearly all the cities, towns, and villages, and in a few counties there are township high schools, but the high school courses are characterized by great lack of uniformity, there being no localized or well-established standard to which they must conform. In 1900 the total wages received by teachers and superintendents amounted to $5,417,603, and the total cost of education to the State was$7,978,060, or $15.37 for each child enrolled. The total school fund in 1899 was$4,724,804. The State maintains a university (q.v.) at Iowa City, and a State agricultural college at Ames. There are also a large number of denominational institutions: namely, Upper Iowa University at Fayette (Methodist Episcopal); Tabor College at Tabor (Congregational); German College at Mount Pleasant (Methodist Episcopal); Iowa Wesleyan University at Mount Pleasant (Methodist Episcopal); Cornell College at Mount Vernon (Methodist Episcopal); Central University of Iowa at Pella (Baptist); Amity College at College Springs (non-sectarian); Des Moines College at Des Moines (Baptist); Iowa College at Grinnell (Congregationalist); Penn College at Oskaloosa (Friends); Simpson College at Indianola (Methodist); Norwegian Lutheran College at Decorah (Lutheran); Drake University at Des Moines (Church of Christ); Morningside College at Sioux City (Methodist Episcopal); Coe College at Cedar Rapids (Presbyterian); Parsons College at Fairfield (Presbyterian).