The New Student's Reference Work/Monsoon

stem, in which the woody bundles are scattered, as in the common corn; the parallel-veined leaves, and the members of the flowers in threes. Monocotyledons were once called endogens, an antiquated name which has been entirely abandoned. Prominent monocotyledonous groups are as follows: Pond-weeds, among which are the numerous more or less submerged aquatics and closely-allied forms, and related to which are the well-known forms of arrowleaf and cattail flag; grasses, one of the largest and most useful groups of plants, much confused with the nearly allied sedges; palms, a group of tree monocotyledons very characteristic of the tropics; aroids, an immense tropical group represented in temperate regions by skunk-cabbage and Jack-in-the-Pulpit and in cultivation by the better known calla lily; lilies, associated with which are the numerous amaryllis and iris forms; and orchids, which in number of species are most numerous among the monocotyledons and favorites in greenhouse cultivation on account of their brilliant color and bizarre forms.

Monongahela (mō-nǒn′gȧ-hē′lȧ), a river, one of the sources of the Ohio, rises in West Virginia, flowing north into Pennsylvania where it unites with the Allegheny at Pittsburg and forms the Ohio. It is 250 miles long, and is navigable for about 80 miles for large boats. Cheat River and the Youghiogheny are its chief branches. Here, on the banks of the river, near Pittsburg, was fought, July 9, 1755, a battle between the French and the Indians and the British and colonial troops under Braddock. The latter were beaten.

Monop′oly, a term used to indicate the sole right to sell or trade in any article, given to a single person or to a group of persons. In early times this right was often granted by government, as in the time of Queen Elizabeth, salt and coal were articles whose sale was thus limited; and one of the greatest monopolies the world has ever known, the East India Company, received its charter at that time. These government monopolies were opposed by the English people, and finally ended. Monopolies, under their modern form of trusts, combines, syndicates or unions, are the same in principle, an effort to do away with competition and give to one set or class of persons the sole right of selling or trading in an article. These combinations are effected by the use of capital, which is employed to drive out of business all small dealers. The Standard Oil Company and the Reading coal “combine” are well-known instances of great American monopolies.

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Monroe′, James, the fifth president of the United States, was born in Westmoreland County, Va., April 28, 1758. He entered William and Mary College, but soon left to join the army under Washington. He was in several battles, was wounded at Trenton, and became lieutenant-colonel and military commissioner. In 1782, after studying law with Jefferson, he became a member of the Virginia assembly and was sent the next year to Congress. Here his services were influential in bringing about the conventions at Annapolis and Philadelphia, where the Constitution of the United States was framed, which, however, he opposed in the Virginia convention, siding with Patrick Henry and other states' rights men. He was in the United States senate from 1790 to 1794, and became minister to France from 1794 to 1796, when he was recalled because of his too open expressions of sympathy with the Revolution. His former opposition to Washington and this treatment induced him to publish an attack on the government, which made him the favorite of the Democratic party. He was governor of Virginia for three years, and then was sent by Jefferson to France, where, with Robert Morris, he effected the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. His efforts for a cession of Florida by Spain were unsuccessful, and the treaty with England obtained by him failed to provide against the seizing of American sailors. In 1811 he again was governor of Virginia, and secretary of state under Madison until 1817. In 1816 he was elected president and re-elected in 1820. The most popular measures of his administration were the obtaining of Florida from Spain (1819), the settling of the slavery question by the Missouri Compromise, the recognition of the independence of the Spanish American republics and the announcement of what is known as the Monroe Doctrine. In a message to Congress approving the bill which recognized the South American republics Monroe declared that “the American continents are not to be considered as subjects for colonization by any European power.” This declaration, known as the Monroe Doctrine, has ever since held a place as well in the diplomacy as in the political creed of the nation. After his retirement to his home in Virginia he became involved in debt, but found a home with his son-in-law in New York, where he died, July 4, 1831. See Life, by Gilman, in the American Statesmen Series.

Monroe Doctrine. See Monroe, James, and United States.

Monsoon′, a term meaning a set time or season, formerly used to indicate the winds prevailing in the Indian Ocean, blowing from the southwest from April to October and from the northeast from October to April. The word is used now of all winds that are regular, returning with the seasons. The prevailing winds of North America are largely of this class, and there are monsoons in Australia and on the coasts of Brazil, Peru and North Africa. See Winds.

Montagu (mŏn′tȧ-gū), Mary Wortley, was born about 1689 in Nottinghamshire, England. When only eight years old her father introduced her to the famous Kit-Cat Club, of which she became a member. After her marriage her husband's public position brought her into court society in London, where she was celebrated for her wit and beauty, and numbered among her friends Addison, Pope and other literary men of the time. In 1716 her husband was English ambassador at Constantinople, and during her life there of two years she wrote the Letters that have made her famous, addressing them to her sister, to Pope and other friends. They are descriptions of eastern life and manners. She became convinced of the benefit of inoculation for smallpox while abroad, and introduced it into England, trying it first on her own son. She died on Aug. 21, 1762. See Life in the edition of her works by Wharnecliffe.

Montaigne (mŏn-tān′), Michel Eyquem de, a famous French essayist, was born in 1533 in Perigord. His father had peculiar ideas of education, and put, them in practice in his son's case. He was nursed by a poor woman in a village, that he might learn simple habits of living and sympathy with the poor. That his boyhood might be made as happy as possible, he had him wakened every morning by the sound of music. As he must learn Latin, then the necessary foundation of all education, he had him taught it in the easiest way, by conversation, and until he was six he understood no other language. His father sent him to school at six, making various arrangements to carry out his plans of education. He studied law, and became a city counselor, holding the office for 13 years. His first literary work was a translation of a Spanish Natural History. On the death of his brothers he succeeded to the family estate, and here began his famous Essays, which were written simply because he felt the need of occupation. These essays, written apparently without any plan, inspired by the caprice of the moment, touching upon his daily life, habits, tastes and thoughts on all kinds of subjects, have held the attention of a large class of readers of all kinds and sorts for 300 years. The circle of admirers widens every year, and is almost equal to that composed of the followers of Shakespeare. He died in 1592. See Representative Men by Emerson and Montaigne by Collins.

Montana (mŏn-tä′nȧ), one of the northwestern states of the Union, is the third in size, coming next to Texas and California, covering a surface of 145,310 square miles and being larger than the British islands. It is bounded on the north by Canada, south by Wyoming and Idaho, east by the Dakotas and west by Idaho.

Surface. The Rocky Mountain region in the west includes one fifth of the state, while the east is dry, rolling plains, needing irrigation to make them productive. The mountainous part rises from 8,000 to 11,000 feet high, with high valleys and passes, but the eastern plains are lower than Colorado or Wyoming, so that the climate is somewhat milder. The dry regions have already been improved by canals and reservoirs built by private enterprise. The Bad Lands, as they are called, near Yellowstone River, have a peculiar soft, sticky soil, in which animals sink at every footstep. The Rocky Mountains cross the state for 300 miles, with numerous smaller ranges and fertile valleys.

Drainage. The Missouri flows 1,300 miles in Montana, and Clark's Fork of Columbia River runs north into Idaho, their sources being scarcely a mile apart. Through a great cañon, cut for five miles through a gorge from 600 to 4,000 feet deep; past Bear Tooth Mountain, 2,500 feet high; by the Long Pool, with its strange, booming noises; over the Great Falls, where, in four separate descents in 15 miles, its waters fall 450 feet; and through five miles of rapids the Missouri River makes its way. The Yellowstone, rising in the National Park, crosses the entire state for 850 miles. There are many mountain lakes and numerous mineral springs. The Warm Springs are near the wigwam-shaped geyser, with its smoke ascending like a council fire, in Deer Lodge Valley. Near Helena the hot springs have created a resort for invalids and tourists, with one of the largest bathhouses known and a very fine hotel.

Climate. The climate is variable, with sudden changes and scanty rainfall east of the mountains, while in the northwest the rainfall is more ample and the climate made milder by the great, warm current from Japan. The chinook winds also have a great effect on the climate. These warm winds may occur in any part of the state, making the air very mild, and melting large quantities of snow in a short time. Because of the absence of humidity the climate is very healthful, and especially beneficial to those affected with pulmonary trouble.

Minerals. The greatest wealth of the state is mineral, and its foremost industry is mining. About one third of the gold, silver, copper and lead mined in the United States is from Montana. The first gold was discovered in 1852, but little was done in mining until 1861, the mines now producing enormous quantities and bringing great wealth to their owners. Silver, lead and copper are also mined, these, with gold, producing in one year nearly $70,000,000.