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INDEX

Achilles, meaning of the story that, was given to the Centaur Chiron to nurse, 141

Agathocles, a Sicilian, became King of Syracuse, 67; the son of a potter, 67; his ability, 67; Praetor of Syracuse, 68; his understanding with Amilcar the Carthaginian, 68; treacherously kills senators and richest of the people, 68; attacked Africa, 68; compels Carthaginians to come to terms, 68; his cruelty and wickedness, 69; his success and security attributed to his severity, 72

Alberigo da Conio, Romagnian, first gave renown to mercenary soldiers, 103 Alexander the Great, his conquest of Asia, 31; acquisitions of, in Asia, secure after death of Darius, 34; ease with which he held the Empire of Asia, 35; how he armed and organised his forces should be studied, 112; imitated Achilles, 118; imitated bv Caesar, 118; liberal with the results of pillage, 130

Alexander VI., Pope, assisted by Louis XII. to occupy the Romagna, 24, 56; difficulties of, in his attempts to agaandise his son (Cesare Borgia), 55; the course he followed, 56; consented to the entrance of Louis XII. into Italy, 56; his death, 61; showed how a pope with money and arms could prevail, 93; used Duke Valentino as an instrument, 93; his intention was to aggrandise Duke Valentino, not the Church, 93; but the Church reaped the benefit, 93; did nothing else but deceive men, 143

Amilcar the Carthaginian, his understanding with Agathocles, 68 Antiochus, conflicts of, with Romans, 22; sent for by the Ætolians to drive out the Romans, 179

Antoninus Caracalla, Emperor, cruel and rapacious, 157; had excellent qualities, 159; murdered in the midst of his army, 159

Antonio da Venafro, servant of Pandolfo Petrucci, 185; sent to attend the meeting at Magione, 220

Arms, good, one of the chief foundations of states, 97 Ascanio, Cardinal, one who had been injured by Duke Valentino, 63

Auxiliaries (soldiers), useless and dangerous, 98; rob a prince in time of peace, 98; useless to him who seeks their aid, 107; to use, is much more hazardous than to employ mercenaries, 108

Baglioni, Gianpagalo, attends the meeting at Magione, 219

Barons, of Rome, divided into two factions, Orsini and Colonnesi, 92; the ambitions of prelates create disorder among the, 94

Bartolomeo da Bergamo, fought for the Venetians, 102.

Benedetto Lanfranchi, conspires against Castruccio Castracani, 256; put to death, 256

Benefits, Machiavelli's rule for the conferring of, 73; men bound by those received, as well as by those conferred, 87

Bentivogli, Annibole, murdered by the Canneschi, 152

Bentivogli, Giovanni, tyrant of Bologna, 219; forms an alliance with Duke Valentino, 223

Borgia, Cesare, son [second] of Pope Alexander, 26; usually called Duke Valentino, 26; acquired his state during the ascendency of his father, 54, lost it by extreme malignity of fortune, 55; suspects the faith of the Orsini, 56, and of Louis XII., 56; how he weakened the Orsini and Colonnesi parties in Rome, 57; crushed the Orsini, 57; his measures recommended for imitation, 58, 62; appointed Ramiro d'Oroo governor in the Romagna, 62; set up a court of judgment, 62; seeks new allies and temporises with France, 59; courses he pursued to strengthen his position, 60; his party most numerous in the College of Cardinals, 60; Lucca and Siena yield to him, 60; his strong position at the death of his father, 60; a statement made by him to Machiavelli, 61; his father's death and his own sickness frustrate his designs, 62; his mistaken policy in allowing the election of Julius II., 62; ought to have made a Spaniard Pope, 63; this mistake the cause of his ultimate ruin, 63; takes Oliverotto da Fermo at Sinigalia, 71; an instrument of Alexander VI., 93; captured Imola and Forli with French auxiliaries, 109; was considered cruel, 133; sends to King of France for assistance, 221; a most perfect dissembler, 222; concludes a peace with his adversaries, 222; forms an alliance with Giovanni Bentivogli, 223; Sinigalia yields to, 224; goes to Fano, 224; his measures for the destruction of his enemies, 225; orders his forces to assemble at the Metauro, 225; receives his adversaries with apparent goodwill, 227; causes them to be strangled, 229

Canneschi, the, killed by the people for the murder of Annibale Bentivogli, 152

Capua, course followed by Romans to hold, 40

Cardinals, foster factions in Rome, and out of it, 94

Carmignuola, a valiant man, employed by the Venetians, loi; murdered by the Venetians, 102

Carthage, course followed by Romans to hold, 40

Carthaginians, compelled by Agathocles to come to terms, 68; oppressed by their mercenary soldiers, 100

Castruccio Castracani, a man who did great deeds, 231; the infancy of, 232; is received into the house of Messer Francesco Guinigi, 234; acquires great fame as a captain, 235; appointed governor and tutor to Pagolo Guinigi, 236; fortifies and provisions the tower of Oresti, 237; commands the army of the Ghibellines, 238; decides to join battle with the Guelphs, 239; his skilful tactics, 239; defeats the Guelphs, 240; thrown into prison, 241; becomes powerful in Lucca, 242; captures Serezzana, 243; created lord of Lucca, 243; honoured by Frederic of Bavaria, 243; enters into a league with Matteo Visconti, Prince of Mflan, 245 ; the Poggio family rebel against, 245; destroys the Poggio family, 247; builds a fortress in Lucca, 247; takes Pistoia, 249; assists Enrico, German governor of Rome, 250; defeats the Florentines, 254; Benedetto Lanfranchi conspires against, 256; Florentines send an enormous army against, 257; gives battle on the banks of the Amo, 259; wins a complete victory, 261; contracts a fatal illness, 262; his address to Pagolo Guinigi, 262-5; his death, 265; is buried at San Francesco at Lucca, 265; his appearance and character, 266; several anecdotes of, 267-72; was not inferior to Philip of Macedon or Scipio of Rome, 272

Cesare Borgia. See Borgia

Charles VII. of France, liberates France from the English, 110; established ordinances for men-at-arms and infantry, 110; his ordinance, if carried out, would have made France unconquerable, 111

Charles VIII. of France, his conduct compared with that of Louis XIL, 22; allowed to seize Italy, 98; over-ran Italy, 103

Church, Roman, a dominant power in Italy, 92; not the inention of Alexander VI. to aggrandise the, 93; became heir to all Alexander's labours, 93; strong at the election of Julius II., 93

Cities, three ways to govern conquered, 39; of Germany, 86

Citizens, who solely by good fortune become princes experience difficulties in maintaining their position, 53; easy for a courageous prince to keep steady the minds of his, 88

Colonies, should be established in new principalities, 18; more advantageous than maintaining troops in conquered dominions, 19

Colonna, Cardinal, one who had been injured by Duke Valentino, 63

Colonnesi, the, averse to the aggrandisement of the Pope, 55; beaten by the Duke Valentino, 56; kept within bounds by Julius II., 94

Commodus, Emperor, cruel and rapacious, 157; inherited the Empire, 160; conspired against and killed, 160

Cruelty, a prince ought not to mind reproach of, 133; a new prince cannot avoid the imputation of, 134

Cyrus, an excellent example of one who by ability rose to be a prince, 46; not inferior to Moses, 46; could not have succeeded without use of force, 49 ; imitated by Scipio, 118; Xenophon's life of, 118; liberal with the results of pillage, 129

Darius, kingdom of, 31 ; government of, 34 ; princes made by, in Greece and Ionia, 53 David, offered his services to Saul, 110; but rejects Saul's weapons, 110

Ferdinand of Spain, ravaged Italy, 103; his aid invoked by Julius II., 107; his deeds all great, and some extraordinary, 177; used religion as a plea to undertake great schemes, 178

Ferrara, Duke of, attacked by Venetians, and by Pope Julius II., 11

Fever, hectic, indications of, in early and late stages, 21; not at first discernable, 111

Florentines, the, appointed Paolo Vitelli captain, 101; being without arms, sent French to take Pisa, 108; permitted Pistoia to be destroyed to avoid reputation of cruelty, 133; support of the, sought by the members of the meeting at Magione, 220, 221; determine to restore the exiled Guelphs to Lucca, 238; seize Montecatini, 238; defeated by Castruccio Castracani, 240; again defeated by Castruccio, 254; send an enormous army against Castruccio, 257; are completely defeated on the banks of the Amo, 261 Fortune, what she can effect in human affairs, 203; is in some degree manageable, 204; a man must accommodate himself to changes of, 205; is mastered by the adventurous, 207

France, ruin of, attributed to greatness of the Church, 27; kingdom of, how governed, 32; easy to conquer, 33; difficult to hold, 33; army of, of a mixed character, 111; would have been imconquerable if ordnance of Charles VII. had been carried out, 111; one of the best ordered and governed kingdoms, 153; reason for the establishment of the parliament of, 153 Friendship, obtained by payment cannot be relied upon, 135

Germany, cities of, 86; fortified, 86; public depots containing a year's provision maintained, 86; military exercises held in repute in, 86

Giorgio degli Opizi, opposed to Castruccio Castracani, 236 Goliath, the Philistine champion, 110

Goths, enlistment of the, the first disaster to the Roman Empire, 111

Government, Roman method of, in conquered dominions, 21; of principalities, two different kinds, 31; of the Tiork, 32; of France, 33; extreme difficulty in introducing innovations into, and reasons of, 48; necessity of using force in introducing changes into, 48; change of form of, a time of danger to principalities, 81

Government, self, principalities that have been used to, unwilling to submit to princes, 17; only safe course to follow, in order to subdue cities accustomed to, 40

Gracchi, the, mistaken in trusting to the people of Rome, 81 Guido Ubaldo, Duke of Urbino, on recovering his dominion rased all the fortresses, 172

Guinigi, Francesco, a leader of the Ghibellines, 233; receives Castruccio Castracani into his house, 234; leaves his son Pagolo to the care of Castruccio Castracani, 236

Guinigi, Pagolo, son of Francesco, left to the care of Castruccio Castracani, 236; held in high estimation, 243; successor to Castruccio, 265; is not as fortunate as Castruccio, 266

Hannibal, held together his enormous array by his inhuman cruelty and valour, 136

"Happy shrewdness," a quality necessary to a prince, 77

Hiero the Syracusan, rose from a private station to be Prince of Syracuse, 49; his great ability, 49; his achievements, 50; found mercenary soldiers useless, 109; destroyed the mercenaries he had employed, 110

Injuries, Machiavelli's rule for the infliction of, 73

Italy, before entry of Charles of France, under dominion of the Pope, the Venetians, the King of Naples, the Duke of Milan, and the Florentines, 92; Julius II. intended to drive the French from, 94; ruined by resting her hopes on mercenaries, 98; ruled for many years by mercenaries, 102; reason divided into so many states, 102

Johanna, Queen of Naples, forced to come to terms with the King of Aragon, 100

Julius II., Pope, attacks Duke of Ferrara, 1 1; his election, by aid of Duke Valentino, 60; state of the Church at the election of, 93; intended to gain Bologna, ruin the Venetians, and drive the French from Italy, 94; kept the Orsini and Colonnesi factions within bounds, 94; invoked the aid of Ferdinand of Spain, 107; assisted in reaching the papacy by a reputation for liberality, 128; made wars without imposing any extraordinary tax on his subjects, 128; impetuous in all his afiairs, 206

Laws, good, one of the chief foundations of states, 97 Leo, Pope, found the Church most powerful, 94

Liberality, exercised in a way that does not bring the ruintation for it is injurious, 127; how a prince should exercise the virtue of, 127, 128; sometimes dangerous, 129

Lodovico, Duke, repulses Louis XII., 16

Lorenzo de Medici, the Magnificent, 1; urged to liberate Italy, 212; the necessity for depending upon national forces pointed out to, 214 Louis XI. of France, employed Switzers, 110

Louis XII., his occupation of Milan, 16; his unwise policy in Italy, 23-6; friendly approaches made to, 23; assisted Pope Alexander to occupy the Romagna, 24; how, lost Lombardy, 26; his marriage dissolved by Pope Alexander VI., 56; his good faith doubted by Duke Valentino, 56; assists the Duke to quell the tumults in the Komagna, 57; robbed Italy, 103

Machiavelli, Nicolo, a conversation of, with Cardinal Rouen, 26; recommends the measures taken by Cesare Borgia, Duke Valentino, as worthy of imitation, 58; statement made by Duke Valentino to, 61; his rule to govern infliction of injuries and bestowal of benefits, 73; sent by the Florentines to offer assistance to Duke Valentino, 221

Magione, meeting of the Vitelli, Orsini, and their following at, 219

Marcus, Emperor, lived and died honoured, 156

Maximilian, Emperor, consulted with no one, 192; being pliant, was diverted from his designs, 192

Maximinus, Emperor, a warlike man, 161; elected to the throne by the army, 161; practised many cruelties, 161; murdered by his own army, 161

Meanness, a vice which will enable a prince to govern, 129 Mercenaries (soldiers), useless and dangerous. 98: rob a prince in time of peace, 98; Italy ruined by resting her hopes on, 98; captains dangerous whether capable or not, 99; oppressed the Carthaginians, 100; ruled Italy for many years, 102; first given renown by Alberigo da Conic, 103; leaders of, principle that has guided them, 103; studied to lessen danger to themselves, 103; lukewarmness in campaigns, 104; reasons why use of, is less dangerous than employment of auxiliaries, 108

Milan, occupied by Louis XII., 16; Francesco Sforza rose by great ability to be Duke of, 54

Miserly, a Tuscan term, 122

Moses, an excellent example of one who by ability rose to be a prince, 46; could not have succeeded without use of force, 49

Nabis, prince of the Spartans, sustained the attack of all Greece and a Roman army, 80; reason of his ability to, 80; resisted every attack, 150

Nobles, sometimes create a prince to withstand the people, 77; cannot be satisfied by a prince by fair dealing, and without injury to others, 78; danger to a prince from, and from the people, compared, 78, 79; two ways in which nobles should be considered, 79

Numantia, course followed by Romans to hold, 40

Oliverotto da Fermo, brought up by an uncle, Giovanni Fogliani, 69; fought under Pagolo Vitelli, 69; and under Vitellozzo, 69; resolves to seize Fermo, 70; causes the murder of his uncle and the chiefs of Fermo, 71; overreached by Cesare Borgia, 71; attends the meeting at Magione, 219; sent to Duke Valentino, 223; with his band waits near Sinigalia, 226; comes before Duke Valentino, 228; is strangled, 229

Orsini, Duke di Gravini, attends the meeting at Magione, 219; comes before Duke Valentino at Sinigalia, 227; is strangled, 229

Orsini, Signor Paul, mediates between the Duke Valentino and the Orsini, 57

Orsini, the, averse to the aggrandisement of the Pope, 55; resistance crushed by Duke Valentino by help of the French, 57; beaten at Sinigalia, 71; kept within bounds by Julius II., 94; employed by Duke Valentino, 109

Pagolo, Signor, attends the meeting at Magione, 219; comes before Duke Valentino at Sinigalia, 227; is strangled, 229

Pagolo Vitelli, a soldier, 69

Pandolfo Petrucci, Prince of Siena, ruled more by those who had been distrusted than by others, 170; his servant Antonio da Venafro, 185; sends Antonio da Venafro to the meeting at Magione, 220

People, the, sometimes create a prince to defend them from the nobles, 78; should be kept friendly by a prince, 79, 80; only ask not to be oppressed by a prince, 80; a proverb concerning, 81

Pertinax, created Emperor against the wishes of the soldiers, 156; came to a sad end, 156

Philip of Macedon, conflicts of, with Romans, 22; made captain of their soldiers by the Thebans, too; took away the Thebans' liberty, 100; how, organised and armed his forces should be studied, 112

Pbilopoemen, commended for his constant study of the rules of war, 117; his frequent discussions with friends on the art of war, 117

Pitigliano, Count of, fought for the Venetians, 102

Pontificate, the, kept weak and powerless by armed state of factions in Rome, 92; short life of a pope, a cause of weakness to, 93; temporal power of the, little esteemed in Italy, 93; found most powerful by Pope Leo, 94

Prelates, the ambitions of, create disorder among the barons of Rome, 94

Prince, ways to obtain the good graces of a, 1; two ways by which a, may rise, 67; how a, ought to live among his people, 73; "happy shrewdness," a quality necessary to a, 77; a, cannot by fair dealing and without injuring others satisfy the nobles, 78; danger to a, from nobles, and from the people, compared, 78, 79; course to be adopted by a wise, 82; how a courageous, will overcome difficulties with his subjects, 87; a, should personally perform the duties of captain in case of war, 99; auxiliaries useless to a, who invokes their aid, 107; a wise, depends on the arms of his own nation, 108; a, ought to study only war, its rules and discipline, 115; should guard against being despised, 115, 130; a, ignorant of the art of war not respected by his soldiers, 116; how a, should train himself with a view to wax, 116; a, should read history, 118; rules of conduct for a, towards subjects and friends, 121; necessary for a, to know how to do wrong, 112; how a, should exercise the virtue of liberality, 127, 128; a, ought to hold a reputation for meanness of little account, 129,' liberality dangerous to a, 129; a kind of Liberality necessary to a, 129; should guard against being hated, 130; a, ought to desire to be considered clement and not cruel, 133; a, should not mind reproach of cruelty, 133; whether better for a, to be loved or feared, 134; safer for a, to be feared than loved, 134; a, when relies entirely on men's promises is ruined, 135; a, should inspire fear in such a way as to avoid hatred, 135; must keep his hands off the property of his subjects, 135; to keep faith praiseworthy in a, 141; a, should adopt the nature of the fox and the lion, 142; necessary for a, to be a dissembler and pretender, 143; unnecessary for a, to have all good qualities, but necessary to appear to have them, 143; a, must always appear to be merciful, faithful, humane, upright, and religious, 144; what makes a, most hated, 149; a, must not appear effeminate or irresolute, 149; a, who is highly esteemed not easily conspired against, 150; a, who is esteemed should hold conspiracies of little account, 153; factions can never be of use to a, 169; how a wise, may increase his renown, 170; a, must consider why men favour him, 171; nothing makes a, so much esteemed as great enterprises and setting a fine example, 177; ought to endeavour to gain the reputation of being a great and remarkable man. 178; should show himself the patron of ability, 181; should entertain the people with festivals and spectacles, 182; importance to a, of the choice of servants, 185; a never failing test by which a, may form an opinion of his servants, 186; how a, should keep his servants honest, 186; a, should avoid flatterers, 191; should be a constant inquirer, 192; a, not wise himself will never take good advice, 193; a new, narrowly observed, 197; a, who relies entirely upon fortune is lost when it changes, 204, 205. See also Princes

Princes, a wise policy for, towards neighbours, 20; the faith of, how it should be kept, 26; who by valour acquire a principality, keep it with ease, 47; who rise from private citizenship solely by good fortune experience difficulty in maintaining their position, 53; how, ought to live among their people, 73; sometimes created by nobles to withstand the people, 77; sometimes created by the people to defend them from the nobles, 78; course which should be followed by weak, 85; reason for this course, 86; ecclesiastical, alone have states and do not defend them, and subjects and do not rule them, 91; in time of peace are robbed by mercenaries or auxiliaries, 98; ought to study only war, its rules and discipline, 115; who have done great things have held good faith of little account, 141; should leave affairs of reproach to others, and keep affairs of grace in their own hands, 154; a custom with, to build fortresses, 171; irresolute, generally ruined, 180; the secretaries of, 185. See also Prince

Principalities, how many kinds, 7; by what means acquired, 7; hereditary, 11; how to be ruled and preserved, 11; mixed, 15; difficulties which occur in a new, 15; annexed, how to be secured, 17; colonies to be established in new, 18; are governed in two different ways, 31; three ways to govern, 39; new, acquired by one's own arms and ability, 45; which rise unexpectedly lack firm foundations, 54; concerning those who obtain a, by wickedness, 67; civil, 77; are created either by people, or nobles, 77; liable to danger when passing from civil to absolute government, 81; how the strength of all, should be measured, 85; ecclesiastical, are acquired either by capacity or good fortune, and can be held without either, 91; ecclesiastical, alone are secure and happy, 91; the chief foundations of, 97; based on mercenary or auxiliary soldiers neither firm nor safe, 98; evils in, few can recognise them beforehand, in; not secure without their own forces. 111. See also States

Prophets, armed, have been conquerors, 48; unarmed, have been destroyed, 48. See Moses

Proverb, a, that " He who builds on the people, builds on mud," 80; only partly true, 81

Pyrrhus, difficulties experienced by, in holding conquered states, 35

Ramiro d'Orco, appointed governor in the Romagna, 58; executed by order of Duke Valentino, 59

Republics, more vitality in, than in dominions ruled by princes, 40; leaders of, should perform the duties of captain personally in case of war, 99

Roberto da San Severino, fought for the Venetians, 102

Romans, policy followed by, in conquered countries, 21; foresaw troubles and repressed them, 22; frequent rebellions against, 34; course followed by, to hold Capua, Carthage, Numantia, 40; stood for many ages armed and free, 99; employment of Goths the first disaster to the Empire of the, 111

Romulus, an excellent example of one who by ability rose to be a prince. 46; could not have succeeded without use of force, 49

Rouen, Cardinal, 26; a conversation of Machiavelli with. 26; his relations with Duke Valentino, 63

Rule, a general, he who is the cause of another becoming powerful is ruined, 27

San Giorgio, Cardinal, one who had been injured by Duke Valentino, 63

San Pietro ad Vincula, Cardinal, one who had been injured by Duke Valentino, 63

Saul, gives his own weapons to David, 110

Savonarola, Girolamo, cause of his ruin, 49

Scali, Giorgio, mistaken in trusting to the people of Florence, 81

Scipio, imitated Cyrus, 118; his army in Spain rebelled through his too great forbearance, 136; upbraided by Fabius Maximus, 136

Severus, Emperor, cruel and rapacious, 157; oppressed the people, 157; knew how to counterfeit the fox and the lion, 158; under a pretext moved the army on Rome, 158; two difficulties before him, decided to attack Niger and deceive Albinus, 158; caused the death of Albinus, 159

Sforza, Francesco, Milan a new principality to, 7; rose by great ability to be Duke of Milan, 54; enlisted by Milanese against the Venetians, 100; beaten by Venetians under Carmignuola, 101; through being martial became Duke, 115

Sforza, Giacomuzzo (father of Francesco), engaged by Queen Johanna of Naples, 100

Sinigalia, surrenders to Duke Valentino, 224; situation of the city of, 226

Sixtus, Pope, a courageous, 92 Soldan, the, the State of, like the Christian pontificate, 162 Soldiery, of the several kinds of, 97, 98

Spartans, the, held Athens and Thebes, 39

States, which rise unexpectedly lack firm foundations, 54; difficulties of laying new foundations in acquired, 55; course to be followed by a usurper in seizing a, 72; ecclesiastical, alone not defended by their prince, 91; ecclesiastical, alone secure and happy, 91; the chief foundations of, 97; based on mercenary or auxiliary soldiers neither firm nor safe, 98. See also Principalities

Switzers, completely armed and free, 99; employed by Louis XI., no; a source of peril to France, no; afraid of infantry, 215

Theseus, an excellent example of one who by ability rose to be a prince, 46; could not have succeeded without use of force, 49

Turk, the, difficulties of seizing the kingdom of, 32; ease with which the kingdom of, may be held if conquered, 32

Uguccione of Arezzo, lord of Pisa, 237; his son killed in battle, 240; devotes his energies to destroying Castruccio Castracani, 241; flies to Lombardy, 242; dies in poverty, 242

Urbino, rebellion at, 221

Vaila, battle at, disastrous to the Venetians, 102

Valentino, Duke. See Borgia, Cesare

Venetians, introduced Louis XII. into Italy, 23, 56; protectorate of the, over Faenza and Rimini, 55; Julius II. intended to ruin the, 94; overcome by Francesco Sforza at Caravaggio, 100; acted safely when they depended on own armed gentlemen and plebeians, 101; under Carmignuola beat Duke of Milan, 101; mercenary captains employed by, 102; serious consequences of a battle at Vaila to the, 102; fostered the Guelph and Ghibelline factions, 169; their alliance with France caused the ruin of the, 181

Vitelli, Nicolo, demolished two fortresses in Citta di Castello, 172

Vitelli, Pagolo, appointed captain by the Florentines, 101

Vitelli, the, beaten by Duke Valentino at Sinigalia, 71; employed by Duke Valentino, 109

Vitelli, Vitellozzo, attends the meeting at Magione, 219; comes before Duke Valentino, 227; is strangled, 229

War, its rules and discipline should be the only study of princes, 115; how a prince should train himself in preparation for, 116; use and value of a training for, 117; the rules of, continually studied by Philopoemen, 117

Xenophon, his life of Cyrus, 118



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