NOTES AND REFERENCES

PAGE
16. Duke Lodovico was Lodovico Moro, a son of Francesco Sforza, who married Beatrice d'Este. He ruled over Milan from 1494 to 1500, and died in 1510.
21. "Maintained friendly relations," etc. See remark in the introduction on page xxii. on the word "intrattenere."
22. Louis XII., King of France, "The Father of the People," born 1462, died 1515.
22. Charles VIII., King of France, born 1470, died 1498.
26. Louis XII. divorced his wife, Jeanne, daughter of Louis XI., and married in 1499 Anne of Brittany, widow of Charles VIII., in order to retain the duchy of Brittany for the crown.
26. Rouen. The Archbishop of Rouen. He was George d'Amboise, created a cardinal by Alexander VI. Born 1460, died 1510.
49. Hiero II., born about 307 B.C., died 216 B.C.
54. Francesco Sforza, bom 1401, died 1466. He married Bianca Maria Visconti, a natural daughter of Filippo Visconti, the Duke of Milan, on whose death he procured his own elevation to the duchy.
54. "Le radici e corrispondenze," their roots {i.e., foundations) and correspondencies or relations with other states — a common meaning of "correspondence" and "correspondency "in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
54. Machiavelli was the accredited agent of the Florentine Republic to Cesare Borgia (1478–1507) during the transactions which led up to the assassinations of the Orsini and Vitelli at Sinigaila, and along with his letters to his chiefs in Florence he has left an account, written ten years before The Prince, of the proceedings of the duke in his "Descritione del modo tenuto dal duca Valentino nello ammazzare Vitellozzo Vitelli," etc., a translation of which is appended to the present work.
57. Sinigalia, December 31, 1502.
58. Ramiro d'Orco. Ramiro de Lorqua.
61. Alexander VI. died of fever, August 18, 1503., Julius II. was Giuliano della Rovere, Cardinal of San Pietro ad Vincula, born 1443, died 1513.
63. San Giorgio is Raffaello Riario. Ascanio is Asccinio Sforza. 67. Agathocles the Sicilian, born 361 B.C., died 289 B.C. 72. " Severities." Mr. Burd suggests that this word probably comes nearer the modern equivaJent of Machiavelli's thought when he speaks of " crudelta " than the more obvious " cruelties."
80. Nabis, tyrant of Sparta, conquered by the Romans under Flamininus in 195 B.C.; killed 192 B.C. 81 . Messer Giorgio Scali. This event is to be found in Machiavelli's " Florentine History," book iii.
92. Charles VIII. invaded Italy in 1494.
94. Pope Leo X. was the Cardinal de' Medici.
98. "With chalk in hand," " col gesso." This is one of the hon mots of Alexander VI., and refers to the ease with which Charles VIII. seized Italy, implying that it was only necessary for him to send his quartermasters to chalk up the billets for his soldiers to conquer the country. Cf. "The History of Henry VII.," by Lord Bacon:—" King Charles had conquered the realm of Naples, and lost it again, in a kind of a felicity of a dream. He passed the whole length of Italy without resistance: so that it was true what Pope Alexander was wont to say. That the Frenchmen came into Italy with chalk in their hands, to mark up their lodgings, rather than with swords to fight."
100. Battle of Caravaggio, September 15, 1448.
100 Johanna II. of Naples, the widow of Ladislao, King of Naples.
100 Giovanni Acuto. An English knight whose name was Sir John Hawkwood. He fought in the English wars in France, and was knighted by Edward III.; afterwards he collected a body of troops and went into Italy. These became the famous " White Company." He took part in many wars, and died in Florence in 1394. He was born about 1320 at Sible Hedingham, a village in Essex. He married Domnia, a daughter of Bernabo Visconti.
101. Carmignuola. Francesco Bossone, born at Carmagnola about 1390, executed at Venice, May 5, 1432.
102. Bartolomeo Colleoe of Bergamo, died 1475.
102 Roberto of San Severino, died fighting for Venice against Sigismond, Duke of Austria, in 1487. "Primo capitano in Italia," Machiavelli.
102 Count of Pitigliano. Nicolo Orsini, bom 1442, died 1510.
102 Battle of Vaila in 1509.
103. Alberigo da Conio. Alberico da Barbiano, Count of Cunio in Romagna. He was the leader of the famous "Company of St. George," composed entirely of Italian soldiers. He died in 1409.
107. Ferdinand, King of Spain. Ferdinand V. (F. II. of Aragon and Sicily, F. III. of Naples), surnamed "The Catholic," born 1452, died 1516.
108. The Emperor of Constantinople, Joannes Cantacuzenus, born 1300, died 1383.
110. Charles VII. of France, surnamed "The Victorious," born 1403, died 1461.
110 Louis XI., son of the above, born 1423, died 1483.
111. ". . . first disaster to the Roman Empire." " Many speakers in the House the other night in the debate on the reduction of armaments seemed to show a most lamentable ignorance of the conditions under which the British Empire maintains its existence. When Mr. Balfour replied to the allegations that the Roman Empire sank under the weight of its military obligations, he said that this was 'wholly unhistorical.' He might well have added that the Roman power was at its zenith when every citizen acknowledged his Liability to fight for the state, but that it began to decline as soon as this obligation was no longer recognised."—Pall Mall Gazette, May 15, 1906.
117. Philopoemen, "the last of the Greeks," born 252 B.C., died 183 B.C.
133. "Pistoia to be destroyed;" during the rioting between the Cancellieri and Panciatichi factions in 1502 and 1503.
134. Virgil.
  "... against my will, my fate,
A throne unsettled, and an infant state.
Bid me defend my realms with all my pow'rs,
And guard with these severities my shores."

Christ. Pitt.

141. Chapter XVIII. "The present chapter has given greater offence than any other portion of Machiavelli's writings." Burd, " II Principe," p. 297.
141 "Contesting," i.e., " striving for mastery." Mr. Burd points out that this passage is imitated directly from Cicero's "De Officiis": "Nam cum sint duo genera decertandi, unum per disceptationem, alterum per vimm; cumque illud proprium sit hominis, hoc beluarum; confugiendum est ad posterius, si uti non licet superiore."
143. "Nevertheless his deceits always succeeded according to his wishes." "Nondimanco sempre gli succederono gli inganni (ad votum)."The words "ad votum " axe omitted in the Testina Edition, 1550.
 
"Alexander never did what he said,
Cesare never said what he did."

Italian Proverb.

143. "Contrary to fidelity " or "faith, "contro alia fede," and " tutto fede," "altogether faithful," on the following page. It is noteworthy that these two phrases, "contro alia fede" and "tutto fede," were omitted in the "Testina Edition," which was published with the sanction of the papal authorities. It may be that the meaning attached to the word "fede" was "the faith," i.e., the catholic creed, and not as rendered here "fideilty" and "faithful." Observe that the word "religione" was suffered to stand in the text of the Testina, being used to signify indifferently every shade of belief, as witness "the religion," a phrase invariably employed to designate the Huguenot heresy. South in his Sermon IX., p. 69, ed. 1843, comments on this passage as follows:—"That great patron and Coryphaeus of this tribe, Nicolo Mcichiavel, laid down this for a master rule in his political scheme: 'That the show of religion was helpiful to the politician, but the reality of it hurtful and pernicious.'"
545. "One prince," etc. Ferdinand of Aragon. "When Machiavelli was writing The Prince it would have been clearly impossible to mention Ferdinand's name here without giving offence."Burd's" II Principe," p. 308.
152. Giovanni Bentivogli, born at Bologna 1438, died at Milan 1508. He ruled Bologna from 1462 to 1506. Machiavelli's strong condemnation of conspiracies may get its edge from his own very recent (February, 15 13), when he had been arrested and tortured for his alleged complicity in the Boscoli conspiracy.
172. Countess of Forli, Catherine Sforza, a daughter of Gcileazzo Sforza and Lucrezia Landriani, born 1463, died 1509. It was to the Countess of Forli that Machiavelli was sent as envoy in 1499. A letter from Fortunati to the Countess announces the appointment:—"I have been with the signori," wrote Fortunati, "to learn whom they would send and when. They tell me that Nicolo Machiavelli, a learned young Florentine noble, secretairy to my Lords of the Ten, is to leave with me at once." Cf. "Catherine Sforza," by Count Pasolini, translated by P. Sylvester, 1898.
182. "Guilds or societies," "in arti o in tribu." "Arti" were craft or trade guilds, cf. Florio: "Arte ... a whole company of any trade in any city or corporation town." The guilds of Florence are most admirably described by Mr. Edgcumbe Staley in his work on the subject (Methuen, 1906). Institutions of a somewhat similar character, called "artel," exist in Russia to-day, cf. Sir Mackenzie Wallace's "Russia," ed. 1905: "The sons . . . were always during the working season members of an artel. In some of the larger towns there are artels of a much more complex kind—permanent associations, possessing large capital, and pecuniarily responsible for the acts of the individual members." The word "artel," despite its apparent similarity has, Mr Aylmer Maude Assures me, no connection with "ars" or "arte." Its root is that of the verb "rotisya," to bind onself by an oath; and it is generally admitted to be only another form of "rota," which now signifies a "regimental company." In both words the underlying idea is that of a body of men united by an oath. "Tribu" were possibly gentile groups, united by common descent, and included individuals connected by marriage. Perhaps our words would "septs" or "clans" would be most appropriate.
192. Maximilian I., born in 1459, died 1519, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. He married, first, Mary, daughter of Charles the Bold; after her death, Bianca Sforza; and thus became involved in Italian politics.
203. "Fortune is the arbiter of one-half of our actions." Frederick the Great was accustomed to say, " The older one gets the more convinced one becomes that his Majesty King Chance does three-quarters of the business of this miserable universe." Sorel's " Eastern Question."
212. "Your illustrious house." Giuliano de' Medici. He had just been created a cardinal by Leo X. In 1523 Giuliano was elected Pope, and takes the title of Clement VII.
214. The battles of II Taro, 1495; Alessandria, 1499; Capua, 1501; Genoa, 1507; Vaila, 1509; Bologna, 151 1; Mestri, 15 13.
"Virtu contro al Furore," etc.
 

" Virtue against fury shall advance the fight.
And it i' th' combat soon shall put to flight;
For the old Roman valour is not dead.
Nor in th* Italians' brests extinguished."

Edward Dacre, 1640.