The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency


World Factbook (1982) Cuba.jpg
(See reference map III)


114,478 km²; 35% cultivated, 30% meadow and pasture, 20% waste, urban, or other, 15% forested


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm (fishing 200 nm; 200 nm exclusive economic zone)

Coastline: 3,735 km


Population: 9,771,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 0.8%

Nationality: noun—Cuban(s); adjective—Cuban

Ethnic divisions: 51% mulatto, 37% white, 11% Negro, 1% Chinese

Religion: at least 85% nominally Roman Catholic before Castro assumed power

Language: Spanish

Literacy: about 96%

Labor force: 2.9 million in 1978; 33% agriculture, 17% industry, 9% construction, 7% transportation, 32% services, 2% unemployed


Official name: Republic of Cuba

Type: Communist state

Capital: Havana

Political subdivisions: 14 provinces and 169 municipalities

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal theory; Fundamental Law of 1959 replaced constitution of 1940; a new constitution was approved at the Cuban Communist Party's First Party Congress in December 1975 and by a popular referendum which took place on 15 February 1976; portions of the new constitution were put into effecton 24 February 1976, by means of a Constitutional Transition Law, and the entire constitution became effective on 2 December1976; legal education at Universities of Havana, Oriente, and Las Villas; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 1 January

Branches: executive; legislature (National People's Assembly); controlled judiciary

Government leader: President Fidel CASTRO Ruz

Suffrage: universal, but not compulsory, over age 16

Elections: National People's Assembly (indirect election) every five years; election held November 1981

Political parties and leaders: Cuban Communist Party (PCC), First Secretary Fidel Castro Ruz, Second Secretary Raúl Castro Ruz

Communists: approx. 400,000 party members

Member of: CEMA, ECLA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB (nonparticipant), IAEA, ICAO, IFAD, IHO, ILO, IMCO, International Rice Commission, ISO, ITU, IWC—International Wheat Council, NAM, NAMUCAR (Caribbean Multinational Shipping Line—Naviera Multinacional del Caribe), OAS (nonparticipant), PAHO, Permanent Court of Arbitration, Postal Union of the Americas and Spain, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO


GDP: $13.3 billion (1978 est., in 1978 prices), $1,360 per capita; real growth rate 1978, 4.0%

Agriculture: main crops—sugar, tobacco, rice, potatoes, tubers, citrus fruits, coffee

Fishing: catch 186,000 metric tons (1980); exports $127million (1980)

Major industries: sugar milling, petroleum refining, food and tobacco processing, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals

Shortages: spare parts for transportation and industrial machinery, consumer goods

Crude steel: 313,500 metric tons produced (1979); 30 kg per capita

Electric power: 2,870,000 kW capacity (1981); 10.1 billion kWh produced (1981), 1,029 kWh per capita

Exports: $5.6 billion (f.o.b., 1980); sugar, nickel, shellfish, tobacco

Imports: $6.4 billion (c.i.f., 1980); capital goods, industrial raw materials, food, petroleum

Major trade partners: exports—57% USSR, 13% other Communist countries; imports—62% USSR, 16% other Communist countries (1980 prelim.)

Aid: from US (FY46-61), $41.5 million (loans $37.5 million, grants $4.0 million); economic aid (1960-78) from USSR, $5.7 billion in economic credit and $11.0 billion in subsidies; military assistance from the USSR (1959-78), $1.6 billion

Budget: $13.4 billion (1980)

Monetary conversion rate: 1 peso=US$1.41 (nominal; 1980)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 14,725 km total, government owned; 5,070 km common-carrier lines of which 4,990 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 80 km 0.914-meter gauge; about 9,655 km plantation/industrial lines, 6,455 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 3,200 km narrow gauge

Highways: 21,000 km total; 9,000 km paved, 12,000 km gravel and earth surfaced

Inland waterways: 240 km

Pipelines: natural gas, 80 km

Ports: 8 major (including US Naval Base at Guantanamo), 44 minor

Civil air: 48 major transport aircraft, including 2 leased in

Airfields: 202 total, 195 usable; 58 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m, 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 23 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 5,079,000; of the 2,575,000 males 15-49, 1,621,000 are fit for military service; 120,000 males and 114,000 females reach military age (17) annually

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1981, $1,112 billion; about 7,5% of total budget