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CYPRUSEdit

World Factbook (1982) Cyprus.jpg
(See reference map VI)

LANDEdit

9,251 km2; 47% arable and land under permanent crops, 18% forested, 10% meadows and pasture, 25% waste, urban areas, and other

WATEREdit

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm

Coastline: approximately 648 km

PEOPLEEdit

Population: 642,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 1.0%

Nationality: noun—Cypriot(s); adjective—Cypriot

Ethnic divisions: 78% Greek; 18% Turkish; 4% British, Armenian, and other

Religion: 78% Greek Orthodox, 18% Muslim, 4% Maronite, Armenian, Apostolic, and other

Language: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy: about 89% of population 15 years or older, 99% of population aged 15-39

Greek Sector labor force: 180,700 (1980), 42% services; 33% industry; 25% agriculture; 2.1% unemployed

GOVERNMENTEdit

Official name: Republic of Cyprus

Type: republic since August 1960; a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting the island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in July 1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control over the northern 37 percent of the republic; in 1975 the Turkish Cypriots declared a separate Turkish Federated State of Cyprus, although Greek Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; negotiations, which aim at finding a mutually agreeable solution to intercommunal differences, have focused on the creation of a federal system of government

Capital: Nicosia

Political subdivisions: 6 administrative districts

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications; negotiations to create the basis for a new or revised constitution to govern the island and relations between Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October

Branches: currently the Government of Cyprus has effective authority over only the Greek Cypriot community, consisting of Greek Cypriot parts of bodies provided for by constitution; headed by President of the Republic and comprised of Council of Ministers, House of Representatives, and Supreme Court; Turkish Cypriots have their own "constitution" and governing bodies within the "Turkish Federated State of Cyprus"

Government leaders: President Spyros KYPRIANOU; elected Interim President in September 1977 to serve out the remainder of the term of Archbishop Makarios, who died on 3 August 1977, and elected President in his own right by acclamation in February 1978; Turkish Sector: "President" Rauf DENKTASH; "Prime Minister" Mustafa CAGATAY

Suffrage: universal age 21 and over

Elections: officially every five years (next presidential elections to be held in 1983); parliamentary elections held in May 1981; Turkish Cypriot "presidential" and "parliamentary" elections held in June 1981

Political parties and leaders: Greek Sector: Progressive Party of the Working People (AKEL; Communist Party), Ezekias Papaioannou; Democratic Rally (DS), Glafkos Clerides; Democratic Party (DK), Spyros Kyprianou; United Democratic Union of the Center (EDEK), Vassos Lyssarides; New Democratic Movement (NDP), Alecos Michaelides; New Union of the Center, Tassos Papadopoulos; Pancyprian Renewal Party (PAME), Khrysostomos Sofianos; Turkish Sector: National Unity Party (UBP), Mustafa Cagatay; Communal Liberation Party (TKP), Alpay Durduran; Republican Turkish Party (CTP), Ozker Ozgur; Democratic People's Party (DHP), Nejat Konuk; Turkish Unity Party (TBP), Ismail Tezer

Voting strength (1981 elections): in the parliamentary elections pro-Western Democratic Rally and Communist AKEL each received 12 of the 35 seats; Kyprianou 's center-right Democratic Party received eight seats; and socialist EDEK won three seats; in "presidential" and "parliamentary" elections in the Turkish Cypriot sector, Rauf Denktash won with 52 percent of the vote; his party (UBP) received 18 of 40 seats in the "Assembly" while the center-left TKP won 13 seats; the remainder were divided among the other parties

Communists: 12,000; sympathizers estimated to number 60,000

Other political or pressure groups: United Democratic Youth Organization (EDON; Communist controlled); Union of Cyprus Farmers (EKA; Communist controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK; pro- West); Pan Cyprian Labor Federation (PEO; Communist controlled); Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK; pro- West); Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation of Revolutionary Labor Unions (Dev-Is)

Member of: Commonwealth, Council of Europe, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ISCON, ITU, NAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMYEdit

GNP: $2,165 million (1980, est.), $4,223 per capita; 1980 est. real growth rate 4.2%

Turkish Sector GNP: $200.7 million (1978), $1,580 per capita

Agriculture: main crops—potatoes, grapes, citrus fruit, grains

Major industries: mining (iron pyrites, gypsum, asbestos), manufactures principally for local consumption—beverages, footwear, clothing, cement

Electric power: 500,000 kW capacity (1981); 1,042 billion kWh produced (1981), 1,654 kWh per capita

Exports: $532.8 million (f.o.b., 1980); principal items—food and beverages including citrus, raisins, potatoes and wine, also cement and clothing

Turkish Sector exports: $40.2 million (f.o.b., 1979); principal items—citrus fruits, potatoes, metal pipes and pyrites

Imports: $1,214 million (c.i.f., 1980); principal items—manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, food

Turkish Sector imports: $107.5 million (c.i.f., 1979); principal items are foodstuffs, raw materials, fuels, machinery

Major trade partners: imports (1980)—15.4% UK, 0.8% Italy, 10.1% Iraq, 7.6% West Germany, 7.0% Greece; exports (1980)—20.7% UK, 7.7% Saudi Arabia, 6.8% Syria, 9.9% Lebanon, 8.2% Libya

Turkish Sector major trade partners: imports (1979)—43% Turkey, 21.2% UK, 7% Italy, 6.6% West Germany, 2.7% France; exports (1979)—66.4% UK, 21% Turkey, 3.7% West Germany

Budget: (1980 est.) revenues $489.7 million, expenditures $582.7 million, deficit $93.0 million

Turkish Sector budget: (1980 prelim.) revenues $33.1 million, expenditures $62.0 million, deficit $28.9 million

Monetary conversion rate: 1 Cyprus pound=US$2.834 (1980 average)

Turkish Sector monetary conversion rate: 76.04 Turkish lira=US$1 (1980 average)

Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONSEdit

Railroads: none

Highways: 9,710 km total; 4,580 km bituminous surface treated; 5,130 km gravel, crushed stone, and earth

Ports: 3 major (Famagusta, Larnaca, Limassol), 6 minor; Famagusta under Turkish Cypriot control

Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 12 total, 11 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,656 m

Telecommunications: moderately good telecommunication system in both Greek and Turkish sectors; 92,580 telephones (15.0 per 100 popl.); 10 AM, 4 FM, and 25 TV stations; tropospheric scatter circuits to Greece and Turkey; 2 submarine coaxial cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station

DEFENSE FORCESEdit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 174,000; 123,000 fit for military service; about 5,000 reach military age (18) annually

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1981, $57.7 million; about 14.8% of central government budget