The World Factbook (1982)/Czechoslovakia

The World Factbook (1982)
by the Central Intelligence Agency


World Factbook (1982) Czechoslovakia.jpg
(See reference map V)


127,946 km2; 42% arable, 14% other agricultural, 35% forested, 9% other

Land boundaries: 3,540 km


Population: 15,369,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 0.4%

Nationality: noun—Czechoslovak(s); adjective—Czechoslovak

Ethnic divisions: 64.3% Czechs, 30.0% Slovaks, 4.0% Magyars, 0.6% Germans, 0.5% Poles, 0.4% Ukrainians, 0.2% others (Jews, Gypsies)

Religion: 77% Roman Catholic, 20% Protestant, 2% Orthodox, 1% other

Language: Czech, Slovak, Hungarian

Literacy: almost complete

Labor force: 7.6 million; 14% agriculture, 38.6% industry, 11% services, 36.4% construction, communications and others


Official name: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (CSSR)

Type: Communist state

Capital: Prague

Political subdivisions: 2 ostensibly separate and nominally autonomous republics (Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic); seven regions (kraj) in Czech lands, three regions in Slovakia; national capitals of Prague and Bratislava have regional status

Legal system: civil law system based on Austrian-Hungarian codes, modified by Communist legal theory; revised constitution adopted 1960, amended in 1968 and 1970; no judicial review of legislative acts; legal education at Charles University School of Law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May

Branches: executive—President (elected by Federal Assembly), Cabinet (appointed by President); legislative—Federal Assembly (elected directly), Czech and Slovak National Councils (also elected directly) legislate on limited area of regional matters; judiciary—Supreme Court (elected by Federal Assembly); entire governmental structure dominated by Communist Party

Government leaders: President Gustáv HUSÁK (elected May 1975), Premier Lubomir ŠTROUGAL

Suffrage: universal over age 18

Elections: governmental bodies and president every five years (last election, June 1981)

Dominant political party and leader: Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSC), Gustáv Husák, General Secretary; Communist Party of Slovakia (KSS) has status of "provincial KSC organization"

Voting strength (1976 election): 99.7% for Communist-sponsored single slate

Communists: 1.45 million party members and candidate members (January 1978)

Other political groups: puppet parties—Czechoslovak Socialist Party, Czechoslovak People's Party, Slovak Freedom Party, Slovak Revival Party

Member of: CEMA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFC, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO


GNP: $117.6 billion in 1980 (in 1980 dollars), $7,645 per capita; 1980 real growth rate 1.9%

Agriculture: diversified agriculture; main crops—wheat, rye, potatoes, sugar beets; net food importer—meat, wheat, vegetable oils, fresh fruits and vegetables; caloric intake, 3,100 calories per day per capita (1967)

Major industries: machinery, food processing, metallurgy, textiles, chemicals

Shortages: ores, crude oil

Crude steel: 14.8 million metric tons produced (1979), 1,000 kg per capita

Electric power: 18,292,000 kW capacity (1981); 78.9 billion kWh produced (1981), 5,196 kWh per capita

Exports: $13,890 million (f.o.b., 1979); 53% machinery, equipment; 26% fuels, raw materials; 4% foods, food products, and live animals; 17% consumer goods, excluding foods (1978)

Imports: $14,371 million (f.o.b., 1979); 40% machinery, equipment; 45% fuels, raw materials; 8% foods, food products, and live animals; 6% consumer goods, excluding foods (1978)

Major trade partners: USSR, GDR, Poland, Hungary, FRG, Romania, Bulgaria, Austria, UK; $28,261 million (1979); 71% with Communist countries, 29% with non-Communist countries

Monetary conversion rate: noncommercial 9.54 crowns=US$1, commercial 5.35 crowns=US$1

Fiscal year: calendar year

NOTE: foreign trade figures were converted at the rate of 5.35 crowns= US$1


Railroads: 13,131 km total; 12,872 km standard gauge (1.435 m), 102 km broad gauge (1.524 m), 157 km narrow gauge (0.750 m and 0.760 m); 2,891 km double track; 3,034 km electrified; government owned (1980)

Highways: 73,793 km total; 60,300 km concrete, asphalt, stone block; 13,493 km gravel, crushed stone (1979) Inland waterways: 475 km (1980)

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,448 km; refined products, 861 km; natural gas, 6,000 km

Freight carried: rail—286.2 million metric tons, 72.6 billion metric ton/km (1980); highway—1,235.3 million metric tons, 21.3 billion metric ton/km (1980); waterway—10.5 million metric tons, 3.6 billion metric ton/km (excluding international transit traffic) (1980)

Ports: no maritime ports; outlets are Gdynia, Gdańsk, and Szczecin in Poland; Rijeka and Koper in Yugoslavia; Hamburg, FRG; Rostock, GDR; principal river ports are Prague, Děčín, Komárno, Bratislava (1979)


Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,737,000; 2,888,000 fit for military service; 112,000 reach military age annually

Military budget: announced for fiscal year ending 31 December 1980, 23 billion crowns, 7.8% of total budget