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World Factbook (1982) Turkey.jpg
(See reference map VI)


766,640 km2; 35% cropland, 25% meadows and pastures, 23% forested, 17% other

Land boundaries: 2,574 km


Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 6 nm except in Black Sea where it is 12 nm (fishing 12 nm)

Coastline: 7,200 km


Population: 48,105,000 (July 1982), average annual growth rate 2.2%

Nationality: noun—Turk(s); adjective—Turkish

Ethnic divisions: 85% Turkish, 12% Kurd, 3% other

Religion: 99% Muslim (mostly Sunni), 1% other (mostly Christian and Jewish)

Language: Turkish, Kurdish, Arabic

Literacy: 62%

Labor force: 17.14 million; 58% agriculture, 13% industry, 29% service; surplus of unskilled labor (1980)

Organized labor: 10-15% of labor force


Official name: Republic of Turkey

Type: republic

Capital: Ankara

Political subdivisions: 67 provinces

Legal system: derived from various continental legal systems; constitution adopted 1961, but is now being revised by an assembly selected by the military government that took over on 12 September 1980; legal education at Universities of Ankara and Istanbul; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Republic Day, 29 October

Branches: the 12 September military takeover resulted in the dissolution of Parliament and Prime Minister Demirel's government; the generals substituted a five-man National Security Council to serve as the executive branch and appointed a civilian Cabinet headed by retired Adm. Bulend Ulusu to run the country until a new constitution is promulgated and civilian rule restored; the Constituent Assembly established in October 1981 now serves as the legislative branch of government; highest court for ordinary criminal and civil cases is Court of Cassation, which hears appeals directly from criminal, commercial, basic, and peace courts

Government leaders: Head of State, Gen. Kenan EVREN (Chairman, National Security Council); Prime Minister Adm. Bulend ULUSU

Suffrage: universal over age 21

Elections: Republican People's Party won a plurality in June 1977; the Justice Party formed a minority government in October 1979; inability to elect a permanent president in 1980 contributed in part to the military decision to take over the government

Political parties and leaders: the military government disbanded all political parties after it took over on 12 September 1980 and has detained some political leaders; the commanders might allow political activity after the proposed constitution is submitted to a referendum and approved by the citizens; Justice Party (JP), Suleyman Demirel; Republican People's Party (RPP), Bulent Ecevit; National Salvation Party (NSP), Necmettin Erbakan; Democratic Party (DP), Faruk Sukan; Republican Reliance Party (RRP), Turhan Feyzioglu; Nationalist Action Party (NAP), Alpaslan Turkes; Communist Party illegal

Communists: strength and support negligible

Other political or pressure groups: military forced resignation of Demirel government in March 1971 and directly intervened in the political process in September 1980; an active radical left and right contributed to violence that took more than 3,000 lives in 1978-80; left-right violence brought the country to virtual civil war and prompted the military to intervene in September 1980

Member of: ASSIMER, Council of Europe, EC (associate member), ECOSOC, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMCO, IMF, IOOC, IPU, ISCON, ITC, ITU, NATO, OECD, Regional Cooperation for Development, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO


GNP: $58.7 billion (1980), $1,300 per capita; -1.1% real growth 1980, 6% average annual real growth 1970-79

Agriculture: main products—cotton, tobacco, cereals, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, and livestock products; self-sufficient in food in average years

Major industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron minerals), steel, petroleum

Crude steel: 1.7 million tons produced (1980), 27 kg per capita

Electric power: 6,389,200 kW capacity (1980); 23.330 billion kWh produced (1980), 506 kWh per capita

Exports: $2,910 million (f.o.b., 1980); cotton, tobacco, fruits, nuts, metals, livestock products, textiles and clothing

Imports: $7,667 million (c.i.f., 1980); crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, metals, mineral fuels, fertilizers, chemicals

Major trade partners: (1980) exports—20.8% West Germany, 7.5% Italy, 6.1% USSR, 5.6% France, 4.6% Iraq; imports—15.0% Iraq, 10.9% West Germany, 5.8% US, 4.8% France, 4.5% Switzerland

Budget: (FY80) revenues $12.4 billion, expenditures $14.2 billion, deficit $1.8 billion

Monetary conversion rate: 76.04 Turkish liras=US$1 (1980)

Fiscal year: 1 March-28 February


Railroads: 8,138 km standard gauge (1.435 m); 204 km double track; 104 km electrified

Highways: 59,615 km total; 26,915 km bituminous; 23,000 km gravel or crushed stone; 2,200 km improved earth; 7,500 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: approx. 1,600 km

Pipelines: 1,288 km crude oil; 2,145 km refined products

Ports: 10 major, 35 minor

Civil air: 23 major transport aircraft, including 3 leased in and 1 leased out

Airfields: 121 total, 99 usable; 60 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over 3,660 m, 26 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 23 with runways 1,220-2,439 m


Military manpower: males 15-49, 11,717,000; 6,932,000 fit for military service; about 494,000 reach military age (20) annually