The World Factbook (1990)/Monaco


World Factbook (1990) Monaco.jpg

See regional map V


Total area: 1.9 km²; land area: 1.9 km²

Comparative area: about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundary: 4.4 km with France

Coastline: 4.1 km

Maritime claim:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: almost entirely urban

Note: second-smallest independent state in world (after Vatican City)


Population: 29,453 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 7 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 9 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun—Monacan(s) or Monegasque(s); adjective—Monacan or Monegasque

Ethnic divisions: 47% French, 16% Monegasque, 16% Italian, 21% other

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic

Language: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: 4,000 members in 35 unions


Long-form name: Principality of Monaco

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Monaco

Administrative divisions: 4 quarters (quartiers, singular—quartier); Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo

Independence: 1419, rule by the House of Grimaldi

Constitution: 17 December 1962

Legal system: based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 19 November

Executive branch: prince, minister of state, Council of Government (cabinet)

Legislative branch: National Council (Conseil National)

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal (Tribunal Suprême)

Leaders: Chief of State—Prince RAINIER III (since November 1949); Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre (born 14 March 1958);

Head of Government Minister of State Jean AUSSEIL (since 10 September 1985)

Political parties and leaders: National and Democratic Union (UND), Democratic Union Movement (MUD), Monaco Action, Monegasque Socialist Party (PSM)

Suffrage: universal adult at age 25

Elections: National Council—last held on 24 January 1988 (next to be held 24 January 1993); results—percent of vote by party NA; seats—(18 total) UND 18

Member of: IAEA, ICAO, IHO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, UN (permanent observer), UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation: Monaco maintains honorary consulates general in Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco, and honorary consulates in Dallas, Honolulu, Palm Beach, Philadelphia, and Washington; US—no mission in Monaco, but the US Consul General in Marseille, France, is accredited to Monaco; Consul General R. Susan WOOD; Consulate General at 12 Boulevard Paul Peytral, 13286 Marseille Cedex (mailing address APO NY 09777); telephone [33](91) 549-200

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top) and red


Overview: No data are published on the economy. Monaco, situated on the French Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists to its casino and pleasant climate. The Principality has successfully sought to diversify into services and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries. The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign companies that have set up businesses and offices. About 50% of Monaco's annual revenue comes from value-added taxes on hotels, banks, and the industrial sector; about 25% of revenue comes from tourism. Living standards are high, that is, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French metropolitan suburbs.


Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: full employment (1989)

Budget: revenues $386 million; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)

Exports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monacan trade duties; also participates in EC market system through customs union with France

Imports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and rebates Monacan trade duties; also participates in EC market system through customs union with France

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 10,000 kW standby capacity (1988); power supplied by France

Industries: Pharmaceuticals, food processing, precision instruments, glassmaking, printing, tourism

Agriculture: NA

Aid: NA

Currency: French franc (plural—francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1—5.7598 (January 1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year


Railroads: 1.6 km 1.435-meter gauge

Highways: none; city streets

Ports: Monaco

Merchant marine: 1 tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,268 GRT/4,959 DWT

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 usable airfield with permanent-surface runways

Telecommunications: served by the French communications system; automatic telephone system; 38,200 telephones; stations—3 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; no communication satellite stations

Defense Forces

Note: defense is the responsibility of France