The rise and fall of the Emperor Maximilian/Table of Contents



Introduction 1
Alleged Cause of the French Intervention—The Convention of La Soledad—Real Position of Juarez—Commencement of Hostilities—Previous Negotiations with Maximilian—Secret Aim of the French Intervention—Cause of England's Withdrawal—Disappointment and Opposition of General Prim—Napoleon's first 'Idea'—He throws off the Mask—Feeble Character of the French Policy 3
The War begun—The Repulse at Puebla, and its Causes—General Marquez—Condition of Mexico—Arrival of General Forey—His Delays and Mismanagement—Protracted Siege and Capture of Puebla—Triumphal Entry of French into Mexico 19
French Organisation of Mexico—Convocation of a Junta—Unwillingness to join it, and the Cause—Decision for a Monarchy—Offer of the Crowu to Maximilian—The Council of Regency—Maximilian's Doubts—Arrival of General Bazaine as Commander-in Chief—His Difficulties—Juarez and Church Property—Peace restored in Mexico—Arrival of Maximilian—His Virtues, his Faults, and his Fate 28
Intention of this History—Political Conduct of the French and Mexican Cabinets—Character of Maximilian, and his Earliest Measures—Energy of General Bazaine—Reorganisation of the Mexican Resources—General Bazaine's Explanations—Military Movements—Calumnies against French Officers—Appeal to the Empress—Maximilian's Want of Appreciation of the Indians—Financial Embarrassments—Apathy of Mexican Officials—Success of the French Campaigns 42
Military and Civil Arrangements—Organising Commissions Dissolved—Capture and Escape of Porfirio Diaz—Fresh Military Plans of the Emperor—Their Imprudence and Inexpediency—The Question of Church Property—The American Question—Attitude of the United States, and Recall of their Minister—Treason of Cortina—Revolt breaks out 60
Marshal Bazaine's Advice on American Matters—It is not Taken—Marshal Bazaine's Marriage, and Dowry to his Bride—Mexicans in the Days of Cortez—Condition of the Indians—Opposition of the Landholders and Officials—Juarez's Hiding-Place 71
Fatal Decree of October 3—Its real Bearing—Empress Charlotte's Letter—Decay-of Mexican Resources—Inaction of Mexican Officials, and consequent Disasters—Extent of French Occupation—Statement of the National Army 86
Disasters in the Empire—Dissensions between the Foreign Contingents and Mexican Troops—The Empress Charlotte's Opinion of the French Army—Difficulty in paying the Troops, and consequent Desertions—Maximilian's Project to subdue Yucatan—Its Policy—The two Chances for the Empire—Poverty of the Mexican Troops—Pecuniary Help rendered by Marshal Bazaine—M. de Lacunza's Moving Appeal to Marshal Bazaine—Meeting at the Imperial Palace—Maximilian speaks out—Yankee Intrigues—American Dictation to France—Mr. Seward's Note—Maximilian secretly sacrificed 96
Arrival of Baron Saillard—Despatches from M. Drouyn de Lhuys—Proposals for French Evacuation—French Hypocrisy—Position of Maximilian—M. Almonte sent to the Court of the Tuileries—Proposal for Concentration of the Foreign Contingents—Thwarted by Maximilian's Advisers—Fruitless Bungling 115
Establishment of Cazadores and Gendarmes—The Marshal's Plan for Evacuation favourable to Maximilian—Maximilian's wise Measures of Retrenchment—His Confidence, Energy, and Hopes—His Plans explained to Marshal Bazaine—Revolt of Chihuahua and Reoccupation by the French—Maximilian's Letter of Congratulation to Marshal Bazaine—His Disagreement with the Marshal—Mr. Bigelow's Despatch—Left no Hope for Maximilian. 124
Bad System of Enlistment followed—Energy of the Empress Charlotte—Destruction of Mejia's Division—The Emperor Napoleon's harsh Reply to M. Almonte's Mission—Its Effect on the Mexican Court—Maximilian's Project of Abdication stopped by the Empress—Her Expedition to Europe—Painful Incident—Fresh Imperial Disasters—Maximilian's Idea of Declaring a State of Siege—It is opposed by Marshal Bazaine 142
Arrival of the Empress Charlotte at Saint Nazaire—Her Journey to Paris—Conversation with M. Drouyn de Lhuys—Her exciting Interview with Napoleon III.—American Despatches as to her Arrival—Maximilian's Coup d'état.—The Abbé Fischer—The Emperor's Reactionary Policy—Concentration of French Troops—American Assistance to the Liberal Party 157
Reactionary Influence of the new Ministry—Maximilian's injudicious Innovations—Fall of Tampico—Correspondence thereon—Marshal Bazaine's Explanations—Mutiny of the Belgian Contingent—Singular Loss of Belgian Despatches—Bad State of the National Army—Complaints made by the French Commandants of the Cazadores—Well-founded Appeal of General Guttierez—Clerical Interference with the Course of Justice 168
French Officers in the Mexican Administration—Correspondence on this Subject—Marshal Bazaine's Acquiescence—Disavowed at Paris—Neglect of the Mexican Naval Department—Convention of July 30—Sudden Alteration in the Views of the French Cabinet—The Mission of General Castelnau—Matters getting Worse in Mexico—Maximilian's Plans to ensure his safe Retreat—Marshal Bazaine receives fresh Orders from Paris—Mr. Seward's Despatch—Complaints of the Mexican Ministry rebutted by Marshal Bazaine—Mysterious Aim of General Castelnau's Mission—The Four-fold Drama—Maximilian's Protest 181
Maximilian prepares for Departure—Last Moments at Chapultepec-Arrival of sad News—The Health of the Empress Charlotte—Maximilian resolves to leave—Cowardly Conduct of the Ministers—Marshal Bazaine's Firmness—Maximilian leaves the Capital—His Three last Wishes—His Journey—Peculiarities in Maximilian's Character. 200
Maximilian's Entry into Orizaba—His enthusiastic Reception—Retires into Seclusion—Intrigues of Father Fischer and the Clerical Party—Disaster to the Austrian Contingent—Fall of Oajaca, and increasing Liberal Successes—Maximilian still undecided—His kind Thought for the Austro-Belgian Contingent—M. Eloïn's Letter—Decides Maximilian to renew the Contest. 210
General Castelnau proceeds to the Capital—Marshal Bazaine's ambiguous Position—His Difficulties and Error—Dark Views of the French Cabinet—Agitated State of the Country and City of Mexico—Mexican Ingratitude—French Intrigues with Ortega—Attitude of the United States—Campbell and Sherman's Mission to Mexico—Mr. Seward's Instructions to the Envoys—They arrive at Tampico 218
Maximilian's new Resolutions—Generals Marquez and Miramon—Secret Imperial Envoys to Washington—M. Lares' Requests to Marshal Bazaine—Father Fischer's Diplomacy—Maximilian's final Requisitions—The French Representatives deceived—Marquis de Montholon's Letters to Marshal Bazaine—Accordant Views of France and the United States—Letter of Porfirio Diaz—Final Disappointment of the American Envoys 230
Conference of Mexican Ministers—Seductive Plans of the Clerical Party—Meditated Campaigns by Marquez and Miramon—Maximilian announces his fresh Resolve—His Manifesto—M. Lares' Letter to the French Representatives—Dissatisfaction in the French Camp—Destruction of the French Schemes—Harsh Measures of the Emperor Napoleon—Recall of the Foreign Legion—Mr. Bigelow's Despatch—Irritation at the Tuileries—The lost Despatch—Hostile Feeling between the French and Mexican Governments—Maximilian returns to the Capital 246
French Pecuniary Claims enforced—Forcible Proceedings at Vera Cruz—Customhouse Difficulties in the City of Mexico—Arbitrary Conduct of the French—The Mexican Minister's Protest—Discord in the French Camp—Marshal Bazaine's Painful Position—French Intrigues with the Rebels—Decisive Telegram to General Castelnau—Maximilian's Difficulties increase—His Generous Resolve as to Foreign Soldiers—Letter from the Empress Eugénie—The Clerical Plans fail—Imperial Disasters—Maximilian's Interview with Marshal Bazaine—Plain Statement by the Latter—The Junta in Mexico—Marshal Bazaine attends it—The Marshal's Declaration—The Junta decides for the Empire—Sale of the French Cavalry Horses—Exchange of Prisoners—Honourable Conduct of the Liberals—Appeals to French Honour—The Austrian Farewell 263
Withdrawal of French Troops from the Capital—Position of the Rebels—Dissatisfaction of M. Lares at the passive Attitude of the French Army—Marshal Bazaine's vindicatory Letter—Maximilian's final Rupture with the French Authorities—Proposition as to the 'Cross of Guadeloupe'—Interference of Abbé Fischer—His Reproval by the French Authorities—Orders for immediate Embarkation—French Measures for the Protection of the Capital—Destruction of French Munitions of War—Maximilian's Mistrust and Visit to the Citadel—French Flag struck in the City of Mexico—Characters of Mejia and Miramon—General Castelnau's Return—Marshal Bazaine's last Appeal to Maximilian—Its Failure—Marshal Bazaine fortifies Vera Cruz—Marshal Bazaine's Letter to the French Admiral—Final Departure from Vera Cruz of the French Troops—The Marshal's bad Reception in France—Its Cause and Its Injustice 288
Termination of the French Intervention in Mexico—Reflections on the Fate of Maximilian—His Illusions and Errors—Retrospect and Final Considerations 305
Appendix 308