1922 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 30/Table of contributors

INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXX. TO IDENTIFY CONTRIBUTORS,[1] WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE ARTICLES TO WHICH THESE INITIALS ARE SIGNED.


A. B. Anton Bettelheim, Dr. Juris.
Austrian Empire: Literature and Drama.
A. C. D. Alfred C. Dewar, Capt. R.N. (ret.), B.Litt. (Oxon.).
Gold Medallist, Royal United Service Institution. Late of the Historical Section, Naval Staff, Admiralty.
Admiralty Administration: British;
Blockade
; Convoy;
Coronel
; Dogger Bank.
A. D. H. Sir Alfred Daniel Hall, K.C.B., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.
Chief Scientific Adviser and Director-General of the Intelligence Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Author of The Soil; Fertilisers and Manures; A Pilgrimage of British Farming; Agriculture after the War; etc.
Agriculture.
A. E. Ev. Arthur Ernest Everest, D.Sc., Ph.D., F.I.C.
Joint-author of The Natural Organic Colouring Matters (Perkin and Everest). Author of various papers on Colouring Matters, etc., in Proc. Roy. Soc., Journ. Chem. Soc., etc.
Botany: Chemistry of Sap Pigments of Plants.
A. Fl. Alexander Fleming, M.B., F.R.C.S.
Director of the Department of Systematic Bacteriology in St. Mary's Hospital, London.
Antiseptics.
A. F. Pr. Alfred Francis Pribram, Ph.D.
Professor of Modern History in the University of Vienna. Member of the Vienna Academy of Science; etc.
Aehrenthal;
Austrian Empire
: Austro-Hungarian Foreign Policy;
Berchtold, Count L.
;
Burian, R. S. von
;
Charles (Emperor of Austria)
;
Czernin, Count
.
A. G. L. Alfred Goodman Levy, M.D., M.R.C.P.
Physician to the City of London Hospital for Diseases of the Chest.
Anaesthetics.
A. G. W. Adam Gowans Whyte, B.Sc., A.I.E.E.
Editor of the Electrical Press Limited. Author of The Electrical Industry; Electricity in Locomotion; The All-Electric Age.
Electricity Supply: United Kingdom.
A. H. Br. Alfred H. Brooks, B.Sc., D.Sc.
Geologist, U.S. Geological Survey. In charge of geologic and topographic surveys and investigations of mineral resources of Alaska. Vice-Chairman of the first Alaska Railroad Commission.
Alaska.
A. H. C.* A. H. Christie.
Late Director, Westminster Technical Institute.
Arts and Crafts (in part).
A. H. Ch. Arthur Harry Church.
University Lecturer in Botany, Oxford.
Botany: General Morphology.
A. H. Gi. Arnold Hartley Gibson, D.Sc., M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech.E., F.R.Ae.S.
Professor of Engineering, University of Manchester; late Professor of Engineering, St. Andrews University. Member, Board of Trade Water Power Committee; Hon. Secretary, Conjoint Board, Water Power Committee. Member of the Air Ministry I.C.E. Committee. President, British Association, Section 9, 1921.
Aeronautics: Aero-Engines.

A. H. McM. Colonel Sir Arthur Henry M'Mahon, G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., K.C.I.E C.S.I., F.S.A., F.L.S., etc.
Foreign Secretary to the Government of India, 1911–4. British High Commissioner in Egypt, 1914-6. See biographical article: M'Mahon, Sir Arthur Henry.
Afghanistan.
A. J. G. Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., D.D.
Principal and Professor of Systematic Theology in the Scottish Congregational College, Edinburgh. Assistant Editor of Peake's Commentary on the Bible.
Church History: Free Churches: Presbyterian Church of Scotland.
A. J. M. Squadron Leader Arnold John Miley, O.B.E., R.A.F.
Design Branch, Directorate of Research, Air Ministry, in charge of Seaplane Development. Assistant Director, Air Department, Admiralty, June 1915 to June 1916; Senior Flying Officer Naval Air Station, Felixstowe, August 1916 to June 1917.
Aeronautics: Seaplanes.
A.-K. General Moritz Auffenberg-Komarow.
See the biographical article: Aufjenberg-Komarow, Moritz.
Army: Austro-Hungarian (in part);
Beck, Graf von
;
Conrad von Hotzendorf
.
A. L. Bo. Arthur Lyon Bowley, Sc.D.
Professor of Statistics in the University of London. Author of Elements of Statistics; Wages in the United Kingdom; etc.
Cost of Living.
A. L. C. Colonel Arthur Latham Conger, U.S. Army.
Distinguished Service Medal (U.S.A.), C.M.G. Legion of Honour. Formerly co-editor of The Military Historian and Economist.
Army: United States; Champagne, Battles in (in part).
A. P. Sir Arthur Pearson, BT., G.B.E. (died 1921).
Chairman of the Blinded Soldiers and Sailors Care Committee. President of the National Institute for the Blind. Author of Victory over Blindness; The Conquest of Blindness. See the biographical article: Pearson, Sir Arthur.
Blindness.
A. S. D. Augustus Seiss Downing, A.B., M.A., L.H.D., LL.D.
Assistant Commissioner for Higher Education and Director of Professional Education, University of the State of New York.
Education: United States (in part).
A. S. E. Arthur Stanley Eddington, M.A., M.Sc., F.R.S.
Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy and Director of the Observatory, Cambridge. Author of Stellar Movements and the Structure of the Universe; Space, Time and Gravitation.
Astronomy.
B. B.-H. Major-General Basil Ferguson Burnett-Hitchcock, C.B., D.S.O., p.s.c.
Director-General of Mobilization and Recruiting, War Office.
Army: British.
B. E. P. General of Brigade Barthélemy Edmond Palat.
Late French Army. Commanded a Division 1915–6. Author of La Grande Guerre sur le front Occidental; Les Batattles d'Arlois et de Champagne; and, under the pseudonym "Pierre Lebaut court," of La Defense Nationale, 1870-1 and other works, including a general bibliography of 1870–1.
Champagne, Battles in (in part).
B. K. L. Basil Kellett Long.
Editor of the Cape Times. Formerly Foreign Editor of The Times.
Botha, General.
B. W. D. Brian Westerdale Downs, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Mediaeval and Modern Languages and English, Christ's College, Cambridge.
Cambridge.
C. A. D. Clyde Augustus Duniway, Ph.D., LL.D.
President of Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colo. Author of Freedom of the Press in Massachusetts.
Colorado.
C. Br. Carl Brockhausen, Dr. Juris.
Professor of the Science of Administration in the University of Vienna.
Austrian Empire (in part); Badeni, K.
C. B. C. Wing Commander T. R. Cave-Browne-Cave, C.B.E., R.A.F., F.R.AE.S., A.M.I.Mech.E., A.M.I.N.A.
In charge of Airship Experiments and Research at the Admiralty and the Air Ministry. Lecturer in Airship Engineering, Imperial College of Science. Airship Member of the Aeronautical Research Committee. Formerly Engineer Officer, R.N. Airship Pilot, 1913. In charge of Non-rigid Airship Design and Construction at Kingsnorth, 1914–8.
Aeronautics: Airships.
C. C. H. Charles Caesar Hawkins, M.A., M.I.E.E., Assoc. American I.E.E.
Author of The Dynamo. Joint-author of Papers on the Design of Alternate Current Machinery.
Electrical Engineering (in part).
C. E. C. Major-General Sir Charles Edward Callwell, K.C.B.
Director of Military Operations, War Office, 1914–6. Author of Small Wars; Military Operations and Maritime Preponderance; The Dardanelles; etc.
Dardanelles Campaign.
C. E. W. B. Major Claude Eagles Willoughby Beddoes, O.B.E.
Gloucestershire Regiment. Inspector of Grenade Training, G.H.Q., Great Britain, 1915–8. Experimental Officer for Grenades and Trench Stores, Ministry of Munitions, 1915–9. Control Officer, Inter-Allied Commission of Control, 1919.
Dogs, War (in part).

C. F. A.

C. F. C. C. H. H.

C. H. T. C. J. M. C.K.* C. L. C.

C. LI. M.

C. M. E. M. C. O. B.

C. R. W.

C. T. A. C. T. G.

MAJOR CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON.

T.D. Late East Surrey Regiment. Distinguished Service Medal (U.S.A.), Order of Saint Anne (Russia). Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Staff Officer for Trench Warfare Research, 1915-7. British Instructor in Intelligence, American Expeditionary Force, 1918. Editorial Staff of the nth edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Author of Grant's Campaigns; The Wilderness and Cold Harbor; etc.

CHARLES FREDERICK CROSS, B.Sc., F.R.S. (

Analytical and Consulting Chemist. Member of the firm of Cross & Bevan. Joint-author (with E. J. Bevan) of Researches on Cellulose; Text-Book of Papermaking.

CLARENCE HENRY HARLNG, B.LiTT. (Oxon.), PH.D. (Harvard).

Associate Professor of History in Yale University. Author of The Buccaneers in the West Indies in the XVII. Century; Trade -and Navigation between Spain and the Indies in the Time of the Habsburgs; etc.

CHARLES HARRISON TOWNSEND, F.R.I. B. A. fnivi

Past-Master of the Art Workers' Guild. Late Member of Council of the Royal I elcl j ler > J> Institute of British Architecture. Cantor Lecturer on Mosaic. [ Bentley, J. i>.

COURTENAY J. MILL.

Financial Editor of The Times.

Air Bombs (in part) ; Ammunition (in part) ; Army: Russian (in part) ;

German ; Artillery (in part) ; Balkan Wars (in part); Bombthrowers ; Cordonnier, General; Eastern European Front Campaigns (in part).

Cellulose.

Brazil.

CARL KARSTEN.

Member of the Staff of the Deutsche Allgemeine Zeitung.

< English Finance.

f Allenstein-Marienwerder; I Ballin, A. ; Berlin; Bernstorff, | Count; Dresden; (Ebert,F.

Author of { Behaviourism.

CHARLES LYON CHANDLER, A.B.

Curator of South American History and Literature in the Harvard College I Argentina; Library. Manager of the Foreign Commercial Department of the Corn Exchange | Buenos Aires. National Bank of Philadelphia. Author of Inter- American Acquaintances.

CONWY LLOYD MORGAN, D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S.

Emeritus Professor of Psychology in the University of Bristol. Animal Life and Intelligence; Instinct and Experience; etc.

GENERAL CHARLES MARIE EMANUEL MANGIN, K.C.B., etc. See the biographical article: MANGIN, C. M. E.

CHARLES OTTO BLAGDEN, M.A.

Reader in Malay in the University of London and in the School of Oriental Studies, London Institution.

CLINTON ROGERS WOODRUFF, A.B., Pn.B., LL.B.

Attorney-at-Law. Hon. Secretary, National Municipal League. Vice-President, American Civic Association. President, Civil Service Commission of Philadelphia.

CAPTAIN C. T. ATKINSON.

Historical Section, Committee of Imperial Defence.

/ Champagne, Battles in

\ (in part).

Austric Family of Languages.

City Government.

Artois, Battles in (in part).

CHARLES THEODORE GREVE, A.B., LL.B.

Referee-in-Bankruptcy, U.S. District Court, Southern District of Ohio. Secre- { Cincinnati, tary to the Trustees of the Sinking Fund of Cincinnati, Ohio.

D. A.

D. D. T. O'C. MAJOR-GENERAL SIR DESMOND DYKES TYNTE O'CALLAGHAN, K.C.V.O., R.A

DOUGLAS AINSLIE, B.A. (Oxon.). f

Translator of Benedetto Croce's works. Author of John of Damascus; The Song < Croce, Benedetto (in part), of the Stewarts; and other poems.

f

Colonel Commandant, Royal Artillery. Secretary, Member and President of the Ordnance Committee. President of the Committee on Explosives. Formerly on the Experimental Staff at Shoeburyness.

D. P. B. DAVID PRESCOTT BARROWS, M.A., PH.D., LL.D.

President of the University of California. Professor of Education, University of California, 1910. President, Board of Trustees, Mills College, California, 1910-7. Author of the Ethno-Botany of the Coahuilla Indians; A History of the Philip- pines; etc.

D. Y. T. DAVID YANCEY THOMAS, M.A., PH.D.

Professor of History and Political Science in the University of Arkansas. Author of A History of Military Government in Newly Acquired Territory of the United States. Joint-author of The South in the Building of the Nation; Studies in South- ern History and Politics. Associate Editor of the Southwestern Political Science Quarterly.

E. B. A. MAJOR-GENERAL EDWARD BAILEY ASHMORE, C.B., C.M.G., M.V.O. f

Commander of the Legion of Honour. General in Command of the London Air < Air Raids. Defences.

Ammunition (in part).

California, University of.

Arkansas.

E. C.K. E. F. B. G.

E. F. L. E. G.-H.

E.J.

E. J. F. E. J. G.

E. J. R.

E. J. S. E.K.

E. M. Ho. E. N. S. E. S.

E. S. H.

E. S. H.* E. S. S. E. V. V.

E. v. W. E. W. MacB.

EDWARD CAMERON KIRK, D.D.S., Sc.D., LL.D.

Late Dean and Emeritus Professor of Dental Pathology and Therapeutics, Dental School, University of Pennsylvania. Editor of The Dental Cosmos.

ELINOR F. B. GROGAN (Lady Grogan).

Wife of Colonel Sir Edward Grogan, Bart., C.M.G., D.S.O. Travelled and lived for some years in the Balkans. Author of articles on Balkan subjects in the Nineteenth Century; New Europe; etc.

EDWARD F. LAW.

Consulting Engineer. Formerly of the Armour Plate Department, Armstrong Whitworth & Co.

MAJOR EDWARD GLAISE-HORSTENAU.

Late General Staff, Austro-Hungarian Army. Now of the Kriegsarchiv, Vienna. Formerly Staff Officer to Field-Marshal Conrad von Hotzendorf.

MAJOR ERNST JOLY.

Late General Staff, Austro-Hungarian Army. Now of the Kriegsarchiv, Vienna. Part-author of the Austrian Official War Chronology Tables, etc.

EDGAR JOHN FORSDYKE, M.A., F.S.A.

Assistant in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities in the British Museum. Editor of the Journal of Hellenic Studies.

EDGAR JOHNSON GOODSPEED, PH.D.

Professor of Biblical and Patristic Greek, and Secretary to the President, Chicago University. Author of the Story of the New Testament; Index Patristicus; and Contributor to the Atlantic Monthly.

EDWARD JOHN RUSSELL, D.Sc., F.R.S.

Director of the Rothamsted Experimental Station. Author of Soil Conditions and Plant Growth; The Fertility of the Soil; Lessons on Soil; Manuring for Higher Crop Production; etc.

EDWARD JAMES SALISBURY, D.Sc., F.L.S.

Lecturer in Botany and Fellow of University College, London. Hon. Secretary, British Ecological Society. Author of An Introduction to the Study of Plants; etc.

EDMUND KNECHT, Pn.D. (Zurich), M.SC.TECH., F.I.C.

Associate Professor of Applied Chemistry, Manchester University and College of Technology.

ERNEST MARTIN HOPKINS, A.M., Lrrr.D., LL.D. President of Dartmouth College, Hanover, N.H.

BREVET COLONEL ERNEST NORMAN STOCKLEY, D.S.O. Royal Engineers.

ERNEST SANDFORD.

Secretary to the Lord Mayor of Birmingham. Joint-author (with R. H. Brazier)] Birmingham. of Birmingham and the Great War.

ELIZABETH SANDERSON HALDANE, C.H., LL.D., J.P.

Member of Education Authority for Perthshire. Vice-Chairman, Territorial Force Nursing Service Committee. On Royal Commission on the Civil Service. Member of the Scottish Universities Committee. Author of The Life of Des- cartes; etc.

Dentistry.

Bulgaria.

Armour Plate.

Austria, Republic of: History; Eastern European Front Campaigns (in part) .

Army: Austro-Hungarian (in

part); Brest Litovsk, Battles

round, 1915; Dunajec-San, Battles of the^

Archaeology : Greece.

Chicago, University of.

Botany: Soil Sterilization*

Botany: Ecology.

Dyeing : United Kingdom-

Dartmouth College.

< Bridging, Military.

Child Welfare:

United Kingdom.

Army: British, Demobiliza- tion; Dogs, War (in part).

F. A. Cl.

CAPTAIN EDGAR STOPFORD HOLLAND.

Late Royal West Kent Regiment. Formerly Mobilization Directorate, War Office. Member of Gray's Inn.

ERNEST STANLEY SALMON, F.L.S.

Reader in Economic Mycology, University of London. Mycologist to the South- { Botany: Mycology.

Eastern Agricultural College, Wye, Kent. ERNEST VANCOURT VAUGHN, M.A., PH.D.

Professor of History in the University of Delaware. Author of The Origin and

Early Development of the English Universities to the Close of the ijth Century;

English Trading Expeditions into Asia under Authority of the Muscovy Company,

I557-8I. EDUARD VON WERTHEIMER.

Emeritus Professor of History in the University of Pressburg.

ERNEST WILLIAM MACBRIDE, D.Sc. (Lond.), M.A. (Cantab.), HON. LL.D. (McGill),

F.R.S.

Vice-President of the Zoological Society of London. Vice-Chairman of the Eugenics Education Society. Formerly Professor of Zoology in McGill Univer- sity, Montreal. Professor of Zoology in the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. Author of Textbook of the Embryology of the Invertebrata; etc.

FREDERICK ALBERT CLEVELAND, Pn.B., PH.D., LL.D.

Professor of United States Citizenship, Maxwell Foundation, Boston University. ( Boston. Author of Organized Democracy; First Lessons in Finance; etc.

Delaware.

Andrassy, J. J.

Cytology; Embryology.

F. A. L. F. C.-O. F. C. E.

F.F. F. G. B. F. G.-T.

F. H. Br.

F.I.

F. J. C. W.

F. Ke.* F. L. N.

F. M. R. F. R. C.

F. W. E.-G.

F. W. P.

F. Y.

F.Z.

G. A.

G. Ab.

G. A. Y. G. C. G. E. B.

FREDERICK ALEXANDER LINDEMANN, M.A., PH.D., F.R.S.

Professor of Experimental Philosophy in the University of Oxford.

CAPTAIN FRANK CREAGH-OSBORNE, R.N., C.B. Director, Admiralty Compass Department.

FRANZ CARL ENDRES.

Major, late General Staff, Turkish Army. Author of a Life of M alike; Die Ruine des Orients; etc. Member of Committee, German League of Nations Union.

FRANK Fox, O.B.E.

Author of Australia; Problems of the Pacific; "G.H.Q." Served in War as Artillery officer and as Staff officer.

FRANK GEORGE BARNES.

Superintendent, Homerton Residential School for the Deaf. The Teacher of the Deaf. Officer of the French Academy.

F. GLOERFELDT-TARP, M.A.

Chief Secretary to the Danish Extraordinary Commission on Regulation of Prices. Secretary to the General Director of the Great Northern Telegraph Company (Store Nordiske).

FRANK HERBERT BROWN, C.I.E.

On the Staff of The Times for Indian Affairs. London Correspondent of The Times of India. Formerly Assistant Editor of the Bombay Gazette and Editor of the Indian Daily Telegraph, Lucknow.

FLORENCE IRWIN.

Author of The Complete Auction Player; Master- Auction; etc.

MAJOR F. J. C. WYATT, O.B.E., M.C.

Royal Engineers. Organizer and Controller of Camouflage, British Expedition- ary Force, France, 1916-8.

FREDERICK WILLIAM KEEBLE, C.B.E., F.R.S.

Sherardian Professor of Botany in the University of Oxford.

COLONEL SIR FREDERIC LEWIS NATHAN, K.B.E.

Late Royal Artillery. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. Director of Alcohol Section, Fuel Research Board.

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL F. M. RICKARD.

Royal Artillery. Chief Instructor, Artillery Instructional Staff, Artillery College).

I Einstein, i \ Compass.

Army: Turkish; Balkan Wars (in part).

Formerly Editor of { Deaf and Dumb.

Denmark (in part).

} Aga Khan ;

] Bikaner, Maharaja of.

Bridge, Auction. Camouflage: Military.

\ Botany: Introductory. Alcohol.

College, Woolwich (assisted by < Ammunition (in part) .

FRANK RICHARDSON CANA, F.R.G.S.

Editorial Staff, nth edition of the Encyclopedia Bntannica. Editorial Staff of The Times. Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union; Problems of Exploration; Africa; The Sahara in 1915; The Great War in Europe; etc.

FREDERICK WILLIAM EDRIDGE-GREEN, C.B.E., M.D., F.R.C.S.

Special Examiner and Adviser to the Board of Trade on Colour Vision and Eye- sight. Author of The Physiology of Vision. Inventor of the Colour Perception Spectrometer and Colour Perception Lantern used as the Official Test of the British Navy.

FLOYD W. PARSONS, E.M.

Founder and former Editor of The Coal Age.

ALEXANDER BELL FILSON YOUNG.

Editor of the Saturday Review. Author of With the Battle Cruisers; Master- singers; Ireland at the Cross Roads; Christopher Columbus and the New World; The Sands of Pleasure; When the Tide Turns; etc.

F. ZEUTHEN.

GEORGE JEFFREYS ADAM,

Formerly Correspondent of The Times in Paris.

GRACE ABBOTT, M.A.

Chief of the Children's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor. Formerly Director Child Labor Division, U.S. Children's Bureau, and Executive Secretary, Illinois Immigrants Commission, Chicago.

GILBERT A. YOUNGBERG, D.S.O.

Lieutenant-Colonel, Corps of Engineers, Assistant to the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army.

G. CASTELLANO.

Author of Introduzione allo studio delle opere di B. Croce (1920).

GEORGE EARLE BUCKLE, M.A., HON. LL.D.

Formerly Scholar of New College and Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Editor of The Times, 1884-1912. Author of Life of Disraeli (vols. 3, 4, 5, and 6). See biographical article : BUCKLE, GEORGE EARLE.

Abyssinia; Africa; Angola; Belgian Congo; Cairo; Cameroon; Cape Province; Dahomey; Delagoa Bay; East African Military

Operations ; Egypt (in part).

Colour Vision and Colour Blindness.

Coal: United States.

Beatty, Lord.

| Denmark (in part).

/ Briand, A.

\ Deschanel, P.

Children, Laws Relating to :

United States; Child Welfare: United States.

Engineers, Military:

United States.

/ Croce, Benedetto \ (in part).

Asquith, H. H.; Balfour, A. J.; Carson, Sir Edward;

Cecil, Lord Hugh; Cecil, Lord Robert; Churchill, Winston; Cromer, Lord;

English History: 1913-21. G. . M.

G. E. S. G. K. S.-M. G.P.


SIR GEORGE ERNEST MAY, K.B.E., F.I.A.

Secretary of the Prudential Assurance Company, Limited. Manager to the Dollar Securities Committee.

GRAFTON ELLIOT SMITH, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., F.R.S.

Professor of Anatomy in the University of London. Author of The Ancient \ . , Egyptians; The Royal Mummies; Migrations of Early Culture; Evolution of the } An " lro pology. Dragon; etc.

G.S. G. S. F.

G. T.* H. A. B.

H. A. H. H. Ch.

H. Cl.

H. Cr. H. E. A.

H. E. A. C. H. E. B. H. E. E.

H. E. Wi. H. G. J.

H.H.*

Barracks and Hutments; Engineers, Military: United Kingdom.

Conservation Policy.

MAJOR-GENERAL SIR GEORGE KENNETH SCOTT-MONCRIEFF, K.C.B., K.C.M.G.,

C.I.E., HoN.M.lNST.C.E., LATE R.E.

Director of Fortifications and Works, War Office, 1911-8. Author of The Water Supply of Barracks and Cantonments; The Principles of Structural Design; etc.

GIFFORD PTNCHOT, A.B. (Yale), HON. A.M. (Yale and Princeton), Sc.D. (Michigan

Agricultural College), LL.D. (McGill).

Professor of Forestry, Yale University. U.S. Forester, 1898-1910. President of the National Conservation Association. Pennsylvania Commissioner of Forestry. Author of The Adirondack Spruce; The Training of a Forester; The Fight for Conservation; etc. ,

GEORGE SAUNDERS, O.B.E., B.A. (Oxon.), HON. LL.D. (Glasgow). [ Bethmann Hollweg, T. von;

Correspondent of the Morning Post in Berlin, 1888-97; an d of The Times in I Biilow, Prince von ; Berlin, 1897-1908, and in Paris, 1908-14. ] Delbruck, Hans;

{ Eisner, Kurt.

Guv STANTON FORD, PH.D. [

Professor of History and Dean of the Graduate School, University of Minnesota. J

Director of Division Public Information.

of Educational and Civic Publications, Committee on

Censorship : United States.

GEOFFREY TOYE.

Scholar and Exhibitioner, Royal College of Music. Author of Experance Morris { Dancing. Dance Book, No. 2. Conductor, Philharmonic Societies, London and Liverpool.

BRIGADIER-GENERAL HENRY ARTHUR BETHELL, C.M.G.

Late Royal Field Artillery. Author of Modern Guns and Gunnery; Modern Artillery in the Field.

HOWARD ARCHIBALD HUBBARD, M.A.

Associate Professor of History and Social Science in the University of Arizona.

HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A.

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the toth, nth and 1 2th editions of the Encyclopedia Britannica. Financial Editor of The Times, 1913-20. See the biographical article : CHISHOLM, HUGH.

SIR HUGH CLIFFORD, G.C.M.G.

Governor of Nigeria. In the Federated Malay States Civil Service, 1883-1903; in the West Indies, 1903-7; in Ceylon, as Colonial Secretary, 1907-12. Governor of the Gold Coast, 1912-9. Administered the British Sphere of Occu- pation in Togoland throughout the World War. Author of Studies in Brown Humanity; Furtlier India; The German Colonies; etc.

HOMER CROY.

Author of How Motion Pictures Are Made.

HENRY EDWARD ARMSTRONG, PH.D., LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.

Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at the City and Guilds College, South Kensing- ton. Davy Medallist of the Royal Society, 1911.

HENRY EVAN AUGUSTE COTTON, C.I.E., L.C.C.

Formerly Scholar of Jesus College, Oxford, and Advocate of the High Court at Calcutta. Author of Calcutta Old and New. Late Editor of India.

HENRY ELDRIDGE BOURNE, L.H.D. f

Professor of History in Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. Author of ( Cleveland. The Revolutionary Period in Europe; The Teaching of History and Civics; etc. [

HUGH EDWARD EGERTON.

Sometime Beit Professor of Colonial History, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Author of A Short History of British Colonial Policy; Origin and Growth of the English Colonies; " Canada" (Part II.) in Sir Charles Lucas's History and Geography of the British Colonies; etc.

MAJOR H. E. WIMPERIS, O.B.E., M.A., M.I.E.E., A.M.I.C.E., F.R.AE.S.

Superintendent of the Air Ministry Laboratory. Lecturer on Air Navigation at the Imperial College of Science. Served in Royal Air Force.

HERMAN GERLACH JAMES, M.A., J.D., PH.D.

Professor of Government in the University of Texas. Author of Principles of Prussian Administration; Applied City Government; A Handbook of Civic Im- provements; Municipal Functions; etc.

HARRY REGINALD HOLLAND HALL, D.Lnr., M.B.E., F.S.A.

Assistant Keeper of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum.

Artillery (in part). Arizona.

English History:

1910-2.

Ashanti.

j Cinematograph. < Chemistry

Banerjea, Sir S.

British Empire.

Aeronautics : A ir Navigation.

Chile.

/Archaeology: Egypt \ and Western Asia.

H. I. P. HERBERT INGRAM PRIESTLEY, M.A., PH.D.

Associate Professor of Mexican History and Librarian of the Bancroft Library, University of California. Author of Jose de Gdlvez, Visitor-General of New Spain] etc.

H. J. W. H. J. WILSON, C.B., C.B.E.

H. K. HANS KELSEN, DR. JURIS.

Professor of Constitutional Law at the University of Vienna. '

H. Lu. H. LUND, M.A.

H. L. H. S. HARRY L. H. SCHUTZE, M.D.

Bacteriologist at the Lister Institute, London.

H. L. T. HENRY LETHEBY TIDY, M.A., M.D. (Oxon.), F.R.C.'P. (Lond.).

Assistant Physician to St. Thomas's Hospital. Physician to the Great Northern Hospital, London.

H. M. L. HAROLD MAXWELL LEFROY, M.A., F.Z.S.

Professor of Entomology in the Imperial College of Science and Technology, South Kensington. Author of Indian Insect Pests; Indian Insect Life; etc.

H. N.* CAPTAIN HOFFMAN NICKERSON, B.A., M.A. (Harvard).

Late U.S. Army. Member of New York State Legislature, 1916. In the World War served in G.H.Q. Intelligence Staff, American Expeditionary Force, France.

H. P. HENRI PIRENNE.

Rector of the University of Ghent. Member of the Royal Academy of Belgium and of the Institute of France. Corresponding Member of the Royal Historical Society. Author of Histoire de Belgique; etc.

H. P. W. HENRY PARKER WILLIS, PH.D.

Professor of Banking in Columbia University. Director of Research, Federal Reserve Board. Author of American Banking; The Federal Reserve; etc.

H. R. M. HUGH ROBERT MILL, D.Sc., LL.D.

Gold Medallist of the Royal Geographical Society. Author of The Siege of the South Pole; etc. See the biographical article: MILL, HUGH ROBERT.

H. Tk. HANS TIEKE, PH.D.

Professor of Art History in the University of Vienna.

H. v. H. MAJOR-GENERAL HANS VON HAEFTEN.

Late General Staff, German Army. Director in the Archives of the Reich. Formerly member of the Historical Section of the Great General Staff. During the World War a General Staff Officer with troops. Representative of the Supreme Command at the Foreign Office, 1918.

H. W. HARTLEY WITHERS.

Editor of the Financial Supplement of the Saturday Review. Formerly Editor of The Economist. Author of The Meaning of Money; Case for Capitalism; etc.

H. Wf. HUMBERT WOLFE, C.B.E.

H. W. M. HENRY WILLIAM MARDON, F.R.G.S.

Commander of the Mejidieh. Formerly Lecturer in Geography and Education in the Tewfikieh and Dar el Ulum Colleges, Cairo. Author of A Geography of Egypt and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan; etc.

H. W. M.* HAROLD WOOD MILNER, M.Sc., A.M.I.C.E.

Executive Engineer, Public Works Department, Government of India.

I. B. B. SIR ISAAC BAYLEY BALFOUR, K.B.E., M.D., LL.D., M.A., F.R.S.

Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford.

I. F. IRVING FISHER, A.B., PH.D.

Professor of Political Economy at Yale University. Author of The Nature of Capital and Income; The Purchasing Power of Money; The Rate of Interest; etc. See the biographical article: FISHER, IRVING.

J. A. G. JAMES ALISON GLOVER, O.B.E., M.A., M.D. (Cantab.), D.P.H.

Medical Officer, Ministry of Health. Late Officer in Charge Cerebro-Spinal Fever Laboratory, London District.

J. A. T.* JOHN AITON TODD, B.L. f

Lecturer in Economics, Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The World's Cotton { Cotton and Cotton Industry. Crops; etc.

J. B. C. K. JOHN BAKER CANNINGTON KERSHAW, F.I.C., F.S.S.

Consulting Chemist and Chemical Engineer. Author of The Electric Furnace in Iron and Steel Production; Electrometallurgy; Electrothermal Methods of Iron and Steel Production.

Costa Rica.

I Arbitration and Conciliation: I United Kingdom.

! Austria, Republic of:

< Constitution and { Administration.

| Denmark (in part). <, Bacteriology: Medical.

Encephalitis Lethargica. Economic Entomology. Artois, Battles in (in part).

Belgium: History (in part).

Banking: United States.

Antarctic Regions. Austrian Empire : Art.

Champagne, Battles in

(in part) .

Capitalism.

f Demobilization and

| Resettlement: United

[ Kingdom.

Arabia.

Delhi.

Botany : Horticultural Exploration.

Dollar Stabilization.

Cerebro-Spinal Fever.

I

f

I Electrochemistry and

] Electrometallurgy. J.C.

J. C. M.*

J. C. Mo. J. E. W. J. H. D.

J. Mo.* J. M. M.

J. O. P. B.

J.P.

J. P.-B. J. R. Co.

J. R. J- J- J. R. R.

J. SI.

J. S. Ba.

K. M.

K. P.

L.Bw. L. C. W. L.D.


Jo VAN Cvijic.

Patron's Medallist of the R.G.S. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Professor of Geography in the University of Belgrade. Author of Das Karstphaenomen; Grundlinien der Geographic und Geologic lion Mazedonien und Altserbien; La Peninsiile Balkanique.

COLONEL JOHN COLIN MATHESON, R.E.

Deputy Chief Engineer, Southern Command. Formerly Chief Instructor in Fortification, School of Military Engineering, Chatham. Fortification Adviser to the Chilean Government. Member of the Belgian Coast Defences Commission, 1919, and of the Heligoland Commission, 1920.

JAMES CECIL MOTTRAM, M.B. (Lond.), D.P.H. (Cantab.).

Director of the Research Department, Radium Institute. Late Experimental Officer, Camouflage School, G.H.Q. Author of Controlled Natural Selection.

'JAMES E. WEST, LL.B., LL.M.

Chief Scout Executive, Boy Scouts of America. Formerly Secretary of Presi- dent Roosevelt's White House Conference on Care of Dependent Children.

MAJOR-GENERAL SIR JOHN HUMPHREY DAVIDSON, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O., M.P.

Late 6oth Rifles. Member for Fareham Division of Hampshire. Served through- , A _ .

out South African War. Instructor in Staff Duties at the Staff College. On the 1 A" 018 . Ba General Staff in France, 1914-8.

RT. REV. MGR. J. MOVES, D.D.

Canon of Westminster Cathedral.

Balkan Peninsula (in part).

Coast Defence.

I Camouflage: Natural; I Colours of Animals.

r

Boy Scouts : United States.

Domestic Prelate to H. H. Pope Benedict XV.

Formerly Editor of the Dublin Review,

__. History:

Roman Catholtc -

DR. J. MERRITT MATTHEWS.

Head of the Department of Chemistry and Dyeing, Philadelphia Textile School, _ . rr . , 1898-1007; Consulting Chemist and Expert in Textile Chemistry and Dyestuffs D y em 8 : Umtea since 1910. Editor Colour Trade Journal since 1917.

JOHN OTWAY PERCY BLAND. f

Author of China; Japan and Korea; Houseboat Days in China. Joint-author of J rjjj na China under the Empress Dowager. Served in Chinese Maritime Customs, 1883-96. Shanghai Correspondent for The Times, 1897-1910.

Professor of History to Prince

JACQUES PIRENNE.

Avocat at the Court of Appeal of Belgium. Leopold of Belgium, Duke of Brabant.

JAMES GEORGE JOSEPH PENDEREL-BRODHURST. Editor of The Guardian.

JOHN ROGERS COMMONS, A.B., A.M., LL.D.

Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin. Author of Documentary History of American Industrial Society; History of Labor in the United Slates; Principles of Labor Legislation; etc.

COLONEL JULIAN ROBERT JOHN JOCELYN, C.B.

Late Royal Artillery. Gold Medallist of the Royal Artillery Institution.

RIGHT HON. SIR JAMES RENNELL ROOD, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O.

Grand Cross of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus. Commander of the Osmanieh. Grand Cross of Polar Star. Late Ambassador to the Court of Italy. Member of Lord Milner's Mission to Egypt, 1920. Special Envoy to King Menelek II., 1897. Author of Customs and Lore of Modern Greece; Poems in Many Lands; etc.

JOHN SLATER, B.A. (Lond.), F.R.I.B.A.

Formerly President, Architectural Association, and Vice-President, Royal Institute of British Architects, 1900-4. Member of Appeal Tribunal under the London Building Acts. Author of a Short History of The Berners Estate; Joint-author of Classic and Early Christian Architecture.

JAMES STRACHEY BARNES, F.R.G.S.

Author of "The Future of the Albanian State" (R.G.S. Journal, July 1918). MAJOR KARL MAYERN.

Late General Staff, Austro-Hungarian Army. Now of the Kriegsarchiv, Vienna.

Author of various monographs on the World War.

KARL PRIBRAM, DR. JURIS.

Professor in the University of Vienna.

LEONARD BAIRSTOW, C.B.E., F.R.S., F.R.As.S., F.INST.P.

Professor of Aerodynamics at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, South Kensington. Author of Applied Aerodynamics.

LAWRENCE C. WROTH, A.B.

First Assistant Librarian, Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore. Author of Parson Weems: A Biographical and Critical Study, etc.

LETTICE DIGBY, F.N.S.

Author of cytological papers in the Annals of Botany; Archiv fiir Zellforschung; etc.

Albert, King of the Belgians; Belgium: History (in part).

/ Church History : \ Church of England.

Arbitration and Conciliation:

United States.

Air Bombs (in part).

Egypt : History.

Architecture : British.

Albania.

Carpathians, Battles of.

Austrian Empire: Economic Conditions (in part);

Austria, Republic of: Eco- nomic Conditions (in part).

Aeronautics: Aerodynamics.

Baltimore.

f

Botany: Cytology.

L. J. B. LAWRENCE JOHNSTON BURPEE. f

Secretary, Canadian Section, International Joint Commission. Formerly I Canada: English

Librarian of the Ottawa Public Library. Author of Bibliography of Canadian } Canadian Literature. Fiction; A Little Book oj Canadian Essays; Century of Canadian Sonnets; etc.

L. J. S. LEONARD JAMES SPENCER, M.A., Sc.D., F.G.S.

Assistant Keeper in the Mineral Department, British Museum Natural History. \ Crystallography. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine. Author of The World's Minerals.

L. Va. LALLA VANDERVELDE. / T> i

Secretary of the Institut des Hautes Etudes, Brussels University. \ "Ogam'. Literature.

I Austrian Empire :

L. v. M. LUDWIG VON MISES, DR. JURIS. J Finance and Banking;

Professor of Political Economy in the University Vienna. ] Austria, Republic of:

( Finance and Banking.

. L. W.* LEONARD SIDNEY WOOLF, B.A.

Sometime Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Empire and Com- J . .

merce in Africa; International Government; Cooperation and the Future of In- 1 ^P el on -

duslry; etc.

M. B. E. MIRA BURR EDSON. . f

Editor of the Arts and Crafts Magazine and Arts and Crafts Bulletin. Charter { **T / *r t/ratts: Member of the National Society of Craftsmen and of the Art Alliance. { ^ tates -

M. C. S. MARIE CARMICHAEL STOPES, D.Sc. (Lond.), PH.D. (Munich).

Fellow of University College, London. Sometime Lecturer in Palaeobotany, Universities of Manchester and London. Author of Catalogue of Cretaceous

Botany: Anatomy and Palaeobotany.

Plants in the British Museum, etc.

M. Fl. WING COMMANDER MARTIN FLACK, C.B.E., M.A., M.B. f

Director of Medical Research, Royal Air Force. Author of papers on the < Aerotherapeutics. medical aspect of flying, etc.

M. K. DR. M. KRISTIANSEN. < Denmark (in part).

M. M. W. MERTON M. WILNER. / u i

Editorial Writer on the Bu/alo Express. \ Bufial0 -

M. O'G. LIEUTENANT-COLONEL MERVYN O'GORMAN, C.B., D.Sc., M.lNST.C.E.

Formerly Superintendent of the Royal Aircraft Factory, Farnborough. Con-

sultant to the Director-General of Military Aeronautics. Chairman of the Royal Aeronautical Society, and of the Accidents Investigation Committee of the Air Ministry.

Aeronautics: Introductory.

Air Defence.

M. R.* MAURICE RECLUS. / AI

Conseiller d' Etat. Colonial Editor of Le Temps. \ Alger

M. St. L. S. MAJOR AND BREVET COLONEL M. St. L. SIMON, C.B.E., R.E.

Assistant Director, Engineering Services, Canada, 1908-10. Staff Captain, War Office (Fortifications and Works), 1911-5. Anti-Aircraft Defence Commander, London, 1916-8. Anti-Aircraft Defence, Independent Force, R.A.F., 1918. Anti-Aircraft Defence, Leeds, 1919. Commander of Northern Air Defences, 1919. General Staff, War Office, 1920-1.

N. M. B. NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER, PH.D., LL.D. (Cantab.), JUR.D., HoN.D.Lrrr. f Columbia University;

(Oxon.). { Education: United States

See the biographical article: BUTLER, N. M. ( (in part).

N. W. NORMAN WILKINSON, O.B.E., R.I. [

Marine Painter and Etcher. Originator of Dazzle Painting (Naval Camouflage) < Camouflage: Naval. as used by the Allied Powers in the World War. Author of The Dardanelles.

O. Kr. OTTO KRIEGK, PH.D. (Gottingen). /

Member of the Staff of the Weser Zeitung, Berlin Office. 1

O. L.-L. OLIVER STILLINGFLEET LOCKER-LAMPSON, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.P., B.A. f

Parliamentary Secretary (Private) to Mr. Austen Chamberlain as Chancellor of J rtiatnViariain T Anctpn the Exchequer- and as Leader of The House of Commons. Author of The Great *"

Preference Debate. (

lKA Member K of the Berlin Staff of the Frankfurter Zeitung. { Bavaria: Political Histor y-

O. v. K. BARON OTTO VON KLIMBERG, DR. JURIS. j Bosnia and Herzegovina.

P. B. PAUL BOURSON. f . . T

Member of the Commissariat General of the French Republic at Strasbourg. \ Alsace-lx>n

P. Vi. SIR PAUL VINOGRADOFF, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., DR. HIST., DR. JURIS.

Corpus Professor of Jurisprudence, Oxford. Author of Villainage in England; The Growth of the Manor; Outlines of Historical Jurisprudence; etc. See the biographical article: VINOGRADOFF, SIR PAUL.

Benckendorff, Count; Denikin, Anton.

Censorship (in part).

Ri. RIGHT HON. LORD RIDDELL.

Vice-Chairman of the Newspaper Proprietors' Association. Chairman of the Weekly Newspaper and Periodical Proprietors' Association. Represented the British Press at the Peace Conference, 1919-21. See the biographical articl ;: RIDDELL, LORD.

R. A. C. RALPH ADAMS CRAM, LITT.D. (Princeton), LL.D. (Yale), F.R.G.S.

Fellow of the American Institute ctf Architects and of the North British Academy of Arts. Hon. Corresponding Member of the Royal Institute of British Architects. Associate of the National Academy. Member of the American Institute of Arts and Letters. Supervising Architect, Princeton University. Lecturer on the Philosophy of Architecture, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Member of the firm of Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson. Author of Church Building; The Ruined Abbeys of Great Britain; etc. See the biographical article: CRAM, RALPH ADAMS.

R. B.-P. LiEUTENANT-GENERALSmRoBERTBADEN-PowELL,BART.,K.C.B.,K.C.V.O.,LL.D. / Boy Scouts: United

Chief Scout. \ Kingdom.

R. DeC. W. ROBERT DECOURCY WARD, A.M. f

Professor of Climatology, Harvard University. Author of Climate Considered \ Climate and Climatology. Especially in Relation to Man.

Architecture: United States.

R. F. T. R. H. G.

R.K.

RICHARD F. TAYLOR, M.B.E., F.S.S.

Statistician to the Ministry of Mines.

Coal: United Kingdom.

RALPH HENRY GABRIEL, PH.D.

Assistant Professor of History in Yale University. Author of The Evolution of < Connecticut. Long Island, etc.

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL RUDOLF KISZLING. I Eastern European Front

Late General Staff, Austro-Hungarian Army. Now of the Kriegsarchiv, Vienna. ] Campaigns (in part).

R. K. B.-W. BRIGADIER-GENERAL RALPH KIRBY BAGNALL-WILD, C.M.G., C.B.E., R.A.F., f

M.I.MECH.E.

Director of Aircraft Inspection. Fellow and Past Chairman of the Royal Aero- nautical Society. Commission, Royal Engineers, 1893. Inspector of Aircraft,

Aeronautics :

Materials and Methods of Manufacture.

R. K. H. R. M. H.

R. M.Wi.

R. McK. W. R. N. R. B.

R.P. D.

R. Si.

R.Str. R.Th. R. T. T.

R. van O.

LiF.UTENANT-COLONEL ROBERT KNOX HEZLET, C.B.E., D.S.O.

Royal Field Artillery. Superintendent of External Ballistics, Ordnance Com- mittee. Author of Nomography; Interior Ballistics; etc.

SQUADRON LEADER R. M. HILL, R.A.F., M.C., A.F.C.

Associate Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society. Formerly in charge of the Experimental Flying Department, Royal Aircraft Establishment. Author of paper to the Royal Aeronautical Society: A Comparison of the Flying Qualities of Single- and Tivin-Engined A eroplanes; Aeronautical Research Committee Reports and Memoranda No. 678; The Influence of Military and Civil Requirements on the Flying Qualities of Aeroplanes.

R. McNAre WILSON, M.B., Cn.B.

Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine. Editor, Oxford Medical Publications. J Bilharziosis ; Late Research Worker in Cardiology, Medical Research Committee. Consultant 1 Burns and Scalds ; to the Ministry of Pensions in Trench Fever. [ Cancer.

Ballistics (in part).

Aeronautics : Performance of Aeroplanes.

RONALD McKiNNON WOOD, B.A. (Cantab.), A.M.I.C.E., F.R.AE.S. Head of Aerodynamics Department, Air Ministry.

/ Aeronautics : Development \ of Aeroplane Design.

ROBERT N. RUDMOSE BROWN, D.Sc. f

Member of the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition, 1902-4, and of the Scottish J Aland Islands ; Arctic Expeditions, 1909, 1912 and 1914. Lecturer in Geography, University of ] Arctic Regions. Sheffield. Author of Spitsbergen, etc. Joint-author of The Voyage of the Scotia.

R. PALME DUTT.

Late Scholar of Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Editor of The Labour International Handbook.

The Two Internationals. { Communism.

ROBERT SIEGER, PH.D.

Professor of Geography, University of Graz; Member of the Academy of Science, Vienna.

RICHARD STRIEGL, DR. JURIS.

Secretary of the Industrial District Commission.

RALPH THICKNESSE.

Barrister-at-Law. Author of Digest of Law; Husband and Wife; etc.

SIR REGINALD THOMAS TOWER, K.C.M.G., C.V.O.

Administrator of Danzig and High Commissioner of the League of Nations, 1919-20.

CAPITAINE-COMMANDANT R. VAN OVERSTRAETEN.

Aide-de-Camp to H. M. The King of the Belgians. Graduate of the Staff College. Order of Leopold. D.S.O. Legion of Honour.

Austria, Republic of:

Introduction; { Economic Conditions.

/ Austrian Empire : Economic \ Conditions (in part).

( Children, Law Relating to:

< United Kingdom;

( Divorce: United Kingdom.

Danzig.

Antwerp : Siege of 1914 ; Army: Belgian.

S. B. W. S. B. WILLIAMS. / Electricity Supply:

Assistant Managing Editor of Electrical World. \ United States.

S. G. P. SYDNEY GROSS PAINE, D.Sc., F.I.C. f

Assistant Professor of Bacteriologv, Imperial College of Science and Technology, { "actenology:

London 1 General and Agricultural.

St. J. E. ST. JOHN GREER ERVINE. f

Dramatic Critic of The Observer. Author of The Magnanimous Lover; Mixed { Drama. Marriage; Jane Clegg; and other plays. [

S. P. S. STANLEY PARKER SMITH, D.Sc., M.I.E.E., A.M.I. C.E. /Electrical Engineering

Joint-author of Papers on the Design of Alternate Current Machinery. \ (in part).

S. R. W. REV. STAGEY R. WARBURTON, B.A. f Cmirc jj j

Editor of Year Book of the Churches. Secretary of Literature of the General < . Board of Promotion of the Northern Baptist Convention, U.S.A. [

S. V. SWALE VINCENT, LL.D., D.Sc., M.D., F.R.S.E., F.R.S.C. f

Professor of Physiology in the University of London. Author of Internal Secretion { Ductless Glands. and the Ductless Glands. {

T. C. McC. THOMAS CHALMERS McCoRVEY, M.A., LL.D.

Professor of History and Political Science in the University of Alabama. Author J of The Government of the People of the Stale of Alabama. Contributor to The 1 Library of Southern Literature and The South in the Building of the Nation, etc. [

T. G. M. THOMAS GARRIGUE MASARYK. /

President of the Czechoslovak Republic. \

Alabama.

Czechoslovakia.

V. B.-J. CAPTAIN VIVIAN BULKELEY-JOHNSON.

Entered Rifle Brigade, 1913. Served in France, 1914-5. G.H.Q., 1916. Aide- j Aeronautics: Control

de-Camp to Governor-General of Canada, 1916-8. Officer of the War Cabinet, } of Air Traffic. 1918-9. Air Ministry, 1919-21.

V. H. B. VERNON HERBERT BLACKMAN, Sc.D., F.R.S. f

Professor of Plant Physiology and Pathology in the Imperial College of Science < Botany: General Physiology.

and Technology. [

V. L. E. C. GENERAL VICTOR Louis SMILIEN CORDONNIER. / Argonne, Battles of the;

See the biographical article: CORDONNIER, V. L. E. \ Army: French.

W. A. P. WALTER ALISON PHILLIPS, M.A. (Oxford and Dublin). f

Lecky Professor of Modern History in the University of Dublin. Member of J _. .

the Royal Irish Academy. Author of Modern Europe; The Confederation of }

Europe; etc. 1

W. B. A. W. BROUGHTON ALCOCK. / D vsenterv

Director Central Laboratory, Ministry of Pensions. \ *

W. F. S. WILLIAM F. SPAULDING, CERT.A.I.B., F.R.EcoN.S.

Examiner in Banking, Currency and Foreign Exchange to various public bodies.

Author of Foreign Exchange and Foreign Bills in Theory and in Practice; Eastern

Banking: British.

Exchange; Currency and Finance; etc. Sometime Editor of the Statist British Banking Supplement and International Banking Supplement.

W. G. C.* WILLIAM GEORGE CONSTABLE, M.A.

Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law. Lecturer at the :r

Wallace Collection. Be rd>

W. G. Ma. MAJOR-GENERAL SIR WILLIAM GRANT MACPHERSON, K.G.M.G., C.B., LL.D.

Editor-in-Chief of the Medical History of the Great War. Formerly Deputy J Army Medical Service : Director-General, Army Medical Service. Author of Handbooks of the Medical ] British. Services of Foreign Armies, etc.

W. G. S. A. WILLIAM GEORGE STEWART ADAMS, M.A.

Gladstone Professor of Political Theory and Institutions in the University of { Education: United Kingdom. Oxford.

W. H. T. COLONEL W. H. TSCHAPPAT (U.S. Army). f Ammunition (in part);

Author of Ordnance Treatise, U.S.A. \ Ballistics (in part).

W. J. C. W. J. CHILDS. f

Late of the Intelligence Department of the Admiralty (Geographical Section). \

W. K. McC. WILLIAM KIDSTON McCmRE, M.A. (Oxon). f Asiago, Battle of;

Late Correspondent of The Times in Rome. Correspondent of The Times on J Cadorna, General;

the Italian Front, 1915-7- Author of Italy's Part in the War; Italy in North 1 Caneva, Carlo;

Africa; Chapters on Italy in The Times History of the War; etc. ( Caporetto, Battle of.

AJ R rd^ance A Departmtnt of the U.S. Army. 1 Ammunition (in part).

W. L. G.* WILLIAM L. GRIFFITH. f ...

Permanent Secretary* Office of the High Commissioner for Canada, London. J 2f It, , .. Author of The Dominion of Canada; article on " Canada," Oxford Survey of the ] nus % ^" lia British Empire. ( Lanada

|style="vertical-align:middle;"|

W. L. P. William Lyon Phelps, M.A., Ph.D., Litt.D.
Lampson Professor of England Literature at Yale University. Author of Essays on Modern Novelists; Essays on Russian Novelists; Essays on Modern Dramatists; The Twentieth Century Theatre; The Advance of English Poetry; etc.

| style="padding-left:0; padding-right:0; width:0.15em; vertical-align:middle"| |style="padding-left:0; width:15em; text-align:left; vertical-align:middle; line-height:125%;"| American Literature. |-


|style="vertical-align:middle;"|

W. P. Woodford Patterson, B.A.
Secretary of Cornell University.

| style="padding-left:0; padding-right:0; width:0.15em; vertical-align:middle"| |style="padding-left:0; width:15em; text-align:left; vertical-align:middle; line-height:125%;"| Cornell University. |-


|style="vertical-align:middle;"|

W. P. Weston P. Chamberlain.
Colonel, Army Medical Corps, U.S. Army.

| style="padding-left:0; padding-right:0; width:0.15em; vertical-align:middle"| |style="padding-left:0; width:15em; text-align:left; vertical-align:middle; line-height:125%;"| Army Medical Service: United States. |-


|style="vertical-align:middle;"|

W. R. I. Walter Renton Ingalls.
Consulting Mining and Metallurgical Engineer, New York. Author of Metallurgy of Zinc and Cadmium.

| style="padding-left:0; padding-right:0; width:0.15em; vertical-align:middle"| |style="padding-left:0; width:15em; text-align:left; vertical-align:middle; line-height:125%;"| Copper. |-


|style="vertical-align:middle;"|

W. R. Ma. William R. Manning, Ph.D.
Economist, Latin-American Division, U.S. Department of State. Author of Nootka Sound Controversy (Justin Winsor Prize Essay of American Historical Association, 1904); Early Diplomatic Relations Between the United States and Mexico (Albert Shaw Lectures, Johns Hopkins University, 1913); etc.

| style="padding-left:0; padding-right:0; width:0.15em; vertical-align:middle"| |style="padding-left:0; width:15em; text-align:left; vertical-align:middle; line-height:125%;"| Cuba. |-


|style="vertical-align:middle;"|

W. St. William Stocking, M.A. (Yale).
Newspaper Editor, 1865–1900. Historian and Statistician, Detroit Board of Commerce, 1903–21. Author of Under the Oaks; History of the Republican Party; etc.

| style="padding-left:0; padding-right:0; width:0.15em; vertical-align:middle"| |style="padding-left:0; width:15em; text-align:left; vertical-align:middle; line-height:125%;"| Detroit. |-


|style="vertical-align:middle;"|

W. S. Ro. William Spence Robertson, Ph.D.
Professor of History in the University of Illinois. Author of Francisco de Miranda and the Revolutionizing of Spanish America; Rise of the Spanish American Republics; etc.

| style="padding-left:0; padding-right:0; width:0.15em; vertical-align:middle"| |style="padding-left:0; width:15em; text-align:left; vertical-align:middle; line-height:125%;"| Bolivia;
Colombia
;
Ecuador
. |-


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W. V. B. Wilhelm von Blume, Dr. Juris.
Professor of Law in the University of Tübingen. Author of Familienrecht des Bürgerlichen Geselzbuchs; Erbrecht des Bürgerlichen Geselzbuchs. Cooperated in the drafting of the Constitution of Württemberg, 1919.

| style="padding-left:0; padding-right:0; width:0.15em; vertical-align:middle"| |style="padding-left:0; width:15em; text-align:left; vertical-align:middle; line-height:125%;"| Baden;
Bavaria
 (in part). |-


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W. Wo. Lieutenant-Colonel William Wood, D.C.L., F.R.S. (Canada).
Reserve of Officers, Canadian Army. Coordinating Officer of the Canadian Special Mission at the Naval and Military Fronts, 1917. Formerly President of English Section of Royal Society of Canada and of Historic Landmarks Association. Author of The Fight for Canada; The Logs of the Conquest of Canada; Folk Songs of New France; etc.

| style="padding-left:0; padding-right:0; width:0.15em; vertical-align:middle"| |style="padding-left:0; width:15em; text-align:left; vertical-align:middle; line-height:125%;"| Canada: Literature, French Canadian. |-


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X. Initial used for anonymous contributors.

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Y. C. Yves Chataigneau.
American Distinguished Service Cross. Knight of the Legion of Honour. Lecturer in the University of Belgrade. Author of "L'Emigration Vendeenne," Annales de Geographic, 1917, "La Yougo-Slavie," Annales de Geographic, 1921.

| style="padding-left:0; padding-right:0; width:0.15em; vertical-align:middle"| |style="padding-left:0; width:15em; text-align:left; vertical-align:middle; line-height:125%;"| Balkan Peninsula (in part). |-


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Y. D. General Youri Danilov.

| style="padding-left:0; padding-right:0; width:0.15em; vertical-align:middle"| |style="padding-left:0; width:15em; text-align:left; vertical-align:middle; line-height:125%;"| Army: Russian (in part). |-

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  1. A complete list, showing all contributors to the New Volumes (arranged according to the alphabetical order of their surnames) with the articles signed by them, appears at the end of Volume XXXII.