A Chinese Biographical Dictionary/Chang Shih-ch'êng
103 Chang Shih-ch'êng 張士誠 (T. 九四). Died A.D. 1367. A salt-trader of T'ai-chou in Kiangsu, who with his brothers raised the standard of revolt in 1353, and after capturing T'ai-chou proclaimed himself Prince 誠 Ch'êng of Chou. In the following year he made an unsuccessful attack on Yang-chou, but in 1356 he got possession of Soochow and Hangchow. In 1357 fear of Chu Yüan-chang (see Hung Wu) drove him back to his allegiance; but he still remained practically independent, and in 1363, after the capture of 安豐 An-fêng in Anhui and death of 劉福通 Liu Fu-t'ung, he took the title of Prince of Wu, and refused to forward the tribute rice. Four years later, being attacked by Chu Yüan-chang, he fled to Nanking, where he committed suicide.