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Birds of North and Middle America, part V/Genus 20. Anoplops Cabanis and Heine


Genus ANOPLOPS Cabanis and Heine.

Gymnopithys "Schiff" Bonaparte, Ann. Sci. Nat., sér. iv, i, 1854, 132. (Type not mentioned; nomen nudum.)
Anoplops[1] Cabanis and Heine, Mus. Hein., ii, July, 1859, 9. (Type, Turdus rufigula Boddaert.)

Medium-sized Formicariidæ (length about 135-145 mm.) with second phalanx of middle toe partly united to outer toe, tail less than two-thirds (scarcely more than three-fifths) as long as wing, suborbital and postocular regions naked, outstretched feet reaching little if any beyond tip of tail, and plain coloration.

Bill shorter than head, narrow, wedged shaped in vertical profile (lateral outlines nearly straight), its width at frontal antiæ equal to or greater than its depth at same point and equal to half the distance from nostril to tip of maxilla, or less; culmen distinctly ridged, straight to near tip, where abruptly decurved, the tip of maxilla more or less distinctly (but not strongly) uncinate; tomia straight, slightly but distinctly notched subterminally; gonys strongly convex and prominent basally, gently or faintly convex and ascending terminally. Nostril exposed, posteriorly in contact with feathering of loral antiæ, narrow and longitudinally ovate (slit-like in A. rufigula) overhung by a broad membraneous operculum. Rictal bristles obsolete. Wing moderate or rather large, with longest primaries projecting decidedly beyond secondaries; sixth and seventh, or sixth, seventh and eighth, primaries longest, the tenth (outermost) about three-fifths as long as the longest, the ninth about as long (sometimes a little longer or shorter than) secondaries. Tail slightly more than three-fifths as long as wing, slightly rounded, the rectrices (12) rather narrow (A. rufigula) to rather broad (A. hicolor, etc.), rounded terminally. Tarsus about one-third as long as wing, booted (nonscutellate) or with scutella of acrotarsium very indistinct; middle toe, with claw, nearly as long as tarsus; outer toe, without claw, not reaching to middle of subterminal phalanx of middle toe, the inner toe slightly shorter; hallux about as long as inner toe but much stouter; middle toe united for whole of basal and part of second phalanx to outer toe, for half or more of basal phalanx to inner toe; claws rather large and strongly curved, that of the hallux decidedly shorter than the digit. Plumage full and blended, that of rump and flanks more elongated and lax; feathers of pileum short; anteorbital and postocular regions (A. rufigula) or suborbital, postocular, and lower portion of loral regions (A. bicolor and allies) naked; latero-frontal feathers short and erect (denser, more plush-like in A. rufigula).

Coloration. — Plain brown or olive, with throat tawny or rufescent, or with throat and median under parts white;[2] sexes alike or nearly so.

Range. — Honduras to Amazon Valley and Cayenne. (Eleven or more species recognized.[3])


a. Underparts brown (no white), becoming tawny or rufous on throat and auricular region. (British Guiana to lower Amazon Valley.)

Anoplops rufigula (extralimital).[4]

aa. Underparts broadly white medially, including throat; auricular region black or dusky.

b. Above bright tawny-chestnut, more rufescent on forehead.
c. Sides and flanks chestnut or rufous-chestnut. (Colombia.)

Anoplops ruficeps (extralimital).[5]

cc. Sides and flanks olive-brown, becoming slate-grayish next to white of breast, etc. (Colombia and upper Amazon Valley.)

Anoplops leucaspis (extralimital).[6]

bb. Above vandyke brown, not more rufescent on forehead.
c. Forehead and postauricular regions slate color. (Eastern Panamá.)

Anoplops bicolor (p. 132).

cc. Forehead and postauricular region brown, like pileum, etc. (Western Panamá, to eastern Honduras.)

Anoplops olivascens (p. 132).



Adults {sexes alike). — Above plain chestnut-brown or vandyke brown, the forehead, lores, and sides of occiput slate color or slate- gray, the hindneck partly the same color; malar, suborbital, and auricular regions black; sides of neck and thence to flanks (broadly) lighter brown (prouts brown to nearly sepia), sometimes with indistinct dusky spots or streaks along outer edge, especially on sides of neck; chin, throat, chest, breast, and abdomen immaculate white; under tail-coverts brown (like flanks), tipped or margined with whitish or buffy; maxilla blackish, paler (sometimes dull whitish in dried skins) terminally and along tomium; mandible dull whitish or pale dull yellowish (in dried skins), darker basally; legs and feet horn color (in dried skins).

Adult male. — Length (skins), 136-139 (138); wing, 74.5-79.5 (76.8); tail, 45.5-52 (47.8); culmen, 18.5-20.5 (19.5); tarsus, 27-28.5 (27.7); middle toe, 17.5-19 (18.2).[7]

Adult female. — Length, (skins), 125-126 (125.5);[8] wing, 73-74 (73.5);[8] tail, 47-47.5 (47.2);[8] culmen, 18.5;[9] tarsus, 26.5;[9] middle toe, 17.[9]

Panamá (Lion Hill; Chepo; Paraiso; Panamá; Cascajál, Coclé; Santa Fé de Verágua).

Pithys leucaspis (not Myrmeciza leucaspis Sclater) Lawrence, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., vii, 1862, 326 (Lion Hill, Panamá).
Pithys bicolor Lawrence, Ann. Lyc. Nat. Hist. N. Y., vii, 1862, 484 (Lion Hill Station, Panamá Railway; coll. G. N. Lawrence); viii, 1867, 6 (Lion Hill). — Sclater and Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1864, 357 (Lion Hill). — Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1867, 145 (Santa Fé de Verágua, Panamá). — Sclater, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 296, part (Panamá, Chepo, and Santa Fé de Verágua, Panamá).
[Pithys] bicolor Sclater and Salvin, Nom. Av. Neotr., 1873, 74, part (Panamá).
Gymnopithys bicolor Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 221 (Santa Fé de Verágua, Lion Hill Station, Paraiso Station, and Chepo, Panamá).
[Gymnopithys] bicolor Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 30, part (Panamá).



Similar to A. bicolor, but pileum and hindneck wholly chestnut- brown, like rest of upper parts.

Adults (sexes alike). — Above plain chestnut-brown (prouts brown to vandyke brown or even nearly burnt-umber), including entire pileum and hindneck; narrow line immediately above bare orbital region, suborbital region, auricular region, and malar region black; sides of neck and thence (broadly) to flanks plain brown (varying from olive-brown to vandyke brown), usually with more or less distinct spots or broad streaks of blackish or dusky along; outer edge, some of the brown feathers sometimes margined with whitish; under tail-coverts brown, tipped or margined with whitish or buffy; chin, throat, chest, breast, and abdomen immaculate white; maxilla brownish black, paler (sometimes whitish) terminally and along tomia; mandible dull whitish or pale dull yellowish (in dried skins), usually dusky basally; legs and feet horn color (in dried skins).

Adult male. — Length (skins), 126-143 (135); wing, 71-78 (75.1); tail, 41.5-49.5 (45.9); culmen, 17-19 (18.2); tarsus, 25.5-27.5 (26.7); middle toe, 15.5-18.5 (17.4).[10]

Adult female. — Length (skins), 126-138.5 (132); wing, 70-75.5 (72.9); tail, 43-46.5 (44.4); culmen, 17-19 (17.3); tarsus, 25.5-27.5 (26.6); middle toe, 16-18.5 (17.6).[11]

Immature male. — Similar to adults but chest mostly light mummy brown, and white of breast, etc., more or less intermixed with the same.

Honduras (Santa Ana; Chaloma), Nicaragua (Chontales; Rio Escondido; San Emilis, Lake Nicaragua), Costa Rica (Angostura; Navarro de Cartago; La Balsa; Jiménez; San José; Pacuare; San Carlos; Boruca; El Generál; Pozo del Rio Grande; Pozo Reál de Tárraba; Pozo Azúl de Pirrís; Volcán de Turrialba; El Hogár; Guápiles; Cuábre; La Florída; La Cristina; La Vijágua) and western Panamá (Divala; Volcan de Chiriquí; Boquete).

Pithys bicolor (not of Lawrence, 1863) Lawrence, Ann. Lyc. N. Y., viii, 1868, 109 (Angostura, Costa Rica). — Frantzius, Journ. für Orn., 1869, 306 (Costa Rica). — Salvin, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1870, 195 (Volcan de Chiriquí and Bugaba, Panamá; crit.). — Sclater, Ibis, 1873, 373 (Chontales, Nicaragua); Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 296, part (Bugaba and Volcan de Chiriquí, Panamá; La Balsa, Costa Rica; Chontales, Nicaragua). — Boucard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1878, 62 (San Carlos, Costa Rica). — Zeledón, Anal. Mus. Nac. Costa Rica, i, 1887, 115 (Navarro de Cartago, Costa Rica). — Lantz, Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. for 1896-97 (1899), 221 (Chaloma, Honduras).
[Gymnopithys] bicolor Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 30, part (Nicaragua).
Pithys bicolor olivascens Ridgway, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xiv, no. 868, Oct. 26, 1891, 469 (Santa Ana, Honduras; coll. U. S. Nat. Mus.).
Gymnopithys olivascens Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, 1892, 222 (Santa Ana, Honduras; Chontales, Nicaragua; Angostura, La Balsa, Navarro de Cartago, and San Carlos, Costa Rica; Volcan de Chiriquí and Bugaba, Panamá). — Richmond, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., xvi, 1893, 501 (Rio Escondido, Nicaragua). — Cherrie, Expl. Zool. Merid. Costa Rica, 1893, 42 (Boruca, Costa Rica; crit.).
[Gymnopithys] olivascens Sharpe, Hand-list, iii, 1901, 30 (Honduras).
Gymnopithys bicolor olivascens Bangs, Proc. New Engl. Zool. Club, iii, Jan. 30, 1902, 42 (Boquete, Panamá, 4,000-6,000 ft.). — Carriker, Ann. Carnegie Mus., vi, 1910, 614 (Costa Rica; crit.; habits).
Gymnopithys bicolor olivaceus Bangs, Auk, xviii, Oct., 1891, 366 (Divala, Panamá); xxiv, 1907, 296 (Boruca and Pozo del Rio Grande, s. w. Costa Rica).

  1. "Von ? (unbewaffnet) und ? (Gesicht)." (Cabanis and Heine.)
  2. A. lunulata (Sclater and Salvin), a species which I have not seen, has black and ochraceous lunulations on the back, and whitish spots on inner webs of rectrices.
  3. Of these I have not seen the following: A. lunulata (Sclater and Salvin), A. salvini (Berlepsch), A. griseiventris (Pelzeln), A. cristata (Pelzeln), A. berlepschi Snethlage, A. hoffmannsi Hellmayr, A. pallidus Cherrie, and A. melanosticta (Sclater and Salvin). Anoplops lunulata differs from A. bicolor and its allies in more slender bill, much narrower and more broadly operculate nostrils, and very much denser as well as longer feathering of the loral region. The style of coloration is somewhat different, there being no white on the under parts, the chin and throat being rufous-tawny and the under parts of the body brown. The naked skin on sides of head, together with the legs and feet, are yellow, instead of blue and dusky horn color, respectively, as in A. bicolor, etc.
  4. Turdus rufigula Boddaert, Tabl. Pl. Enl., 1783, 39 (based on Petit merle brun à gorge rousse de Cayenne Daubenton, Pl. Enl., pi. 644, fig. 2). — Anoplops rufigula Cabanis, Wiegmann's Archiv für Naturg., 1847, pt. i, 214. — Pithys rufigula Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 273. — Gymnopithys rufigula Sclater, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus., XV, 1890, 297. — Turdus pectoralis Latham, Index Orn., i, 1790, 357.— Myothera pectoralis Temminck, Tabl. Méth., 183 — ?, 17. — Myrmothera pectoralis Lesson, Traité d'Orn., 1831, 396.
  5. Gymnopithys ruficeps Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, sig. 28, Feb., 1892, 222, footnote (Cauca Valley, Colombia; coll. Brit. Mus.).
  6. Myrmeciza leucaspis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1855 (pub. Apr. 11), 253, aves, pl. 70 (Chamicuros, e. Peru; coll. J. Gould). — Pithys leucaspis Sclater, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1858, 274; Cat, Birds Brit. Mus., xv, 1890, 295. — G[ymnopithys] leucaspis Salvin and Godman, Biol. Centr.-Am., Aves, ii, sig. 28, Feb., 1892, 221, in text.
  7. Three specimens.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Two specimens.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 One specimen.
  10. Nineteen specimens.
  11. Thirteen specimens.
    Locality. Wing. Tall. Culmen. Tarsus. Middle
    Two adult males from Honduras 73.2 45.2 19 25.5 18
    One adult male from Nicaragua 74 44.5 18 27 18
    Ten adult males from Costa Rica 76 45.2 18.1 26.8 17.3
    Six adult males from western Panamá 74.2 46.5 18.4 26.6 17.2
    One adult female from Nicaragua 75.5 46 18.5 25.5 17
    Ten adult females from Costa Rica 72.4 44.2 17.6 26.6 17.5
    Two adult females from western Panamá 73.7 44.5 18.5 26.7 18.2