Dictionary of National Biography, 1901 supplement/Jowett, Benjamin

JOWETT, BENJAMIN (1817–1893), master of Balliol College, and regius professor of Greek in the university of Oxford, was the eldest son and second child of Benjamin Jowett of London and Isabella Lang home. The family originally came from Manningham, near Bradford in Yorkshire, where at one time they owned land. Benjamin was born in the parish of Camberwell on 15 April 1817. He is said to have been a pale delicate-looking boy of unusual mental precocity, and when he learned Greek with the tutor of his cousins, the Langhornes, 'they had no chance against him in their Greek lessons' (Life and Letters, i. 30). His chief companion in these years was his elder sister Emily; 'the two would shut themselves up in a room with their books and study for hours.'

On 16 June 1829 he was admitted to St. Paul's school. The high master at the time was Dr. John Sleath [q. v.] of Wadham College. Here he acquired two methods of study which he always impressed on his pupils at a later time; he learned large quantities of Greek and Latin poetry by heart, and he constantly retranslated into Greek or Latin passages which he had previously translated into English. Among his contemporaries at the school were [Baron] C. E. Pollock, [Lord] Hannen, and A. S. Eddis of Trinity College, Cambridge.

In November 1835 he gained an open scholarship at Balliol College. About a year afterwards (October 1836) he came into residence. Among the scholars of the time were [Dean] Stanley, [Vice-chancellor] Wickens, Stafford Northcote [Lord Iddesleigh], J. G. Lonsdale, [Dean] Lake, and [Dean] Goulburn; and among the fellows [Archbishop] Tait, [Dean] Scott, and W. G. Ward. In Dr. Sleath's opinion Jowett was 'the best Latin scholar whom he had ever sent to college,' and this opinion was confirmed when in the spring of 1837 he gained the Hertford (University) scholarship for Latin. In the next year he obtained a success even more brilliant, being elected a fellow of the college while still an undergraduate (November 1838). In the following summer he obtained a first class in literæ humaniores. Already he had begun to take private pupils, the first of whom were Thomas Henry (afterwards Lord) Farrer [q. v. Suppl.] and his brother Oliver. He graduated B.A. in 1839, and M.A. in 1842. In 1841 he obtained the chancellor's prize for the Latin essay, and in 1842 he was appointed by Dr. Jenkyns, the master, to a tutorship in the college, a post which he retained till his election to the mastership in 1870. He took deacon's orders in 1842, and priest's in 1845. Jowett had been brought up amid evangelical views, which were traditional in his tamily. He now found himself in the midst of the Oxford movement, and was greatly attracted by William George Ward [q. v.], with whom he was brought into daily contact. Years afterwards, when the two friends met after a long separation, Jowett said: 'Ward reminded me that I charged him with shallow logic, and that he retorted on me with misty metaphysics. That was perhaps not an unfair account of the state of the controversy between us.' In February 1841 Newman's tract on the articles—the famous 'No. XC.'—appeared. It was at once attacked and condemned, and the controversy had a peculiar interest for the Balliol common room. For Tait was one of the first to move in the attack, and Ward, who supported the tract, was dismissed from his lectureship at the college in the following June (Church, Oxford Movement, c. xiv., esp. pp. 252 ff.) It appears that Jowett was somewhat bewildered by the shifting currents around him. 'But for the providence of God,' he said at a later time, 'I might have become a Roman Catholic.' In 1844 the crisis in the movement came. Newman had retired from St. Mary's to Littlemore, and Ward published his 'Ideal of a Christian Church.' Jowett, with A. P. Stanley to lead, fought on the side of toleration, and both were present at the scene of Ward's degradation on 13 Feb. 1845, a day which Dean Church regards as the birthday of Oxford liberalism (l. c. p. 340).

Meanwhile Jowett was working earnestly with pupils in college, travelling on the continent in the long vacations. In 1844 he made the acquaintance of some of the most distinguished German scholars of the time, G. Hermann, Bekker, Lachmann, and Ewald, and consulted Erdmann, the historian of philosophy, on the best method of approaching the philosophy of Hegel, by whose teaching he was now becoming fascinated. For some years he remained an eager student of Hegel's writings, and even translated a good deal of the logic in conjunction with[Archbishop] Temple (Life, i. 120, 129, 142). He seems also to have been greatly stimulated by Hegel's 'History of Philosophy' in the lectures which he was now giving as tutor, on the 'Fragments of the Early Greek Philosophers' lectures in which he first gave proof of his peculiar powers. From 1846 onwards his position as tutor was assured; he was the centre of a number of pupils, who were devoted to him, and proved the value of his teaching by their success in the schools. In 1848 he began the practice, which he continued till near the end of his life, of taking pupils with him in the vacation to some quiet healthy place. Like William Sewell [q. v.] of Exeter, he became a student of Plato, and it was greatly due to him that Plato was included in the list of books which could be offered in the schools (Life, i. 132). This incursion into a new field of philosophy he balanced by lectures on political economy. His tours abroad became more rare as the years passed on, but in April 1848 he visited Paris in the days of the revolution with Stanley, Francis Turner Palgrave [q. v. Suppl.], and [Sir] Robert Burnett Morier [q. v.] (see Stanley, Life, i. 390).

Yet theology was the chief study of these days. For some years past Jowett had been on terms of intimate friendship with Stanley, and finally the two friends planned an edition of St. Paul's epistles. Jowett undertook the Thessalonians, Galatians, and Romans; Stanley the Corinthians. From these labours they were drawn away for a time by the movement for reform which now swept over Oxford. Stanley and Jowett had already begun a joint work on university reform, when in 1850 a commission was appointed to take evidence on the subject. Of this commission Stanley was the secretary. From the evidence which Jowett gave before it we see that he wished to retain the college system, but was in favour of increasing the number of professors. That he had in view at this time any extension of university privileges to non-collegiate students there is no proof. But he was clearly on the side of the poor student, and did not wish to see the university possessed by the 'gentleman heresy' (Life, i. 183). He was a public examiner in 1849, 1850, 1851, and 1853.

Jowett was now known beyond Oxford. He was consulted by Sir C.Trevelyan in regard to examinations for the Indian civil service, and eventually became a member of Lord Macaulay's committee, which reported in 1854. To the end of his life he retained a lively interest in this subject, and indeed in everything connected with India (see letters to Lord Lansdowne in Letters, 1899).

When Dr. Richard Jenkyns [q.v.] died in 1854, Jowett was put forward is a candidate for the mastership, but the election fell on Robert Scott (1811-1887) [q. v.] This repulse made a deep impression on Jowett's sensitive nature; it was, in fact, the beginning of a somewhat distressful period of his life, during which he felt himself in little sympathy with his college and Oxford. The first effect of it was to send him back with renewed energy to his unfinished work on St. Paul. In the next summer, on the same day with Stanley's edition of the Corinthians, his edition of the Thessalonians, Galatians, and Romans appeared. The publication of this book formed an epoch in Jowett's life.

To the stricter school of philologists the commentary seemed to be vitiated by the view which Jowett took of St. Paul's use of language. His ablest critic, [Bishop] Lightfoot, strongly protested against the charge of vagueness which Jowett brought against the Greek of the New Testament period; and of St. Paul especially he maintained that his antecedents were such that he could hardly fail to speak or write Greek with accuracy, while Jowett was inclined to look on the apostle as one whose thoughts outran his power of expression, so that his meaning must be gathered from the context rather than by a strictly grammatical treatment of the words (see Journal of Sacred and Classical Philology, iii. p. 104, ff. 1856). The essays, which were generally acknowledged to be the most important part of the work, were partly condemned as heretical, especially the essay on the atonement, and were also thought to be wanting in definite conclusions, though no one could deny that deep and suggestive thoughts were contained in them. 'Those who look only for positive results will be greatly disappointed with Mr. Jowett's essays. On the other hand, those who are satisfied with being made to think instead of being thought for, and are willing to follow out for themselves important lines of reflexion, when suggested to them, will find no lack of interest or instruction in these volumes. The value of Mr. Jowett's labours is far from consisting solely in the definite results attained, which are poorer than might have been looked for. The reconstructive process bears no proportion to the destructive. But, after every abatement which has to be made on this score, these volumes will still hold their position in the foremost ranks of recent literature for depth and range of thought' (Lightfoot, l. c.). The book could not fail to attract, attention, even beyond theological readers. Bagehot said that Jowett had shown by 'chance expressions' that he had exhausted impending controversies years before they arrived, and had perceived more or less the conclusion at which the disputants would arrive long before the public issue was joined' (Physics and Politics, 8th ed. pp. 116, 117). In 1859 a second edition was published, in which the essay on the atonement was rewritten, not with any view of retracting the views put forward in the first, but to explain them more clearly and meet some of the misconceptions which had arisen.

In the same summer (1855) Jowett was appointed to the regius professorship of Greek, vacant by the death of Dean Gaisford [q. v.] Those who condemned his views were roused to action by this preferment. Under an almost forgotten statute Jowett was denounced by Dr. John David Macbride [q. v.] and the Rev. Charles Pourtales Golightly [q. v.] to the vice-chancellor (Dr. Cotton of Worcester) as having denied the catholic faith. Dr. Cotton summoned him to subscribe the articles anew in his presence, and to this Jowett submitted. It was a mean attack, which might create a prejudice, but could lead to no definite result. Almost meaner still was the agitation, prolonged over ten years, by which the Greek chair was deprived of any addition to the statutory emoluments which had been hitherto paid. Of the four chairs founded by Henry VIII at Oxford, and endowed by him with 40l. each, the chair of Greek was the only one which had never received increased emolument, and this continued to be the case in spite of repeated appeals to convocation till 1865, when Christ Church consented to raise the income to 500l. a year. It was, in fact, made clear that estates had been granted to that college for the purpose, and that the chair must be endowed from some source was rendered inevitable by the action of Jowett's friends, who subscribed 2,000l. towards the deficiency—which Jowett refused to accept—and by his own action as professor.

For from his election Jowett had departed altogether from the traditional lines. To edit dictionaries and scholia was not to his taste at all; he began a series of lectures on the 'Republic of Plato' and the 'Fragments of the Early Greek Philosophers,' and at the same time allowed any undergraduate who wished, whether belonging to his own college or not, to bring him, for correction, translations into Greek prose or verse two or even three times a week. This was a very severe addition to his tutorial work. But his lectures were a success. Greek scholarship received a stimulus throughout the university, and outside Oxford his devoted labour on his pupils could not but tell in his favour, whatever his theological opinions might be.

In the ten years following the election to the professorship Jowett fell deeper still under suspicion of heresy. In the second edition of his 'Epistles of St. Paul' (1859) he had repeated his views, and in this he had intended to include an essay on the 'Interpretation of Scripture.' This essay he finally kept back till the next year, when it appeared in 'Essays and Reviews,' a work which created a panic in the church. The volume was promoted by the Rev. Harry Bristow Wilson [q.v.], of St. John's College, Oxford, and among the contributors, besides Jowett and Wilson, were Archdeacon Rowland Williams [q.v.], the present Archbishop of Canterbury, Mark Pattison [q. v.], and others. The book went through many editions, 'for though we have now got to the stage of affecting astonishment at the sensation produced by the avowal of admitted truths in that work, nobody who remembers the time can doubt that it marked the appearance of a very important development of religious and philosophical thought' (Leslie Stephen, Studies of a Biographer, ii. 129). Wilson and Williams were brought before the court of arches and suspended for a year, but this judgment was subsequently reversed by Lord Westbury. After the verdict of the dean of arches an attack was made upon Jowett. The case was opened in the vice-chancellor's court at Oxford (20 Feb. 1863), when Mountague Bernard [q. v.] appeared as the vice-chancellor's assessor. On Jowett's part it was protested that the court had no jurisdiction in the matter. Bernard, while rejecting the protest, refused to order Jowett to appear and to admit articles on the part of the promoters of the case. Counsel advised against an application to the court of queen's bench for a mandamus, and the prosecution was dropped.

For a time Jowett 'held his tongue about theology, and was glad to have done so, because he began to see things more clearly' (1866). But in 1870 he was planning in connection with Wilson a new volume of 'Essays,' in which he intended to write on the great religions of the world. In September of that year he was elected master of Balliol College, and the projected volume never appeared. Theology occupied a great deal of his thought and time; he preached not only in the college chapel but in the university pulpit, in Westminster Abbey, and elsewhere. But nothing was published. He would not allow any of his sermons to be printed, or his 'St. Paul' to appear in a new edition. He wished to attain to greater clearness and certainty, and hoped that these would come with time; but he took on himself other labours which left no leisure for elaborating his views. Yet his theological work had not been in vain; he had pointed out where changes must be made if theology is to retain a hold on thoughtful minds, and if some of his positive conceptions were regarded as 'misty' and 'vague,' he was clear enough in maintaining what he called 'the central light of all religion,' the divine justice and truth. What he wrote 'was much read and pondered by the more intellectual sort of undergraduates' (Pater).

From 1860 to 1870 his labours were such as would have overwhelmed any other man. At one time he writes that he is seeing every undergraduate in college once a week ! In the vacations his hours were given to Plato. He had begun with the idea of a commentary on the 'Republic,' a work which he never dropped, though he did not live to finish it. But he soon felt that a complete analysis of all Plato's writings was required if any one wished thoroughly to understand the 'Republic,' and the analysis in time became an analysis and translation. To this must be added the work of the professorship. One who attended his lectures at the time spoke of them as being 'informal, unwritten, and seemingly unpremeditated, but with many a long-remembered gem of expression, or delightfully novel idea, which seemed to be lying in wait whenever, at a loss for a moment in his somewhat hesitating discourse, he opened a book of loose notes' (Life, i. 330).

About 1865 he became, with the support of fellows who had been his pupils, a preponderating influence in the common room of Balliol College. Much time was devoted to the organisation of education in the college and the university. Arrangements were made for inter-collegiate lectures, and Scottish professors were invited to give lectures in the summer term, when their labours in the north were at an end. But his chief object was to lessen the expense of an Oxford career. For this purpose he persuaded the college to found more scholarships and exhibitions, and to establish a hall where, as he hoped, young men would be able to live for little, while enjoying the benefits of the college system. In the end the movement which he supported was carried on a larger scale by the university; the restriction was removed by which students were compelled to reside within the college walls, and non-collegiate students came into being. In the same years a considerable part of the college was rebuilt. Jowett was convinced that 'not a twentieth part of the ability in the country ever comes to the university.' In order to attract men from new classes he persuaded the college to alter the subjects for examination in some of the exhibitions, adding physical science and mathematics to classics.

By his election to the mastership (7 Sept. 1870) Jowett attained the position which he most coveted. He now enjoyed more leisure than hitherto, and he had as much power as the head of a house could have. For some years after his election he was much occupied with the enlargement of the college. A new hall was built (1877), and the old one transformed into a library for the use of the undergraduates. Later on a hope, formed many years before, was realised, and a field for cricket and football was secured for the college. To this, as to everything connected with Balliol, Jowett gave liberally from his private purse, and finally he built at his own expense a house for a tutor adjacent to the field.

Jowett's interests in education were not confined to Oxford. The University College at Bristol owed much to him, he strongly supported the claims of secondary education and university extension, and at the time of his death he was busy with a scheme for bringing the university and the secondary schools together. When it was arranged in 1874-5 that the age of the candidates for the Indian civil service should be fixed at seventeen to nineteen, and that successful candidates should pass two years of probation at a university, Jowett made arrangements to receive a number of candidates at Balliol College, and helped in establishing a school of oriental languages. In the university commission of 1877-81 he was of course greatly interested. He had not much sympathy with research, beyond certain limits, and on the other hand he urged strongly the claims of secondary education in the large towns, a movement in which he thought it would be wise for the university to take a part. The better organisation of the teaching of the non-collegiate students was strongly pressed, and, above all, the retention to a large extent of prize fellowships, on which Jowett placed great value.

In 1871 the translation of Plato appeared in four volumes. This was an event which determined to a great extent the literary work of the rest of Jowett's life not that he 'had done with theology and intended to lead a new life' (Plato, Euthyphro, end), for he was always hoping to return to theology when he could escape from other labours but the translation of Plato had a rapid sale, and it was necessary to revise it for a second edition (5 vols. 1875). Many thoughts which might have appeared in an independent work on theology or morals were now embodied in the introductions to the dialogues. From Plato he was led on to a translation of Thucydides, with notes on the Greek text (2 vols. 1881). From 1882 to 1886 he was vice-chancellor, and carried into the administration of the office the restless energy which was one of the most marked characteristics of his nature. He was able to do something for the non-collegiate students, and, in a different line, for the drainage of the Thames Valley, in conjunction with Dean Liddell though but a small part of their schemes was realised and a memorial of his work remains in the name 'Vice-chancellor's Cut,' which was given to a new outlet made for the Cherwell into the Isis. He also did much for the recognition and elevation of dramatic representations at Oxford. It was due to his support that the 'Agamemnon' of Æschylus was acted in Balliol Hall, and he gave his direct sanction and encouragement to the performances of the Oxford University Dramatic Society. The theatre at Oxford was rebuilt at this time, and Jowett was one of the first to enter it on the opening night. He also invited Sir Henry Irving to give a lecture at Oxford, and stay at the master's lodge on the occasion. In the same liberal spirit he encouraged music in his own college, inviting John Farmer from Harrow to superintend, and giving an organ for the hall. This was the beginning of the Sunday concerts at Balliol. Another subject to which he gave much thought and care was the university press. During these years his literary work flagged a little, yet in 1885 he published the translation of Aristotle's 'Politics,' with notes, but without the essays which would have given a special value to the book. These he did not live to finish.

The strain of the vice-chancellorship was more than Jowett's health could bear. In 1887 he fell ill, and though he recovered a considerable degree of health, he was quite unequal to the tasks which he laid upon himself. He was, however, able to carry on the revision of the 'Plato' for a third edition, which appeared in 1892, and work upon the edition of the 'Republic' on which he had now laboured for thirty years. This was published after his death by Professor Lewis Campbell. It is to this last edition of 'Plato' that we naturally turn for Jowett's final views on philosophy. He does not give us any comprehensive account of Plato's philosophy, for he did not quite believe that such a comprehensive account was possible. Plato's view changes in different dialogues, and in some no definite conclusion is reached. It was therefore better to treat each dialogue separately. It was also characteristic of his own mind to be constantly changing his point of view. 'Mr. Jowett's forte is mental philosophy. How has this or that metaphysical question presented itself to different minds, or to the same mind at different times? Under what contradictory aspects may a particular religious sentiment or moral truth be viewed? What phenomena does an individual mind exhibit at different stages in its growth? What contrasts do we find in the ancient and modern world of thought? This is the class of questions Mr. Jowett delights to ask and to answer.' So said Dr. Lightfoot when speaking of the work on 'St. Paul,' and the remarks apply with equal force to the 'Plato.' If we ask ourselves what were Plato's views on ethics, or politics, or art, we shall indeed find many far-reaching observations in Jowett's introductions, but not a systematic statement, such as is given e. g. in Zeller's 'History of Greek Philosophy.' We shall also find much which, though it arises out of Plato's thoughts, is only indirectly connected with him criticism of modern forms of old views, of ideal governments other than that of Plato, of recent utilitarianism, of Hegel, of the nature and origin of language. Few books cover so wide a field, or show keener powers of observation, or contain deeper thoughts. If the result often seems inadequate, it is because it was the author's aim to get at the truth, not to support any theory. And what is written is written with a finish and beauty rarely surpassed, just as the translation of the text of Plato and of Thucydides too has superseded all previous translations.

In 1891 Jowett had a very serious illness, which returned upon him in 1893. Towards the end of September in this year he left Oxford on a visit to Professor Campbell in London. Thence he went to Headley Park, the home of an old pupil, Sir Robert S. Wright, judge of the high court, where he died on 1 Oct. He was buried in St. Sepulchre's cemetery, Oxford, on 6 Oct.

After making bequests to his relatives, secretaries, servants, and others, Jowett left the remainder of his property of whatever kind, including the copyrights of his works, to Balliol College. The profits of the copyrights were to be invested, and the fund thus formed was to be applied partly to republication of Jowett's own works, and partly 'to the making of new translations and editions of Greek authors, or in any way promoting and advancing the study of Greek literature or otherwise for the advancement of learning in such way that the college may have the benefit intended by 15 George III, ch. 53, 1.'

After his death his friends subscribed a large sum of money, of which a small portion was expended on a memorial tablet in Balliol College chapel, and the remainder applied to the foundation of two 'Jowett lectureships' in Greek philosophy and history (or literature) at Balliol College.

He received the honorary degree of doctor of theology at Levden, 1875, of LL.D. at Edinburgh, 1884, and of LL.D. at Cambridge, 1890.

There are several portraits of Jowett: (1) In crayons, by George Richmond, R.A., about 1859, at Balliol College ; (2) in crayons, by Laugée, 1871, in the possession of Professor Dicey; (3) in oils, by Mr. G. F. Watts, R.A., in the hall of Balliol College ; (4) in pastels, by the Cavaliere C. M. Ross, at Balliol College ; (5) in water-colours, by the Lady Abercromby, 1892, in the hall of Balliol College ; the head was subsequently repainted by the same lady, and is at the master's lodge.

Jowett's energy and industry in literary work were more than equalled by his devotion to his pupils and friends. 'He had the genius of friendship,' and was never so happy as when visiting and entertaining friends, or contributing in any way to their happiness. A long succession of pupils regarded him with the greatest affection, and at the close of his life the friends of his youth were his friends still, for he never lost them. Among the earliest were Lord Farrer, Professor W. Y. Sellar, Sir A. Grant, T. C. Sandars, F. T. Palgrave, Theodore Walrond, Professor H. J. S. Smith. These were followed by Lord Bowen, W. L. Newman, Justice Wright, Professor T. H. Green, Lyulph Stanley, Sir C. P. Ilbert, and later still by Sir W. R. Anson, Sir F. H. Jeune, Lord Lansdowne, Sir Arthur Godley, Andrew Lang, Professor W. Wallace, Professor Caird, Lord Milner, Sir G. Baden-Powell, and many others. It was his delight to have some of these pupil friends at the master's lodge for Sunday, where he also brought together, whenever he could, some of the most distinguished men of his time. Such were Lowell, W. W. Goodwin, O. Wendell Holmes, Huxley, M. Arnold, Turgenieff, Browning, Froude, H. M. Stanley, Dr. Martineau, G. Eliot, Renan, Ruskin. As a host he was most careful and solicitous of the comfort of his guests, but in his conversation he was often reserved. A competent judge wrote of him : 'A disciple of Socrates he valued speech more highly than any other gift, yet he was always hampered by a conscious imperfection and by a difficulty in sustaining and developing his thoughts in society. . . . He was seldom more than the third party intervening' (J.D. Rogers, see Life, ii. 157). In a tête-à-tête conversation he was often perversely silent, and gaps were almost painful. But with one or two congenial friends he would talk unremittingly till midnight, and even in his serious illness he insisted on coming down to breakfast that he 'might have a little cheerful conversation.' He loved to tell stories and to have them told to him, or to discuss subjects in which he had an interest, in the hope of gaining clearer insight. He had a wonderful power of fixing a discussion in a phrase : 'Respectability is a great foe to religion,' he said at the close of a discussion on chapel and church ; 'The practice of divines has permanently lowered the standard of truth' was his severe sentence on theological criticism. In his letters to friends he felt able to pour himself out with less restraint than in conversation, and here we often find him at his best, light-hearted, cheerful, amusing, and devoted to his friends, endeavouring to comfort them in distress or bereavement, and to help them in difficulty.

Jowett formed no school, and was not the leader of a party in religion or philosophy. A leader in the church he could not be after the publication of his 'St. Paul,' and he never wished to leave the church for any form of nonconformity. His critical instincts led him in one direction, his religious feeling drew him in another. Thus his speculations led him to 'irreconcilable contrasts' (Leslie Stephen, op. cit. ii. 141), but he did not ' pretend that such contrasts did not exist ; 'it was because he pointed them out with unusual force and freedom that he was regarded as heretical. In philosophy he was content to be critical (see above); he saw that one philosophy had always been succeeded by another, and the leader of to-day was forgotten tomorrow; each therefore, he concluded, had grasped part of the truth, but not the whole truth. His speculations ended in compromise, and thus, here also, he was unfitted to be a leader. For himself he had almost a horror of falling under one set of ideas to the exclusion of others. 'He stood at the parting of many ways,' and wrote 'No thoroughfare ' upon them all, says Mr. Stephen, severely but not unjustly (loc. cit. p. 143) ; and after all, in doing so, Jowett only went a step beyond the philosopher who condemns all systems but his own. Yet indirectly he left his mark even on philosophy. By him his pupil T. H. Green was stimulated to the study of Hegel, and no influence has been greater in Oxford for the last thirty years than Green's. But the chief traces of Jowett's influence will be found in other spheres. His essays and translations must secure him a high place among the writers of his time, and in every history of English education in the second half of the nineteenth century he will occupy a prominent place.

The following is a list of Jowett's works:

  1. 'St. Paul's Epistles to the Thessalonians, Galatians, and Romans,' 2 vols. 1855; 2nd edit. 1859.
  2. 'Essay on the Interpretation of Scripture,' in 'Essays and Reviews,' 1860.
  3. 'The Dialogues of Plato,' translated into English, with Analyses and Introductions, 4 vols. 1871; 2nd edit. 5 vols. 1875; 3rd edit. 5 vols. 1892. (The 'Republic,' published separately, 1888.)
  4. 'Thucydides,' translated into English, with Introduction, Notes, &c. 2 vols. 1881; 2nd edit. 1900.
  5. Aristotle's 'Politics,' translated into English, with Introduction, Notes, &c. 2 vols. 1885.
  6. Plato's 'Republic,' Text and Notes (Jowett and Campbell), 3 vols. 1894.
  7. 'College Sermons,' 1895.
  8. 'Sermons: Biographical, &c.,' 1899.
  9. 'Sermons on Faith and Doctrine,' 1901.

[Jowett's Life and Letters by Dr. Evelyn Abbott and Dr. Lewis Campbell, 2 vols. 1897; Letters, 1899; Benjamin Jowett, Master of Balliol Coll., L. A. Tolleraache (1895); W. G. Ward and the Oxford Movement, by W. Ward, 1889; Life of Dean Stanley, by R. E. Prothero, 1893; Swinburne's Studies in Prose and Poetry, 1894; Leslie Stephen's Studies of a Biographer, 1898; article in the Jewish Quarterly, by Claude G. Montenore, January 1900; personal knowledge.]

E. A.