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BALLIN A —BALLC»ONS, MILITARY is situated on the left bank of the Ganges, below the con- that ballooning as a recognized military science only dates fluence of the Lesser Sarju. It is really an aggregate of back to about the year 1883 or 1884, when most of the In rural villages. Population about 16,500 ; municipal income powers organized regular balloon establishments. 1884-85 the French found balloons very useful during in 1897-98, Rs.10,482. The district of Pallia, constituted in 1879, occupies their campaign in Tongking ; and the British Government an angle at the junction of the Gogra with the Ganges, also despatched balloons with the Bechuanaland expedition being bordered by two districts of Pehar. It contains an and also with that to Suakin in those years. During the area of 1170 square miles. The population in 1891 was latter campaign several ascents were made in the presence 995,325, being 936 persons per square mile; Hindus of the enemy, on whom it was said that a great moral numbering 926,358, Mahommedans 68,952, Christians 15, effect was produced. In the war against the Spaniards in of whom 7 were Europeans. In 1901 the population was Cuba the United States again used a balloon, but it was 949,966, showing a decrease of 5 per cent. Land revenue carried so close to the enemy’s lines that it was soon shot and’ rates were returned as Ps.8,75,449, the incidence of down, after drawing the enemy’s fire upon the troops. assessment (which is permanently settled) being Ps.0:14:3 Balloons were employed in the South African war of per acre; the number of police was 2740. There are no 1899-1902 with useful results. Apparatus.—We niiiy briefly describe the apparatus used in canals and no railways. Out of a total cultivated area in military operations. The French in the campaigns of the last 1896-97 of 510,828 acres, 157,443 were irrigated from century used varnished silk balloons of about 10,000 cubic feet wells, tanks, &c. The principal crops are rice, barley, other capacity. The Americans in the civil war used much larger ones, food-grains, pulse, sugar-cane, and opium. There ar§ no those of 26,000 cubic feet being found the most suitable. _ These manufactures, except that of sugar; and trade is almost were also of varnished silk. In the present day most nations use balloons of about 20,000 cubic feet, made of varnished cambric ; entirely carried on by the two bordering rivers. but the British war balloons, made of goldbeater skin, are usually of comparatively small size, the normal capacity being 10,000 cubic Ballina, a maritime town, urban sanitary district of feet, though others are also used of 7000 and 4500 cubic feet, the county Mayo, Ireland, on the river Moy and the Midland latter two sizes having been used at Suakin. The usual shape is Great Western Railway. In population and trade it is the spherical; but since 1896 the Germans, and now other nations, adopted a long, cylindrical-shaped balloon, so affixed to its first town in the county. Salmon fisheries gave employ- have as to present an inclined surface to the wind and thus act ment in 1898 to 547 persons. A light railway now runs cable partly on the principle of a kite. from Pallina to Killala. Population, 4846. Though coal-gas and even hot air may occasionally be used for inflation, hydrogen gas is on account of its lightness far Ballinasloe, an inland town and urban sanitary preferable. In the early days of ballooning this had to be district in the province of Connaught, county of Galway, manufactured in the field, but nowadays it is almost universally compressed in steel tubes. About 100 such tubes, each Ireland, on the river Suck, 91 miles W.S.W. of Dublin carried weighing 75 K>, are required to fill a 10,000-feet balloon. New by the Midland Great Western Railway. In 1898 the tubes of greater capacity have also been tried. portion in Roscommon was added to Galway. The number The transport for a British balloon section consists of 6 fourof sheep offered for sale at the great October fair in 1900 horsed waggons, 1 carrying the balloon with its steel wire captive 4 for gas tubes, and 1 for equipment. The personnel consists was 28,360, and of horned cattle, 11,294. Population rope, of 3 officers and 25 rank and file. These all belong to the Royal about 4700. Engineers. The balloon is almost always used captive. If allowed to go free Balloons, Military.—When, in 1783, Mont- it will usually be rapidly carried away by the wind, and the results golfier first caused a balloon to rise in the air, and to lift of the observations cannot easily be transmitted back. Occasions a man to a considerable height, whence an extensive view may occur when such ascents will be of value, but the usual method to send up a captive balloon to a height of somewhere about of the surrounding country could be obtained, military is1000 feet. With the standard British balloon two officers are authorities were not slow to recognize the immense benefits sent up, one of whom has now particularly to attend to the managewhich the employment of such a contrivance might confer ment of the balloon, while the other makes the observations. With regard to observations from captive balloons much will in war. Within the next ten years the French Government made trials, resulting in the establishment of a depend on circumstances. In a thickly wooded country, such as in which the balloons were used in the American civil war, company of “ Aerostiers,” suitably equipped with several that no very valuable information is, as a rule, to be obtained ; but in balloons, and these proved of great service during the fairly open country all important movements of troops should be campaigns of that period. In June 1794, Captain Coutelle discernible by an experienced observer at any point within about made an ascent at Maubeuge. At the battle of Ileurus four or five miles of the balloon. The circumstances, it may be are such as would usually preclude one unaccustomed the balloon was up all day and valuable observations were mentioned, to ballooning from affording valuable reports. Not only is he made from it. A second company of “ Aerostiers ” was liable to be disturbed by the novel and apparently hazardous then formed, and frequent ascents were made. At the situation, but troops and features of the ground often have so siege of Mayenne in 1799, Coutelle ascended during a peculiar an appearance from that point of view, that a novice will have a difficulty in deciding whether an object be a column of very strong wind, but was able to gain important informa- often troops or a ploughed field. Then again, much will depend on tion. Balloon observations were also made at Ehren- atmospheric conditions. Thus, in misty weather a balloon is wellbreitstein, Bonn, Frankfort, Wurzburg, and at the siege of nigh useless; and in strong winds, with a velocity of anything Liege. It may seem curious that after such an apparently over 20 miles an hour, efficient observation becomes a matter of When some special point has to be reported on, such successful debut military ballooning should have died out difficulty. as whether there is any large body of troops behind a certain hill of fashion. With the exception of an ascent at the siege or wood, a rapid ascent may still be made in winds up to 30 miles of Antwerp in 1815, and one at Solferino in 1859, balloons an hour, but the balloon would then be so unsteady that no careful were not again used in war until the Federals brought them scouting could be made. It is usually estimated that a successful ascent can only be made in England on half the days of into requisition in the American civil war of 1861. Much captive year. As a general rule balloon ascents would be made for one valuable information was thus gained of the enemy about the of the following objects, viz.: to examine the country for an enemy; Richmond and in other places. Though during the to reconnoitre the enemy’s position ; to ascertain the stiength of his Franco-German war in 1870 balloons were occasionally force, number of guns, and exact situation of the various arms; also note the plan of his earthworks or. fortifications. During an used, no regular organization was instituted, nor were to the aerial observer would be on the look-out for any moveimportant results obtained until the siege of Paris, when action ments of the enemy and give warning of flank attacks or surprises. the French made great use of them for sending out letters Such an observer could also keep the general informed as to the and carrier pigeons. Sixty-four large balloons were sent proo-ress of various detached parties of his own force, as to the off, taking nearly a ton of letters. Yet it may be said advance of reinforcements, or to the conduct of any fighting going 94