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B A L LOT 95 on at a distance. Balloon observations are also of especial aid to primitive town meetings ballots had been written by the artillery in correcting their aim. The vulnerability of a captive balloon to the enemy’s fire has voters, or, if printed, were furnished by the candidates. been tested by many experiments with variable results. One fact With the development of elections, the task of preparing undoubtedly is that the range of a balloon in mid-air is extremely and distributing ballots fell to political committees for difficult to judge, and, as its altitude can be very rapidly altered, it becomes a very difficult mark for artillery to hit. A few bullet the various parties. The ballot tickets were thus prepared holes in the fabric of a balloon make but little difference, since for party lists of candidates, and it was not easy for any the size of the perforation is very minute as compared with the great one to vote a mixed ticket, while, as the voter received surface of material, but on the other hand, a shrapnel bursting just the ballot within a few feet of the polls, secrecy was in front of it may cause a rapid fall. It is therefore considered almost impossible, and intimidation and bribery became prudent to keep the balloon well away from an enemy, and two miles are laid down as the nearest approach it should make both easy and frequent. Soon after the adoption of the Australian ballot in habitually. Besides being of use on land for war purposes, balloons have Great Britain, it was introduced in Canada, but no serious also been tried in connexion with the naval service. In France agitation was begun for a similar system in the United especially regular trials have been made of inflating balloons on board ships, and sending them aloft as a look-out; but it is now States until 1885. In 1887 bills for the Australian ballot generally contended that the difficulties of storing the gas and of •were actively urged in the legislatures of New York and manoeuvring the balloon are so great on board ship as to be hardly Michigan, although neither became law. A Wisconsin worth the results to be gained. A very important development of military ballooning—which, law of that year, regulating elections in cities of over however, has not yet passed the experimental stage—is that of the 50,000 population, incorporated some features of the navigable balloon. It only a balloon could be sent up and driven Australian system, but the first complete law was enacted in any required direction, and brought back to its starting-point, by Massachusetts in 1888. This Massachusetts statute it is obvious that it would be of the very greatest use in war. The provided for the printing and distribution of ballots by French, here again, were the first to make practical efforts to accomplish this end. Giffard, a civil engineer, as long ago as 1852, the state to contain the names of all candidates arranged ascended in an elongated balloon with a steam engine to work a alphabetically for each office, the electors to vote by screw propeller. The speed attained was, however, not sufficient marking the name of each candidate for whom they to be of any practical use, since, of course, the rate of progress must wished to vote. At the Presidential election of 1888 it be greater than that of the wind in order to make certain of returning to the point of departure. Dupuy de Lome, constructor to- the was freely alleged that large sums of money had been French navy,, undertook further experiments in this line for the raised on an unprecedented scale for the purchase of Government in 1872, but without much more satisfactory results. votes, and this situation created a feeling of deep alarm In 1884, however, Captains Renard and Krebs, of the military which gave a powerful impetus to the movement for balloon establishment at Meudon, succeeded in making and work- ballot reform. In 1889 new ballot laws were enacted in ing a balloon, called ‘‘La France,” with electric engines, which on several occasions attained a speed of about 14 miles an hour ; nine states : two states bordering on Massachusetts, Conand this was sufficient, so long as the wind was very light, to enable necticut and Rhode Island; four states in the middleit to travel some miles and return to its point of departure. west, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota; two Though there have been frequent rumours of this balloon having southern states, Tennessee and Missouri; and Montana, been improved upon, nothing definite seems to have really resulted. Several further attempts to solve the problem have been made in the far west. The Connecticut law, however, marked in Germany and other countries without much success. Count but little improvement over former conditions, since it Zeppelin s air-ship in 1900 promised better results. Having a provided only for official envelopes in which the unofficial capacity ol over 350,000 cubic ieet, it could carry about thirty party ballots should be voted. The Indiana law provided men, and was estimated to travel at the rate of 22 miles an hour. (See also Aekonautics. ) This huge vessel was kept distended by for a single or “ blanket ” ballot, but with the names of an aluminium framework, and was driven by two benzine motors candidates arranged in party groups, and a method of oi 15 horse-power each, rotating four screw propellers placed at voting for all of the candidates in a party group by a the sides of the vessel. (b. F S B -P ) single mark. Michigan and Missouri also adopted the party group system. The other states followed the Ballot.—The history of the ballot in the United Massachusetts law providing for a blanket ballot with the Kingdom, generally, was treated in the ninth edition of this candidates arranged by offices. work, but it is desirable here to give further particulars The new ballot system had its first practical demonconcerning its use in the United States. At the first stration at the Massachusetts election of 1889, and its elections in America voting was viva voce; but several of success led to its rapid adoption in many other states. the colonies early provided for the use of written or In 1890 ballot laws were passed in seven states : Vermont, printed ballots. . By 1775 ballots were used in the New Mississippi, Wyoming, and Washington provided for the Kngland states, in Pennsylvania, Delaware, North CaroMassachusetts plan, although Vermont afterwards adopted lina, and South Carolina; they were introduced in New the system of party groups, which Maryland used from Jersey in 1776 and in New York in 1778, so that, at the the first. The New York and New Jersey laws of 1890, time the Constitution of the United States was adopted viva voce voting prevailed at public elections only in however, only provided for official ballots for each party’ and allowed ballots obtained outside of the polling booths Maryland, Virginia, and Georgia. Of the new states to be used. In 1891 seventeen additional states and two which later entered the Union, only Illinois, Kentucky Missouri, and Arkansas did not have a ballot systen’i territories adopted the Australian ballot system. All of when they became states. During the first half of the these provided for a blanket ballot ; but while the 9th century, Maryland, Georgia, Arkansas (1846) and Massachusetts arrangement was adopted in Arkansas, Illinois (1848) adopted the ballot. In Missouri ballot Nebraska, New Hampshire, North and South Dakota, voting was introduced to some localities in 1845, but not Kentucky, Texas, and Oregon, the system of party groups until 1863 was it generally adopted in that state. Vir- was followed in Colorado, Delaware, Illinois, Maine, Ohio, ginia did not provide for voting by ballot until 1869, and Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. California had the m Kentucky viva voce voting continued until 1891. But Massachusetts arrangement of names, but added on the while the use of ballots was thus required in voting, and most ballot a list of party names, by marking one of which a ot the states had laws prescribing the form of ballots and voter would cast his vote for all of the candidates of that providing for the count of the vote, there was no provi- party. Pennsylvania placed all the candidates not in a sion making it the duty of any one to print and distribute party group in alphabetical order. Iowa adopted the Australian ballot system in 1892; tne ballots at the polling places on election day. In the Alabama and Kansas in 1893; Virginia in 1894; Florida