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146

BARBUDA — BARCELONA

Hall, 1891. (Mr Thomson gives a full list of the French authorities rate, but chiefly to immigration from the rest of Spain. to be consulted.)—Jules Breton. Nos Peintres du Siede. Paris, The influx has been occasioned by the extraordinary 1900. Also the articles on Corot, Millet, Rousseau, Daubigny, development of the industries and commerce of Barcelona Diaz, Troyon, and Schools of Painting. (g. Cl.) since 1870. At the close of 1899 Barcelona paid about £550,000 in the shape of industrial and commercial taxes, Barbuda.. See Antigua. Barcellona, a town of the province of Messina, being more than 11 per cent, of the wdiole amount of the Sicily, Italy, 27 miles W. by S. from Messina by rail. It said tax collected in the kingdom. Trades and industries prepares lemon juice and. olive oil, manufactures macaroni give occupation to more than 150,000 hands of both sexes. are powerful and numerous guilds and labour and pottery, burns lime, and makes bricks. It is formed There societies, and the principal trades union has enrolled more by the union of two communes—Barcellona and Pozzo di than 25,000 members. The spinning and weaving of Gotto. Population about 18,000. wool, cotton, and silk are still its principal industries, but Barcelonai a maritime province in the K.E. of the enterprising spirit of the Catalans has impelled them Spain, with an area of 2985 square miles. It is flat near to try almost every industry in which native capital could the sea, but rises inland. The highest peak is Coll de attempt to compete with foreign imports, especially since Fou, 8317 feet. For many years Barcelona has been the the institution of the protectionist tariffs of 1892. The most populous province in the kingdom, having in 1877 prosperity has been in part due to the great development 835,306 inhabitants; in 1887, 899,264; and in 1897, of means of communication around the city and in the 1,034,538, in fact a little over the eighteenth part of the four Catalan provinces. The city is the seat of the. head whole population of Spain. Emigration, chiefly to South offices of the Hispano-Colonial Bank, of the state-subsidized America, has in no year taken more than 2000 inhabitants. trans-Atlantic mail company, which has a splendid fleet of The province is divided into 13 administrative districts, 50 steamers, and of several other great shipping companies. 3 of which constitute the city of Barcelona, and 320 Its industrial companies are quite able to compete in parishes. 27one of the rivers are navigable, and the roads peninsular markets with foreign rivals. The new' part of are in general indifferent and insufficient. The province the town has been adorned with, splendid public prois better off in regard to railways, of which there, are menades, parks, and public buildings. The older parts 349 miles. Besides the main and more important lines, have been improved, and Barcelona has more numerous and like those which communicate with Saragona (65 miles better means of communication with its distant subui bs within the province), France, and Valencia, there are and environs than Madrid, in the shape of electric and several useful and local lines connecting with important steam tramways. Improvements have also been made in centres of industry. Indeed, to the Spaniards this pro- its port and quays, so much so, that during the Barcelona vince is, in a measure, a Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield, and Exhibition of 1888 the fleets of ten European nations Birmingham all in one. In every direction the country anchored inside the harbour or in the outer, roadstead. looks like a veritable hive of human activity and enter- During 25 years harbour duties have been levied to carry prise, every town and village full of “ fabricas,” with their on the yet incomplete extension of the quays and harbour tall chimneys, and alive with the din of machinery. Next works. to Barcelona rank as prosperous manufacturing centres, The port of Barcelona is the most important in Spain. In 1898 Badalona, with 18,075 inhabitants; Igualada, 10,419; 3546 vessels of 2,796,367 tons (metric) entered, and 3385 of 2 743,725 tons (only 249 of 236,891 tons British) cleared: 200/ Manresa, 25,121; Mataro, 19,918; Sabadell, 23,044, the entrances and 1986 of the clearances were Spanish vessels, Tarrasa, 15,440; Vifch, 11,724 ; Villanueva - y - Geltru, of these hivh figures being largely due to the extent of the coasting 12,046; and nine other towns, ranging from 5000 to 8000 trade. The imports from Great Britain were £1,670,568 m value inhabitants. There were, in 1898, 12,812 acres of irrigated in 1898, against £1,791,923 in 1897, the falling off being due to the soil and 91,857 acres of dry soil devoted to the culture of coal strike in England and the high rates of exchanges during war with the United States. The exports to England from wheat, 51,562 acres to barley, oats, rye and maize, 22,812 the Barcelona amounted in value to £126,320 in 1898, compared with to pod fruit, 13,500 to olive plantations, and 89,18/ to £96 848 in 1897. The imports from British colonies in Asia and the vine. The live stock included 11,389 horses, 9909 Africa were valued at £497,260 in 1898; exports to, _ at only mules, 8293 asses, 10,499 cattle, 93,649 sheep, 20,173 £2947. Imports from France were valued at £476,1/1 in 1898; to, at £844,407, being an increase of £380,000 on the goats, 18,886 pigs. The mineral productions are lead, exports figures of 1897. Germany ranks next, exporting to Barcelona m zinc, lignite, salt, subterraneous waters; 8 salt and 13 1898 goods valued at £502,413, and taking back to the value of lignite mines are in full production, but 19/ mines, though £81 203. The war with the United States caused the imports duly registered, are unproductive. The province is .very from that country to drop from £2,512,915 in 1897 to £624,239 m rich in mineral waters, containing 12 sulphurous springs, 1898 ; but Barcelona obtained through other European markets cotton that used to come direct from the States, as the value 22 chloruretted, 5 of bicarbonate, and 18. ferruginous. In the of cotton imported only dropped from £2,785,892 m 1897 to point of climate the province can be divided into three £2 349,384 in 1898. Comestibles, raw materials, and combustibles distinct zones : a temperate one near the sea, where even form the greater part of the imports, but this great manufactory enough imports a considerable quantity of foreign manupalm and orange trees grow, a colder one in the valleys singularly factured goods, the most important items in this respect m 1898 and plains, more inland, and a colder still among the being linen and jute goods, £268,784 ; woollen goods, £213,150 ; mountains, where not a few peaks are snowclad for a. great machinery, £230,219 ; and electric cables and dockyard materials, part of the year. In point of education this province is about £200,000. The principal exports are wines, cereals, olive oil, quite among the first in Spain, and as far back as 1880 cotton goods, soap, cigarette-paper, furniture and barrels, boots, and leather goods, machinery; but in almost every class there there were 97,077 children enrolled on the school registers; shoes was a marked decline in 1898 compared with 189/, mainly attributthe figures have since steadily increased. able to the loss of the colonies, which falls especially heavy on Barcelona. The export of cotton goods declined £921,000 m value ; Barcelona, the capital of the above province, on soap and woollen goods each £20,000 ; shoes and leather goods (A- E- H-) the shore of the Mediterranean, 310 miles N.E. of Madrid £350,000. by rail. No town in Spain has increased so rapidly in Barcelona, a town of Venezuela, capital of the importance, extent, and population. The population was, in 1887 272,480; with the suburbs of Gracia, San old state of Bermudez (now capital of the state of Andres de Palamor, and San Martin de Proven gals, Barcelona), close to the mouth of the river Never), and 421,255; in 1897, including the same suburbs, 504,396. 12 miles from Guanta port by rail. At the beginning This increase is not due to any unusual excess of buth- of the 19th century its population numbered 16,000