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BONA — BONAPARTE 297 In 1897-98 the coasting trade was valued at Rs.10,42,58,674 for leon, or by the sobriquet of “ Plon-Plon ”!), (1822-1891), imports, and Rs.9,75,27,197 for exports. In 1897-98, 40,051 vessels of 2,665,727 tons entered ; and 31,264 the second son of Jerome Bonaparte, king of Westphalia, vessels of 2,595,515 tons cleared the port. by his wife Catherine, princess of Wiirtemberg, was born at The port of Bombay (including docks and warehouses) is managed Trieste, 9th September 1822. After the French revoluby a port trust, the members of which are nominated by the Government from among the commercial community. In 1897-98 tion of 1848 he was elected to the National Assembly as a the revenue of the port trust was Rs. 46,48,409, and the ex- representative of Corsica, and (his elder brother, Jerome penditure Rs. 48,47,049, showing a deficit of Rs.1,98,640. The Napoleon Charles, dying in 1847) assumed the name of expenditure included Rs. 24,67,927 for interest and sinking fund Jerome. Notwithstanding his ostensible opposition to on a capital debt amounting to Rs. 5,20,88,058. The municipal government of the city was framed by an Act of the Bombay legis- the coup detat of 1851, he was, upon the establishment lative council passed in 1888. The governing body consists of a of the empire, placed in the direct line of succession, municipal corporation and a town council. The corporation is and received a liberal dotation, but was allowed no composed of 72 members, of whom 16 are nominated by the Govern- share in public affairs. Privately he professed himself ment. Of the remainder, 36 are elected by the ratepayers, 16 by the justices of the peace, 2 by the senate of the university, and the representative of the Napoleonic tradition in its demo2 by the chamber of commerce. The council, which forms the cratic aspect, and associated mainly with men of advanced standing committee of the corporation, consists of 12 members, of political opinions. In 1854 he took part in the Crimean whom 4 are nominated by the Government and the rest elected by campaign as general of division. His conduct at the battle the corporation. Of the members of the corporation in 1898, 18 of the Alma occasioned imputations upon his personal were Europeans, 16 Hindus, 12 Mahommedans, and 24 Parsis. ’ In 1897-98 the total revenue was Rs. 67,08,505, and the total expendi- courage, but they seem to have been entirely groundless. ture Rs.74,96,970 ; on 31st March 1898 the total amount of loans Returning to France, he undertook the chief direction of outstanding was Rs. 4,11,20,498, bearing interest at rates varying the Rational Exhibition of 1855, in which he manifested rom 5 to 3J per cent. A large proportion of these loans had been raised for waterworks and similar permanent outlay ; but during great capacity. In 1858 he was appointed minister for 1897-98 it was found necessary to borrow no less than Rs. 27,00,000 the Colonies and Algeria, and his administration aroused for temporary purposes. In this embarrassed condition of the great hopes, but his activity was diverted into a different corporation a new body was constituted in 1898 for the improve- channel by his sudden marriage in January 1859 with ment and future expansion of the city, under the title of “ Trustees the Princess Clotilde, daughter of Victor Emmanuel, a for the Improvement of the City of Bombay.” The board of trustees consists of fourteen members, of whom seven are elected. prelude to the war for the liberation of Italy. In this Their duties are to form new and alter existing streets, to remove war Prince Napoleon commanded the French corps that and alter insanitary buildings, to provide open spaces for better occupied Tuscany, and it was expected that he would ventilation and for recreation, to construct new sanitary dwellings for certain classes of the inhabitants, to lay out vacant lands, and become ruler of the principality, but he refused to exert to reclaim parts of the foreshore of the island. In April 1900 any pressure upon the inhabitants, who preferred union the Bombay Improvement Trust raised a loan of Rs. 50,00,000 with the Italian kingdom. The next few years were (say £333,333), in 4 per cent, debentures, on the London market. chiefly distinguished by remarkable speeches which disThe Bombay University was constituted in 1857 as an examining body, on the model of the University of London. During the played the prince in the unexpected character of a great five years ending 1897 the total number of persons who matricu- orator. Unfortunately his indiscretion equalled his elolated was 4813, while 815 graduated B. A., 859 passed examinations quence : one speech (1861) sent him to America to avoid in law, 416 in medicine, and 314 in engineering. The chief educa- a duel with the duke dAumale; another (1865), in which cational institutions in Bombay city are the Government Elphin- he justly but in temperately protested against the Mexican stone College, two missionary colleges (Wilson and St. Xavier), the Grant. Medical College, the Government law school, the Sir expedition, cost him all his official dignities. He was, Jamsetji Jijibhai School of Art, and the Victoria Jubilee Technical nevertheless, soon restored to the position of dubious Institute. There are altogether twenty-four high schools for boys, favour which he generally occupied under his cousin’s and ten for girls. In 1897-98, a year of plague, the total number reign, and was influential in effecting the reform by which, of pupils under instruction was 22,204, being 3-4 per cent, of the in 1869, it was sought to reconcile the empire with Liberal population. The effects of the plague in Bombay city may be briefly shown principles. The fatal war of 1870 was resolved upon by a few figures. From September 1896 to July 1898 the number during his absence in Norway, and was strongly condemned of cases recorded was 31,083, of whom 27,533 died. In three years by him. After the first disasters he undertook an inthe number of deaths from plague was 1811 in 1898, 15,692 in effectual mission to Italy to implore the aid of his father1899, and 13,247 in 1900. During 1897 the total number of deaths from all causes was 47,896, equal to a death-rate of 58'3 in-law ; and after the fall of the empire lived in comparaper thousand, compared with an average death-rate of 35 per tive retirement until the death of the Prince Imperial thousand for the preceding five years. Among Europeans alone (1879) made him direct heir to the Napoleonic succession. the death-rate was only 19 per thousand. In 1899 the death-rate His part as Imperial pretender was unfortunate and inrose to 69 -5 per thousand. g_ Co glorious : his democratic opinions were unacceptable to the Bona. (French, Bone), a seaport town of Algeria, on Imperial party, and ere his death he was virtually deposed a bay of the Mediterranean, in the department of Con- in favour of his son Prince Napoleon Victor. He died at stantine, 220 miles by rail W. of Tunis, with railway Rome, 17th March 1891. His eldest son, Prince Napoleon connexion with Guelma and Constantine. It is the seat Victor (born 1862), has since then been the head of the of a sub-prefecture and an important commercial centre French Bonapartist party; but the second son, Prince Louis for the export of cereals, oils, corks, wools, and minerals. Napoleon, an officer in the Russian army, has given more It owes its prosperity to the rich plain surrounding it. reason to suppose that he has inherited some of the finer The. port is now one of the best and safest on the characteristics of his family. Prince Napoleon’s sister, Mediterranean coast, having been considerably enlarged in Princess Mathilde Letitia Wilheemine Bonaparte, 1896-98. Its tonnage, 298,223 in 1890, amounted in 1898 born at Trieste, 27th May 1820., married in October 1841 (entered and cleared) to 583,144. There are forty-six Prince Anatole Demidoff. The prince’s conduct led to a merchant ships registered at the port. From 18,866 in separation within four years, and he was compelled by the 1872, the population increased to 26,475 in 1891, and Tsar Nicholas to make the princess a handsome allowance. 32,498 in 1900. Of this 12,011 were French, 7800 were After the election of her cousin, Louis Napoleon, as preArabs, and about 12,500 were foreigners, chiefly Italians sident of the Republic, the princess took up her residence and Maltese. in Paris, and did the honours of the Elysee until his Napoleon Josepl V/narles Paul (commonly known as Prince Napc

1 Derived, it is supposed, from the nickname “ Plomb-plomb,” or u Craint-plomb ” (fear-lead), given him by his soldiers in the Crimea. S. II. — 38