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BOSNIA

AND

HERZEGOVINA

Males accordingly constitute 52'86 per cent, of the total civil population. In respect of creeds, 35 per cent, of the inhabitants are Mahommedans; 43 per cent. Oriental Orthodox; 21 ‘3 per cent. Roman Catholics ; 0 percent. Israelites. The Mahommedans are most strongly represented in the district of Sarajevo, making 49 per cent, of the population ; the Oriental Orthodox in Banjaluka, 59'2 per cent. ; the Roman Catholics in Travnik, 37 '7, per cent.; and in Mostar, 40'2 per cent. ; the Jews in Sarajevo, 2 1 per cent. Since 1885 the Mahommedans have increased by 11 per cent. ; the Oriental Orthodox, 18 per cent. ; the Roman Catholics, 26 per cent. ; and the Jews, 41 ‘5 per cent. The occupation of the land shows a preponderance of small settlements. In 73 per cent, of all the inhabited places the maximum population is 300 ; 23 per cent, of inhabited places have from 300 to 1000 inhabitants ; only forty places have a population of more than 2000 ; eleven places have over 5000 inhabitants each. 32’4 of the population live in little settlements of a maximum population of 300; 39’8 per cent, in places of between 300 and 1000 ; 12’6 per cent, in places of between 1000 and 2000; 15’2 per cent, in places of larger population. The capital town, Sarajevo, has 38,083 inhabitants. The agricultural population of the whole land numbers 1,385,291 persons, or 88'4 per cent, of the total population. There are 221,581 heads of families. Of these 2'63 per cent, are landed proprietors; 39'21 per cent, are free peasants ; 40T5 per cent, are Kmeten (not free); 10‘23 per cent, are free peasants and at the same time Kmeten; and 7‘78 are of other ranks engaged in agriculture. There is a Roman Catholic archbishopric in Sarajevo, one bishopric in Mostar, and one Apostolic administrator in Banjaluka. There is further an Oriental Orthodox metropolitan in each of the towns of Sarajevo, Dolnja Tuzla, and Banjaluka. The Reis-el-Ulema is the highest Mahommedan ecclesiastical authority. In the way of education, there are 3 higher gymnasia, a higher real, 1 technical, and 3 higher-grade girls’ schools, a training college for teachers, a scheviot (rough wool) weaving school, a Roman Catholic archiepiscopal gymnasium and priest seminary, an Oriental Orthodox theological institute, 10 commercial schools, several handicraft schools, 108 general elementary schools, 1 national museum—all understate administration. Thereare, further, 1 private institute for female teachers, 1 Mahommedan training school for teachers, 1030 Mahommedan religious schools (among them 25 reformed), 41 medresse or Mahommedan high schools, 79 Oriental Orthodox and 29 Roman Catholic schools, 2 Jewish normal primary schools, 4 German private primary schools, and 6 Roman Catholic congregational female schools. The budget for the administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina for the year 1900 showed the expenditure and revenue as follows

£ 143,606 675,242 519,187 66,921 203,605

Extraordinary. £ 8,368 33,956 11,653 4,484 61,803

£ 151,974 709,198 530,840 71,405 265,408

Total

1,608,561

120,264

1,728,825

Revenue. Central Government Ministry of the Interior ,, ,, Finance ,, ,, Justice. ,, ,, Buildings

1,249 102.358 1,398^236 4,896 226,728

666 42

1,249 102,358 1,398,902 4,938 226,728

Total

1,733,467

708

1,734,175

Ordinary. Expenditure. Central Government Ministry of the Interior ,, ,, Finance ,, ,, Justice. ,, ,, Buildings

Total.

The entire area is laid out as follows :— Square Percentage Kilometres. of Total Area. Plough-land . 11,032 21-63 Garden ground 483 0-95 Meadow . 3,465 6-79 Vineyard 59 0-11 Pasture . 8,418 16-50 Wood . 26,581 52-10 Unproductive. 989 1-93 The yearly average total produce in wheat, rye, barley, oats, spelt, buckwheat, millet, corn and wheat mixed, maize, and marsh-millet, for the period 1892-96, amounted to over 5 million centners against a yearly average for the period 1882-86 of 2 "24 millions, showing an increase for 1892-96 of more than double. The largest produce was yielded by maize, with 25,483 wagons (each 100 quintals); next, barley, 7879 ;_ wheat, 7854 ; oats, 4501 ; millet, 1590 ; spelt, 1318 ; rye, 1249 ; mixed corn and wheat, 1229 ; marsh-millet, 481 ; buck- I

317

wheat, 88 wagons. In the north of the land and on the Dalmatian frontier the principal product is maize ; in the south, barley. The yearly produce of pulse averaged, for the period 1892-96, 142,669 centners —an increase of 126"82 per cent, on the yield tor 1882-86. The yearly yield of potatoes for 1892-96 averaged 519,667 centners, 190 per cent, more than in the corresponding years ot the previous decade. Other products of the soil are tobacco, chiefly in Herzegovina, 37,160 centners; other commercial plants (rape-seed, hemp, linen, pyrethrum, madder), 32,225 centners. The yearly hay crop averaged, for the period 1892-96, 6,621,734 centners, 105 per cent, more than in the corresponding years of the previous decade; clover, principally in the district of Banjaluka, 19,761 centners. Ot great importance in the husbandry of Bosnia is the fruit culture, the yearly yield of which for the period 1892-96 was— fpntnprs Increase Centners. k.S6cent. _ ou 1S8per Black damsons 1,149,429 94-80 Other stone fruit . 140,926 240-40 Kernel fruit.... 209,457 20-66 Huts . . . . . 18,476 91-18 Tropical fruits (only in Herzegovina) .... 7,402 280-57 Grapes (principally in Herzegovina) .... 64,549 73-40 the following table shows the supply and distribution of cattle,. &c., according to the census of 1895 :— Number. Horses, Asses, and Mules 239,626 Horned cattle 1,417,341 Sheep . 3,230,720 Goats . 1,447,049 Swine . 662,242 Beehives 140,061

For every Number 100 Agrito a Kilo- cultural metre. Inhabitants. 4-69 17-30 102-31 2763-32 233-22 28104-46 12-98 47-80 2-75 10-83

Per cent. Increase since 1879. | 48-68 85-98 284-62 177-15 53-88 26-20

Mining forms an important branch of the industry of Bosnia. The metalliferous beds known from olden times have since the Austro-Hungarian occupation been taken in hand, and further openings have been made, first in 1881 by the Mining Company of Bosnia, an undertaking taken over by the State in 1886. The mining output in 1898 was— Quantity, Value in Florins. Quintals. Fallow copper ore 5,380 13,950 Copper ore 37,850 23,546 Iron ore . 585,327 128,357 Chrome ore 4,580 16,370 Manganese ore 53,196 93,154 Zinc ore . 100 260 Pyrites . 2,404 Brown coal . 2,711,835 566,324 Heetol. Salt spring 1,177,708 47,112 The smelting works yielded in 1898:— Quantity, Value in Florins. Quintals. Mercury . 40-5 9,315 Pure copper . 1,489 109,340 Copper wares . 499 Raw iron 135,365 505,025 Castings . 9,419 106,675 Martini ngots . 86,694 Rolled iron 85,109 737,470 Salt from evaporation 144,962 1,120,264 The total value of the products of the smelting works was accordingly_ 2,588,080 florins, or, after deduction of waste stuffs from smelting, 2,138,943 florins. The mining output amounted to the value of 889,073 florins, an increase of 11 per cent, on the value of the preceding year’s output. The chief industries are weaving, leather, and metal work carried on by the workmen in their own houses. The Government has set up some workshops of its own with a view to a higher technical and artistic development of the house industry. More particularly, chased and inlaid metallic wares, bez (thin cotton), and carpet-weaving receive Government support. The four tobacco factories of the land, the national printing-press, an annular furnace for brick-burning, an iron-foundry, and several blastfurnaces are also under the management of the State. Among the larger private establishments are seven breweries, one brandy distillery, one sugar, two jam, two soap and candle factories, two building and furniture works, a factory for twisting thread, one