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BRISSON — BRISTOL 387 Office, Government House (the residence of the Sovereign’s statesman, was born at Bourges 31st July 1835. He followed representative), the General Museum, and the Supreme his father’s profession of advocate, and, having made himCourt being conspicuous. Besides these there are many- self conspicuous in opposition during the last days of the fine civic, commercial, religious, and private buildings. empire, was appointed deputy-mayor of Paris after its overBoth Brisbane proper and South Brisbane have town throw. He was elected to the Assembly in 1871 as a halls, and there are an Anglican pro-cathedral, a Roman member of the Extreme Left, and after following a steady Catholic cathedral, two grammar schools (one for boys and consistent political course for nine years was chosen and one for girls), a hospital, an opera house and two its president in 1881. He showed remarkable firmness theatres, two museums (one attached to the mines de- and dignity in the discharge of his duties, and in March partment and the other to the agricultural department), 1885 became prime minister upon the resignation of M. and a national art gallery, with an annual government Jules Ferry; but he resigned when, after the general grant of £500, situated in the town-hall buildings. The elections of that year, he only just obtained a majority for old Victoria iron bridge connecting North and South the vote of credit for the Tongking expedition. He reBrisbane was swept away in the great floods of 1893. A mained conspicuous as a public man, took a prominent new bridge was commenced in 1894, and completed in part in exposing the Panama scandals, was a powerful can1897, at a cost of £110,000. At this point the river is a didate for the presidency after the murder of President quarter of a mile wide. The city is well provided with Carnot in 1894, and was again president of the chamber parks and open spaces. The largest is the Victoria Park, from 1894 to 1898. In June of the latter year he formed and there are five others besides the Botanical Gardens, a Cabinet when the country was violently excited over the and the gardens of the Acclimatization Society, wherein Dreyfus affair ; his firmness and impartiality increased the tropical vegetation is cultivated. The mean temperature of respect in which he was already held by good citizens, but Brisbane during December, January, and February is about a chance vote on an occasion of especial excitement over76°; during June, July, and August, about 60°. The aver- threw his ministry in October. No politician in France age rainfall over a period of 35 years was 50'01 inches. enjoys a higher public reputation than M. Brisson, owing The municipal government of Brisbane, and also of to his known uprightness and austerity of character. South Brisbane, is in the hands of a corporation consisting of a mayor and ten aldermen, representing five wards ; the Bristol, a city and county in itself, municipal county suburbs are under the control of shire councils and (1888) and parliamentary borough, and seaport of England, divisional boards. The sanitary arrangements of Brisbane on the tidal river Avon at its confluence with the Frome, are not worthy of so fine a city, but there is a splendid 8 miles S.E. of its mouth in the Bristol Channel, 12 miles gravitation system of water-supply. The united storage W.N.W. of Bath, 163 miles S. of Manchester, 118 miles, capacity of the various reservoirs, one of which holds by the Great Western railway, W. of London, chiefly in 1,000,000,000 gallons and another 400,000,000 gallons, the county of Gloucester but partly in that of Somerset. is 225,700,000 cubic feet. Electric light has been installed An important junction on the Great Western and Midland by private enterprise, and is largely used. By the same railways. In 1885 the parliamentary limits were extended, means the city has been provided with a most convenient and the enlarged borough now returns 4 members, one for tramway service worked by electric power, which runs in each of the four divisions. The government of the city all directions from the centre of the city to the suburbs. consists of a mayor, 21 aldermen, 62 town councillors, and There is railway communication with Sydney to the south about 70 magistrates, together with a sheriff and other and Rockhampton to the north, while westwards a line runs officers. almost as far as Cunnamulla, 560 miles distant. TeleThe see of Bristol was founded by Henry VIII. in 1542. graphic communication exists between Brisbane and, In 1836 the sees of Gloucester and Bristol were united. among other places, the French settlement of New In 1896 the sees were separated and a distinct diocese Caledonia, a cable to which islands is in the hands of Bristol was established. The Cathedral has been of a French company. In 1899 nearly 1800 telephones doubled in size since 1875. The Norman nave and were in use. Three daily newspapers are published. aisles were restored in 1877 ; the Elder Lady Chapel and Brisbane is an important trading port, and the broad the Central Tower in 1894. About £80,000 has been river, by careful dredging, has been rendered navigable spent on the Cathedral since 1861. The restoration of the for vessels of the largest size, ships of 5000 tons being parish church of St Mary Redcliff was completed in 1879 easily able to come up to the town from the mouth. at a cost of upwards of £50,000. In the suburb of Clifton, It is the terminal port of the line which carries the included in the municipality of Bristol, are the churches of Queensland royal mail to Europe, and a calling port St Peter’s (1882), All Saints’ (1891), and St Anselm’s (1897). for lines of steamers to China, Japan, and Canada. There are in Bristol 18 churches of the original parishes, The various intercolonial lines also call at Brisbane 24 ecclesiastical parish churches—in all 69 churches and on their way to northern and southern Australian ports. Episcopal chapels, 6 Roman Catholic churches, besides 5 As regards merchant shipping, 713 vessels with cargoes convents connected with the Cathedral at Clifton, 23 Conof 835,355 tons entered in 1900; 716 of 819,662 tons gregational, 19 Wesleyan, 17 Baptist chapels, and numerous cleared. The value of the imports in 1900 was other dissenting places of worship. The Technical College, £7,184,112; of the exports, £9,581,562. As a manu- founded in 1885, of the Company of Merchant Venturers, facturing centre Brisbane has not yet attained any great supplies scientific, technical, and commercial education. importance. In the metropolitan district there are a University College, to which is attached the older Medical number of boot factories, employing 1500 hands; soap School, dates from 1876. Clifton College, opened in 1862 factories, 130 hands; preserve and pickle factories, 300 and incorporated in 1877, includes a physical science school hands; breweries, 270 hands; and tanneries, 250 hands. with laboratories, a museum and observatory. Colston’s There are also several tobacco factories and various Girls’ Day School (1891) includes domestic economy and minor industries. North Brisbane is the principal busi- calisthenics. There are 5 grammar and collegiate schools, ness part, but South Brisbane is rapidly growing in a Baptist College (1679), 9 endowed charity, 4 orphan, and population and importance. (j. d. f.) 4 reformatory, besides numerous board.and national schools. The harbour, formed in 1809 by the conversion of the Avon Brisson, Eug&ne Henri (1835 ), French and a branch of the Frome into “ the Float,” by the cutting