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CAMBRIDGE

enriched by several valuable bequests of pictures, &c., has extensive manufactures. In 1890 the manufacturing since 1872, and now contains also valuable collections of capital was $20,331,585, employing 14,258 persons, with engravings and etchings. In 1891 Mr Newall of Gates- an output valued at $35,975,000. The principal items of head presented to the astronomical observatory a new production were iron and steel goods, furniture, soap, and equatorial telescope of 29 feet focal length and 25 inches’ candles, musical instruments and crackers. Cambridge is aperture. Addenbroke’s Hospital was enlarged in 1878 one of the chief publishing centres, containing nine puband 1883, and now has over 150 beds. In the end of lishing houses, with a capital of $1,600,000. The assessed 1900 the university was attended by 2985 students, and valuation of property in 1900 was $94,465,930, or over the professorial staff numbered 88. The income of the $1000 per caput of the population, the net debt was university increased from ,£21,629 in 1879 to £45,614 $6,090,707, and the rate of taxation $16.90 per $1000. in 1899. (For the history of the university, see under The receipts from all sources, including loans, were $3,626,883, and the expenditure, including loans repaid, Universities.) Turning to the town edifices, there has been consider- $3,371,184. Old Cambridge, as the seat of Harvard Uniable activity in church building and church restoration. versity, is one of the literary and scientific centres of the To the former category belong St Barnabas’ (1878-80), United States. Population(1880), 52,669; (1890), 70,028; Early English, enlarged in 1887-90; St John’s (begun in (1900), 91,886, of whom 3466 were foreign-born, and 1896); St Philip’s (1890); the Boman Catholic Church 3888 were negroes. The death-rate in 1900 was 18-5. of Our Lady (1887-90), Early Decorated, with a tower Cambridge, the county seat of Guernsey county, 220 feet high; and the Presbyterian church (1890-91). Ohio, U.S.A., on the Baltimore and Ohio, and the CleveAmongst churches that have undergone restoration are land and Marietta (controlled by the Pennsylvania) St Mary’s (1874-92); St Benet’s (1874-82); St Botolph’s railways, at an altitude of 842 feet. Population (1880), (1874-87); St Giles’s (rebuilt in 1875-76), of white 2883; (1890), 4361 ; (1900), 8241. brick in the Early French Gothic; and St Mary s the Cambridge, H.R.H. George William Less (1891). Baptists, Congregationalists, Wesleyans, ), 2nd Duke of, Primitive Methodists, Quakers, and Salvation Army all Frederick Charles (1819 (earl of Tipperary, baron Culloden, and duke of have places of worship in the town. A free library was K.G. built in 1885, and a branch library on Mill Koad in 1897; Brunswick-Luneburg), only son of Adolphus Frederick, 1st the Teachers’ Training College, Wollaston Road, 1895; duke of Cambridge, and grandson of King George III., the Henry Martyn Memorial Hall in 1887; the Cam- was born at Hanover, 26th March 1819. He was thus about bridge Technical Institute in 1894; the Working Men’s two months older than his cousin, Queen Victoria, and was Institute in 1884; the Beaconsfield (Working Men’s) for that period presumptive heir to the British throne. He Club in 1884; the police station in 1901; tlm Theatre was educated at Hanover by the Rev. J. R. Wood, a canon Royal in 1896; a hospital for infectious diseases in 1884; of Worcester. On 3rd November 1837, the rank of colonel and a cattle market in 1885. In 1889-90^ new buildings in the British army was conferred upon him, and he was were erected for the Perse grammar school in Hills Road, attached to the staff at Gibraltar from 10th October 1838 and in 1893 a science building for Leys school. The to 25th April 1839. After serving in Ireland with the principal industries are iron and brass foundries^ brick and 12th Royal Lancers as 2nd lieutenant-colonel, he was tile works, tobacco factories, breweries, maltings, flour appointed in April 1842 colonel of the 17th Light mills, and nursery gardens The town is governed .by Dragoons. For two years, April 1843 to April 1845, he a mayor, 10 aldermen, and 30 councillors representing acted as colonel on the staff in the Ionian Islands, and the town, and 2 aldermen and 6 councillors represent- was then promoted major-general. In October 1846 he ing the university. Population (1891), the census being took command of the Limerick district, and shortly aftertaken during vacation, of municipal borough (area, 3233 wards of the Dublin district. In 1850 his father died, acres), 36,983; (1901), 38,393; of parliamentary borough and he succeeded to the dukedom. Being appointed inspector of cavalry in 1852 he held that post until 1854, (area, 3975 acres) (1891), 44,330; (1901), 47,737. when, upon the outbreak of the Crimean war, he was See J. W. Clark, Cambridge, Historical and Descriptive Notes. placed in command of the two brigades of Highlanders London, 1890.—J. Bass Mullinger, History of the University of Cambridge. 1888.—K,. Willis, Architectural History of the and Guards united to form the first division of the British University of Cambridge, 4 vols. Cambridge, 1886.—T. D. Atkin- army. In June of the same year he was promoted son. Cambridge Described and Illustrated, with Introduction by lieutenant-general, and was present at the battles of J. W. Clark (1897). See also Cambridgeshire. the Alma, Balaklava, and Inkerman, and at the siege of Cambridge, a town of Maryland, U.S.A., capital Sebastopol. On 15th July 1856 he was appointed general of Dorchester county, on the south bank of the Choptank commanding-in-chief, on 9th November 1862, field-marshal, river, on the eastern side of Chesapeake Bay, at the and by letters patent, 1887, commander-in-chief. The terminus of a branch of the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and period of thirty-three years during which H.R.H. held the Baltimore railway. Population (1890), 4192; (1900), command of the army was marked by many changes. 5747, of whom 52 were foreign-born and 1958 were The Crimean war brought to light great administrative negroes. defects, and led to a regrouping of the departments which, Cambridge, capital of Middlesex county, Massa- with the whole 'personnel of the army, were brought under chusetts, U.S.A. Its area of 7 square miles formerly the authority of the secretary of state for war. A concontained several villages, the chief of which were Old stitutional development was thus involved, and the relations Cambridge, the seat of Harvard University, East Cam- of the army to the Crown were gradually modified in some bridge, and Cambridgeport, the last two being manu- respects. Until 1870, however, the organization of the facturing and commercial centres. At present the entire military forces was practically unaltered. The startling area is built up, mainly in detached residences, and the successes of the Prussian arms in the Austrian and French city, although under independent government, is in effect campaigns having created a profound impression, drastic a part of Boston, with which it is connected by several changes were introduced by Mr Cardwell into the entire bridges and tramways. It has an excellent water-supply, fabric of the army. The objects of the reformers of 1870 and the waterworks, which belong to the city, cost more were undoubtedly wise; but some of the methods adopted than $5,000,000. Although in the main residential, it were open to question, and were strongly resented by the