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CAMPANOLOGY 521 first to last place, or “ down ” from last to first; secondly, possible changes. But technically, only the full extent of in what place his bell is striking; thirdly, what bell or changes^ upon seven bells (usually rung with a “tenor bells are striking immediately before or after him this e m , § 3) is called a “ peal ”; a shorter performance being ascertained chiefly by “ rope-sight,” i.e., the knack, upon seven or more bells, or the full extent upon less than acquired by practice, of seeing which rope is being pulled seven, bemg, in ringing parlance, a “ touch.” On six bells immediately before and after his own. He must also the lull extent of changes must be repeated continuously remember and apply the rules of the particular “method” seven times (720x7 = 5040), and on five bells forty-two (§ 3) which is being rung. The following table repre- imes (IwO X 42—5040) to rank as a “ peal.” On eight or senting the first twenty changes of a “ plain course ” of more bells 5000 changes m round numbers is accepted as “Grandsire Triples” (for these terms, see § 3) illustrates the mimmum standard for a peal; and on such numbers the subject-matter of this section :— of bells up to twelve (the largest number used in changermging), peals are so arranged that the bells come into 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 “ Rounds.” 7 5 6 1 4 2 3 (10th change.) 2 1 3 5 4 7 6 (1st change.) 5716243 rounds at, or at some point beyond, 5000 changes. As 2314567 5172634 many as 16 000 changes, occupying from nine to ten 3241657 1527364 hours, have been rung upon church bells. But the great 3426175 1253746 physica1 strain upon the ringers—to say nothing of the 4 3 6 2 7 1 5 (5th change.) 2 1 5 7 3 6 4 (15th change.) 4637251 effect upon those who are within hearing—makes such 2513746 6473521 5231476 performances exceptional. The word “peal” is often 6745312 5324167 though incorrectly, used (1) for a set of church bells (“a 7654132 3542617 3 4 5 6 2 7 1 (20th change.) peal of six,” “a peal of eight”), for which the correct term is “a ring” of bells; (2) for any shorter performIt will be observed that at the 1st change the third bell, ance than a full peal (e.g., “wedding-peal,” “muffled peal,” and at the 15th the fifth bell, according to the rule of this “method” (see § 3), strikes a second blow in the third &c.) called in ringing language a “ touch.” Its use as= (§ 3), found in old campanological works place (“makes third’s place”). This stops the regular is method now obsolete. ’ work of the bells which at the previous change were 3. Change-ringing upon five bells is called “ Doubles ” in the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th places (“in 4, 5, 6, 7”), causing them to take a step backwards in their course upon seven bells, “Triples,” upon nine, “Caters” (Fr. quatre), and upon eleven, “ Cinques,” from the „ “up” or “ down,” or as it is technically called, to “dodge.” fact at each change two, three, four or five of Were it not for this, the bells would come back into pairsthat of bells change places with each other Change“rounds” at the 14th change. It is by the use of “ Doubles” can be and are rung when there are rinxiax“place-making” and “dodging,” according to the rules of only five bells : but as a rule these “ odd-bell ” systems various methods, that the required number of changes, are rung with a “tenor behind,” i.e., struck at the end of upon any number of bells, can be produced. But in order that this may be done, without the bells comin^ each change; the number of bells in a tower being back into “rounds” (as, e.g., in the “plain course” of usually an even number—six, eight, ten, or twelve. In even-bell ” systems the tenor is “ rung in ” or “ turned Grandsire Triples, above given, they will do in seventy in,” i.e., changes with the other bells, and a different changes), further modifications of the “coursin0- order” terminology is employed; change-ringing on six bells called technically “Bobs” and “Singles,” must°be introduced.^ In ringing, notice of these alterations as they being called “ Minor ”; on eight bells, “ Major ”; on ten occur is given by one of the ringers, who acts as “ con- bells, Royal ”; and on twelve, “ Maximus.” The prinductor,” calling out “Bob” or “Single” at the ri^ht cipal “ methods ” of change-ringing, each of which has its ”; (2) “Plain Bob”; moment to warn the ringers of certain bells to make the (3) Treble Bob ”; (4)“ “Grandsire Stedman,” from the name of its requisite alteration in the regular work of their bells. inventor, Fabian Stedman, about 1670. In “Grandsire” (Hence, in ringing language, to “call ” a peal or touch=to the treble and one other bell, in “ Plain Bob ” the treble conduct it.) Particulars of these, as of other details of alone, has a “ plain hunt,” i.e., works from the first place, or change-ringing, maf be gathered from books dealing with lead, to the last place, or “behind,” and back again, withthe technique of the art (see § 7); but they are best any dodging; in “ Treble Bob ” the treble has a uniform mastered in actual practice. The term “ single,” applied out but zigzag course, dodging in each place on its way up and to five-bell ringing, meant that, as the first three bells down. This is called a “Treble Bob hunt ”; and under remained unchanged, only a single pair of bells changed pkces, e.g., 1543 2, 1542 3. On larger numbers of these two heads, according to the work of the treble, are bells it loses this meaning; but the effect of this “ call ” classified a variety of “ plain methods ” and “ Treble Bob is that the “ coursing order ” of a single pair of bells is methods,” among the latter being the so-called “ Surprise ” inverted. The origin of “ Bob ” is unknown. As a “ call ” methods, the most complicated and difficult of all. teaman s principle,” which is sui generis, consists in it was perhaps adopted as a short, sharp sound, easily the three, front bells ringing their six possible changes uttered, and easily heard by the ringers. As applied to a “method” or system of ringing (§ 3), it may refer (& 2), while the remaining pair or pairs of bells dodge, to the evolution of “dodging,” e.g., in “Treble Bob” t is thus an “ odd-bell ” method adapted to five, to the zigzag “dodging” path of the treble bell; but seven nine, or eleven bells; as also is “Grandsire,” though occasionally rung on even numbers of bells. none of the old writers attempt to explain it. Ireble Bob” is always, and “Plain Bob” generally, 2. The number of possible “ changes ” on any given series of bells may be ascertained, according to the mathe- rung on even numbers—six, eight, ten, or twelve. In ringing, whenever the treble has a uniform course, unmatical formula of “permutations,” by multiply- affected by “ Bobs ” or “ Singles,” it serves as a guide JCes; ng the number of the bells together. Thus on to the other changing bells, according to the place in Peals. ’ toree bells, only 6 changes or variations of order which they meet and cross its path from “ behind ” to the (1 X 2 X 3) can be produced; on four bells, 1x2 lead.’ The order in which the different dodges occur X 3x4 = 24; on five, 24x5 = 120; on six, 120x6 = 720- and the “ course bell,” i.e., the bell which he follows on seven, 720x7=5040. A “peal” on any such number from behind to lead, are also useful, and on large numbers oi bells is in ordinary language the ringing of all the of bells indispensable, guides to the ringer. S. II. — 66