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4. Quite distinct from the art of change-ringing is of the “ nominals,” the fundamentals only being tuned to other. To tune a series of bells properly, the the science of “ composing,” i.e., arranging and uniting each by the proper “ calls ” (§ 1), subject to certain fundamental tone of each bell must be brought into true Composi- fixe(j iaws and conditions, a number of groups octave with its nominal, and the whole series of bells, tioa ’ of changes, so that no one change, or series of thus rectified, put into tune with each other. The humchanges represented in those groups, shall be repeated. A note” of each, which is the tone of the whole mass of composition, long or short, is said to be “ true if it metal, should also be in tune with the others. If flatter is free from, “ false ” if it involves, such repetition ; and than the nominal, it cannot be sharpened : but if sharper the body of ascertained laws and conditions governing (as is more usual), it may be flattened by thinning t e near the crown of the bell. The great bell ( Great true composition in any method constitutes the test or metal Paul”) by Messrs Taylor for St Pauls Cathedral, “ proof ” to be applied to a composition in that method London, cast has all its tones in true harmony, except that the to demonstrate its truth or falseness. Many practical tone next above the fundamental (E b) is a “fourth' ringers know little or nothing of the principles of com- (Ab) instead of a “third” (G or Gb). The great bell position, and are content with performing compositions by the same founders for Beverley Minster is in received from composers, or published in ringing books cast perfect tune; and with the improved machinery now in and periodicals. An elaborate statement of the principles use, there is no reason why this should not henceforth be of composition in the “ Grandsire ” method may be found the case with all church bells. in an appendix to Snowdon’s Grandsire (Wells Gardner 6. The art of scientific change-ringing, peculiar to and Co., 1888), by the Rev. C. D. P. Davies, M.A. England, does not seem to have been evolved before the Those which apply to “ Treble Bob ” are explained in middle of the 17th century. Societies or guilds Qf Snowdon’s Treatise on Treble Bob, Part I. But, so far of ringers, however, existed much earlier. A changeas can be ascertained, there is no treatise dealing with t le patent roll of 39 Henry III. (1255) confirms ringing. science of composition as a whole; nor is it possible here the “ Brethren of the Guild of Westminster, who to attempt a popular exposition of its principles. are appointed to ring the great bells there, .in the enjoy5. One of the objects kept in view by composers is ment of the “ privileges and free customs which they have musical effect. Certain sequences or contrasts of notes enjoyed from the time of Edward the Confessor. In strike the ear as more musical than others; and Harmony; an arrangement which brings up the more 1602 (as appears from a MS. in the library of All Souls’ College Oxford) was founded a society called the ?*!!,' musical changes in quicker succession improves “Scholars of Cheapside.” In 1637 began the Ancient the musical effect of the “ peal ” or “ touch. Society of College Youths,” so called from their meeting On seven bells all the possible changes (§ 2) must to practise on the six bells at St Martin s, College be inserted in a true peal; but on larger numbers Hill a church destroyed in the Great Fire of London, of bells, where the choice is from an immense number 1666 At first only “rounds’’and “call-changes” were of possible changes, the composer is free to select rung,' till about 1642, 120 “Bob Doubles” (§ 3) were those which are most musical. Unless, however, the achieved; but slow progress was made till 1677, when bells of any given “ring” are in perfect tune and Fabian Stedman of Cambridge published his Lamharmony with each other, their musical effect must be panalogia, dedicating it to this society, his method impaired, however well they are rung. This gives im- (S 3) being first rung about this time by some of its portance to the science and art of bell-tuning, in which members. Before the end of the 17th century was great progress has been made. The researches of the founded the “ Society of London Scholars,” the name of late Canon Simpson, of Fittleworth in Sussex, carried which was changed in 1746 to “Cumberland Youths in out in practice by Messrs Taylor, bell-founders, of Lough- compliment to the victor of Culloden. These two metroborough (who have erected special machinery for the politan societies still exist, and include in their memberpurpose), have made it possible to tune the largest bells ship most of the leading change-ringers of England: one into perfect harmony, not only with other bells, but with of the oldest provincial societies being that at Saffron themselves. A good bell, fairly struck, should give out Walden in Essex, founded in 1623, and still holding an three distinct notes—a “ fundamental ” note or tonic ; annual ringing festival. In the latter half of the 18th the octave above, or “nominal”; and the octave below and first half of the 19th century change-ringing, which at or “hum-note.” [It also gives out the “third_ and first seems to have been an aristocratic pastime, degener“fifth” above the fundamental; but of these it is less ated in social repute. Church bells and their ringers, necessary to take notice.] Very few bells, however, have neglected by church authorities, became associated with any two of these notes, and hardly any all three, in the lower and least reputable phases of parochial life; and unison • the “ hum-notes ” being generally a little sharper, belfries were too often an adjunct to the pothouse. In and the “fundamentals” a little flatter, than their respec- the last half of the 19th century there has been a great tive “nominals.” In tuning a “ring” or series of bells, revival of change-ringing, leading to improvements m the practice of founders has hitherto been to take one belfries and in ringers, and to their gradual recognition as set of notes (in England usually the nominals, on the church workers. Diocesan or county associations for the Continent the fundamentals), and put these into tune, promotion of change-ringing and of belfry reform are leaving the other tones to take care of themselves. But spreading knowledge of the art and arousing church in different circumstances, different tones assert them- officials to greater interest in and care for their bells. A selves Thus, when bells are struck at considerable central council of delegates from these various societies intervals, the fundamental notes, being fuller and more meets annually in London or at some provincial centre to persistent, are more prominent; but when struck in rapid discuss ringing matters, and to collect and formulate succession (as in English change-ringing or with the useful knowledge upon practical questions—e.y., the higher bells of a Belgian “carillon” which take the proper care of bells and the means of preventing annoy“air”) the higher tone of the “nominal ofis man more ance from their use in the neighbourhood, of houses, perceptible. The inharmonious character y rules for the conduct of belfries, etc. It is now less Belgian carillons, and of certain Belgian and French likely than ever that the Belgian carillons, extravarings in England, is ascribed by Canon Simpson (in his gantly lauded by some writers on campanology, will he pamphlet, Why Bells sound out of lune, 1897) to neglect