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601 CARNEGIE — CARNIOLA North Wales, in connexion with which there is a day training established a rolling-mill, out of which grew the various college for schoolmasters and schoolmistresses. There are also in the city a residential college (British and Foreign School Society’s) companies for the manufacture of iron and steel, known for schoolmasters, and another (North Wales Church of England) collectively as the Carnegie companies, probably the for schoolmistresses. The total number of elementary schools on largest and most complete works of the kind in the world. 31st August 1899 was 127, of which 62 were board and 65 were voluntary schools, the latter including 57 National Church of In 1901 these were amalgamated with others in a great England schools, 2 Roman Catholic, and 6 ‘ ‘ British and other. ” Steel Trust, Mr Carnegie retiring with a fortune estiThe average attendance at board schools was 8953, and at voluntary mated at nearly £100,000,000. He has given immense schools 7611. The total school board receipts for the year ending sums for charitable objects, but chiefly for education and 29th September 1899 were over £39,044. The income under the the building of libraries, one of his largest gifts being that Agricultural Rates Act was over £1135. Agriculture.—Only a little more than half of the total area of to New York city. In 1901 he gave about £2,000,000 the county is under cultivation, and of this area nearly two-thirds to the universities of Scotland, and established a trust is in permanent pasture. There are, moreover, more than 114,000 to administer the fund, one half of the income to be acres in hill pasture and nearly 13,000 acres under woods. The devoted to the payment of the fees of Scottish students, chief attention of the farmer is devoted to dairy farming and the rearing of sheep. The principal corn crops are oats and barley, and the other half to buildings, apparatus, professorships, the former occupying nearly two-thirds, and the latter nearly one- research, &c. In 1902 he gave $10,000,000 to found the third of the corn acreage. More than one-half of the acreage under Carnegie Institution in Washington, U.S.A., to “encourage green crops is occupied by potatoes, and about three-eighths by investigation, research, and discovery.” He is author of turnips. The following table gives the acreages of the larger main divisions of the cultivated area at intervals of five years from Triumphant Democracy, An American Four-in-IIand in 1880 :— Britain, and other books. C&rnCg'iCj a borough of Allegheny county, PennTotal Area Corn Green Y ear. under Cul- Crops. Fallow. sylvania, U.S.A., a few miles S.W. of Pittsburg. It is Crops. ci— tivation. devoted to iron smelting and manufacture, and: has been 1880 187,351 20,445 7,949 32,178 125,803 976 built up entirely in recent years. Population (1900), 7330. 1885 187,283 20,250 8,601 33,508 124,763 161 1890 193,840 21,121 10,147 26,255 136,064 Car nitres, a town of Belgium, in the province of 208 1895 191,969 19,181 8,780 29,136 134,607 Hainaut, 15 miles E. of Mons, with a station on the rail192 1900 182,395 16,878 8,066 41,282 115,880 209 way from Mons to Charleroi. It has quarries of buildThe following table gives particulars regarding the principal live- ing stone. Population (communal) (1880), 5787 : (1901) v 7328. ' stock for the same years :— Camiola (German, Krain), a duchy and crownland Total Total Cows or Heifers in the Cisleithan half of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Year. Horses. or in Sheep. Pigs. Cattle. in Milk Calf. Population (1869), 463,273; (1880) 481,243 ; (1890) including garrison of 2264 men, 498,958 (equivalent to 1880 8241 51,168 21,765 213,458 16,899 1885 8271 53,623 21,861 204,733 20,023 129-36 inhabitants per square mile); (1900) 508,348. 1890 8724 58,094 22,961 233,332 26,747 Proportion of females to males, 1096 to 1000; 94 per 1895 8674 54,320 22,342 235,707 24,080 cent. Slovene, 5‘66 German, the rest Serbo-Croatians 1900 9435 57,357 23,659 269,692 19,028 and Italians; 99 per cent. Roman Catholic, 1 per cent. Industries and Trade.—According to the annual report for 1898 Protestant. In 1896 the marriage-rate was 7; the of the chief inspector of factories (1900), the total number of persons birth-rate, 36-43, or, excluding still-births, 35-69; and employed in factories and workshops in 1897 was 3302, as compared the death-rate, 30-11 per thousand. Of the births 6‘9 with 3231 in 1896. Of these, 1259 were employed in workshops (the majority in clothing industries), and 1891 in non-textile per cent, were illegitimate. Carniola sends 11 members factories. The total number of persons employed in mines and to the Reichsrath. The Diet is composed of 26 quarries in 1899 was 13,344. The slate quarries are of great Slovenes and 11 Germans. There are 5 gymnasia, 330 importance, the two largest workings being the Penrhyn quarry elementary schools, and about 30 other educational near Bangor and the Dinorwic quarry near Carnarvon. In 1899 418,821 tons of limestone were raised, and 413,109 tons of establishments. The proportion of illiterates in 1890, “igneous rocks other than granite.” The output of both copper 33"5 per cent., shows an improvement of 12 per cent, and zinc has very greatly decreased ; that of lead is extremely on 1880. The Slovene members of the Reichsrath, variable—198 tons in 1885, 1116 tons valued at £10,101 in 1890, and 608 tons in 1899. The following table gives particulars partly on political grounds, vigorously promote the educational requirements of their nationality. The fall of the regarding the slate production in 1890 and 1899 Windischgratz coalition ministry in 1895 was due to Tear. Tons. Value. 1890 .... 265,157 £539,085 the grant of such an educational concession to the Slovenes 1399 .... 309,426 £944,796 in the Cilli Gymnasium. Of the 24 periodicals and At Pwllheli, Carnarvon, and Bangor (including Llanfairfechan, newspapers published, 18 are in the Slovene and 6 in Aber, Beaumaris, and Menai), 18,246 cwt. of fish, valued at £24,833, the German language. Although three-fourths of the were landed in 1899, the total value, including shellfish, being population are engaged in agriculture and forestry, only £29,372. Authorities.—Ramsay. Geological Structure of Merioneth 14 per cent, of the land is arable, and the crops (wheat, and Carnarvonshire. London, 1858.—Harker. Bala Volcanic rye, barley, maize, millet, and buckwheat) do not suffice Series of Carnarvonshire Bocks. Cambridge, 1889.—Jones. Old for the needs of the province. Game and fish are plentiful. Carnarvon. Carnarvon, 1889.—See also guide-books for North The timber trade is of considerable importance. The silkWales. p. jj ^ worm is bred in the warmer districts adjoining Gbrz. Carnegie, Andrew (1837— —), American Mercury, a monopoly of this province, is the most importmanufacturer and philanthropist, was born in Dunferm- ant mining product (882,384 metre centners in 1897); line, Scotland, 25th November 1837. In 1848 his family lignite, iron ore, and manganese being also produced, removed to America, and settled in Pittsburg, Pa. At an together with small quantities of lead and zinc ore, of a early age the boy was put to work, first in charge of a total value of £121,800. The product of the furnaces— small stationary engine, later as telegraph messenger, mercury, silver, iron, lead, and zinc—amounted in value operator, or clerk, and for a while was superintendent of to £164,200. The textile, metal, leather, and other a division of the Pennsylvania Railroad. He laid the industries are of less importance. In 1897 Carniola had foundation of his fortune in the introduction of sleeping 422 kilometres of railways, 5516 kilometres of roads, and cars and in the purchase of oil-wells. With others he 139 kilometres of waterway, of which 55 kilometres are S. II.— 76