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N.H.; author of ‘New Hampshire’ in Ninth Edition of ‘ Ency. Brit.' (J. K. L*.) .LOUIS, Prof. Henry, The Durham College of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England; author of ‘ A Handbook of Gold Milling,’ etc. (H. L*.) LOUIS, Paul ; French statistician ; staff of the ‘ Revue Blanche.’ (P. L.) LOVE, Augustus E. H., M.A., F.R.S. ; Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy, Oxford, since 1899 ; Fellow of St John’s Coll., Camb.; University Lecturer in Mathematics. (A. E. H. L.) LOW, A. P. ; of the Geological Survey of Canada ; author of ‘ Report on the Exploration in the Labrador Peninsula,’ etc. (A. P. Lo.) LOW, Hon. Seth, LL.D. ; Mayor of New York City; formerly President of Columbia University ; Mayor of Brooklyn, 1881 - 85 ; President of the Archaeological Institution of America. (S. L*.) LOW, Sidney James, M.A., L.C.C.; Lecturer on History, King’s College, 1883-86; editor of the ‘ St James’s Gazette,’ 1888-97 ; co-editor of the ‘ Dictionary of English History ’; author of contributions to ‘Nineteenth Century,’ ‘ Fortnightly Review,’ ‘ National Review,’ etc. (S. J. L.) LOWE, Major F. M., R.A.; Senior Experimental Officer, Shoeburyness, 1884; Asst. Inspector, Army Inspection Dept., 1888 ; Gunnery Instructor, Brit. N. America, 1893; Gunnery Instructor, Coast Defence School, and Asst. Superintendent of Experiments at Shoeburyness. (F. M. L*.) LUGARD, Brig.-Gen. Sir Frederick John Dealtry, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O. ; High Commissioner of Northern Nigeria ; served Afghan War, 1879-1880; Soudan Campaign, 1885; Burma Campaign, 1886-1887 ; commanded expedition against slave traders on Lake Nyassa, 1888; employed by British East African Company ; in command of Exploration of the Sabakhi, and Administrator of Uganda, 1889-92 ; employed by Royal Niger Company, 1894-95; West Charterland, 1896-97 ; H.M. Commissioner Hinterland of Nigeria and Lagos, 1897-99; Commandant of West African Frontier Force, 1897-99; author of ‘Our East African Empire.’ (F. D. L.) LUMMIS, Charles Fletcher, editor of the ‘ Land of Sunshine ’ magazine, Los Angeles, California; author of ‘ The Right Hand of the Continent ’ (California), and numerous publications dealing with the western and southwestern States; formerly editor of the Los Angeles ‘Daily Times.’ (C. F. L.) LUNGE, George, Ph.D.; Professor of Technical Chemistry at the Polytechnic, Zurich ; author of ‘ Acid and Alkali Manufacture,’ etc. (G. L.) LUSHINGTON, Sir Franklin, M.A., the late; Chief Police Magistrate for London; author of ‘ Wagers of Battle.’ (F. L*.) LYALL, Sir Alfred Comyn, K.C.B., G.C.I.E., Hon. D.C.L. Oxford, and LL.D. Cambridge; Member of Council of Secretary of State for India since 1888 ; Lieut.-Gov. North-West Provinces, India, 1882-87; author of ‘British Dominion in India,’ ‘Asiatic Studies,’ ‘Life of Warren Hastings.’ (A. C. L.) LYDEKKER, Richard, B.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.; Geological Survey of India, 1874-82; author of ‘Geology of Kashmir,’ ‘Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles, and Birds in British Museum,’ ‘ Phases of Animal Life,’ ‘ Royal Natural History,’ ‘ A Manual of Palaeontology ’ (with late Professor A. Nicholson), ‘ The Great and Small Game of Europe, N. and W. Asia, and America,’ ‘ Descriptions of South American Fossil Animals.’ (R. L*.) LYNES, G. B., A.M. ; sub-editor of the New Volumes of ‘Ency. Brit.’; formerly literary editor of the ‘ Baltimore News,' and instructor in History and Acting Librarian,1 Union College, Schenectady, N.Y. ; author of A Syllabus of Modern European History,’ etc. (G. B. L.) LYONS, H. G. ; Major R.E.; Director of the Survey Department, Egypt; editor of ‘ A Handbook of Travellers in Egypt; ’ author of ‘ Report on the Island and Temples of Philse,’ etc. (H. G. L.) M MACALISTER, Alexander, M.A., M.D., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A.; Member of Senate of Royal University of Ireland; Professor of Anatomy, Cambridge University, since 1883; Fellow of St John’s College; Professor of Zoology, University of Dublin, 1869 ; Professor of Anatomy and Chirurgery, Dublin, 1877; author of ‘ Phrenology,’ ‘ Physiognomy,’ ‘ Stigmatization,’in Ninth Edition of‘Ency. Brit.,'

‘Introduction to Animal Morphology,' ‘Morphology of Vertebrate Animals,’ ‘Text-Book of Human Anatomy,’ etc. (A. Ma.) MacALISTER, Donald, M.A., M.D., B.Sc., F.R.C.P., Fellow and Senior Tutor of St John’s Coll., Camb. ; University Lecturer in Medicine ; Physician to Addenbrooke’s Hospital; Univ. Memb. and Business Chairman General Medical Council; Chairman of British Pharmacopoeia Committee; Examiner in Medicine, Univ. Birmingham, and R. Coll. Physicians, London ; Hon. President International Congress of Hygiene, Madrid, 1898 ; Lecturer in Natural Philosophy, St Bartholomew’s Hospital, 1879; Goulstonian Lecturer, Royal College of Physicians, 1887 ; first Croonian Professor, 1888; Thomson Lecturer, Aberdeen, 1889; Examiner Victoria Univ. 1896-98; author of ‘ Ziegler’s Pathological Anatomy,’ ‘Nature of Fever,’ ‘ Advanced Study and Research in Cambridge,’ ‘The Practitioner’ (with editorial committee), ‘ The British Pharmacopoeia,’ etc. (D. M*.) MACAULAY, W. H., M.A. ; Fellow and Lecturer of King’s Coll., Cambridge; late University Lecturer in Applied Mechanics, Cambridge. (W. H. M.) MacCOLL, D. S., M.A.; painter; art critic of the ‘ Saturday Review.’ (D. S. M.) MacCORMAC, Sir William, Bt., the late; President of the Royal College of Surgeons, 1896-1901 ; Serjeant-Surgeon to King Edward VII. (W. Mao C.) MACDONELL, John, C.B., LL.D.; Master of the Supreme Court; author of ‘ The Law of Master and Servant,’ etc. (J. Mf.) MACFARLANE, J. ; formerly assistant, British Museum. (J. M‘F.) MACGREGOR, Sir William, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.D. Aberdeen, B.Sc. Camb., LL.D. Aberdeen; Governor of Lagos; Resident Surgeon and Resident Physician Glasgow Royal Infirmary, and Royal Lunatic Asylum, Aberdeen; Assistant Government Medical Officer, Seychelles, 1873 ; Surgeon Civil Hospital, Port Louis, Mauritius, 1874; Chief Medical Officer, Fiji, 1875 ; late Receiver-General and Administrator of the Government, and Acting High Commissioner and Consul - General for the Western Pacific ; Administrator of British New Guinea, 1888; Lieut.-Governor, 1895. (W. M‘G.) MACKAY, T. : author of ‘Methods of Social Reform.’ (T. M*.) M‘KENDRICK, John Gray, M.D., LL.D. (Hon. Aberdeen), F.R.S., F.R.S. Edin., F.R.C.P.; Professor of Physiology Glasgow University; Examiner in Physiology University of London, Victoria University, and University of Birmingham; formerly Examiner in Univ. of Oxford and Camb.; Fullerian Professor of Physiology at Royal Inst, of Great Britain; one of the lecturers in connexion with the Gilchrist Trust; has served on the Council of the Royal Society; member of Council of Royal Society of Edinburgh; President of Physiological Section of British Association ; author of ‘Narcotics,’ ‘Sleep,’ ‘Smell,’ ‘Stammering,’ ‘Stereoscope,’ ‘Taste,’ ‘Touch,’ ‘Voice,’ ‘Vascular System,’ in Ninth Edition of ‘ Ency. Brit.,’ ‘Animal Physiology,’ ‘A Text-Book of Physiology,’ ‘Life in Motion, or Muscle Nerve,’ ‘ Physiology,’ ‘ Life of Helmholtz,’ etc. (J. G. M.) M‘LAUGHLIN, Andrew Cunningham, A.M., LL.B.; Professor of American History, University of Michigan; author of ‘ History of Higher Education in Michigan,’ ‘Civil Government in Michigan,’ ‘Lewis Cass,’ etc. (A. C. M.) MACMAHON, Major Percy Alexander, R.A., Sc.D., F.R.S. ; Professor of Artillery, Woolwich ; President of London Mathematical Society, 1894-96 ; accompanied Government Expedition to observe eclipse of sun, Norway, 1896 ; author of numerous papers on Pure Mathematics, etc. (P. A. M.) McMASTER, John Bach, Ph.D., Litt.D. ; Professor American History, University of Pennsylvania; author of ‘A History of the People of the United States.’ (J. B. Me M.) McMILLAN, Walter G., F.C.S., M.I.M.M.; Sec. Inst. Elect. Engineers; late lecturer on Metallurgy, Mason Coll., Birmingham ; author of ‘A Treatise on Electro-Metallurgy,’ part author of ‘Metals,’ translator of ‘Electric Smelting and Refining.’ (W. G. M.) MACMORRAN, Alexander, K.C., A.M.I.C.E. ; became editor of ‘Justice of the Peace,’ 1879, and has so continued; author of editions of ‘Lumley’s Public Health,’ works on ‘The Public Health (London) Act, 1891,’ the ‘ Local Government Act, 1888,’ the ‘ Local Government Act, 1894,’ the ‘ London Government Act, 1899,’ ‘Poor Law Orders,’ ‘Poor Law Statutes,’ etc. (A. M‘M.)

MAC MUNN, Charles Alexander, M.A. M.D., F.C.S., F.R.M.S.; Hon. Pathologist and Physician, Wolverhampton General Hospital; author of ‘ The Spectroscope in Medicine,’ ‘ Outlines of Clinical Chemistry,’ etc. (C. A. Mac M.) M'CORMICK, William Symington, M.A.; Professor of English Literature at University College, Dundee ; author of ‘ Lectures on Literature,’ joint-editor of the Globe ‘Chaucer,’ etc. (W. S. M.) M c C R A D Y, Edward, President of the Historical Society of South Carolina; author of ‘ History of South Carolina under the Proprietary Government,’ and ‘History of South Carolina under the Royal Govern ment.’ (E. McO.) c M Vey, Frank L., Ph.D. ; Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Minnesota. (F. L. M.) MacWILLIAM, Robert, Professor at Gill Coll., Somerset East, Cape Colony. (R. M‘W.) MAGNUS, Sir Philip; Superintendent of Technological Examinations and Secretary of Examinations Department, City and Guilds of London Institute ; organising Director and Secretary of City and Guilds of London Institute, 1880-88 ; member Royal Commission on Technical Instruction, 1881-84; is Member of the Senate and Fellow of the London University ; Vice-President and Fellow of College of Preceptors ; Member of the Mathematical and Physical Societies; author of ‘ Technical Education’ in Ninth Edition of ‘Ency. Brit.,’ ‘ Lessons in Elementary Mechanics,’ ‘ Hydrostatics and Pneumatics,’ ‘Industrial Education.' (P. M*.) MAITLAND, Frederic William, LL.D., D.C.L. (Oxford, Glasgow, Cracow); Professor of English Law, Cambridge; Reader of English Law at Cambridge, 1884; Corresponding Member of Roy. Prussian Academy ; author of ‘Justice and Police,’ ‘ Bracton’s Note-Book,’ ‘History of English Law’ (with Sir F. Pollock), ‘Domesday Book and Beyond,’ ‘Township and Borough,’ ‘Canon Law in England,’ etc. (F. W. M.) MAITLAND, J. A. Fuller, M.A., F.S.A.; musical critic of ‘ The Times ’; author of ‘ Life of Robert Schumann,’ ‘Masters of German Music,’ ‘The Musician’s Pilgrimage,’ Spitta’s ‘Life of Bach’ (joint-translation with Mrs C. Bell); edited the Appendix to Grove’s ‘Dictionary of Music and Musicians,’ ‘English County Songs ’ (with Miss L. E. Broadwood), ‘ The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book ’ (with W. B. Squire). (J. A. F. M.) MAN SON, Edward ; Barrister, Middle Temple; author of ‘ Law of Trading Companies,’ ‘ The Law of Debentures and Debenture Stock,’ ‘ Practical Guide to Company Law,’ etc. (E. Ma.) MANSON, James Alexander; sub-editorof the New Volumes of the ‘ Ency. Brit.’; dramatic critic, ‘ Weekly Dispatch,’ 1890-92; literary editor of the ‘ Daily Chronicle,’ 1891; author of ‘In Memoriam edition of Burns’s Poetical Works,’ ‘Valour for Victoria,’ ‘Sir Edwin Landseer ’ (Makers of British Art Series), etc. (J. A. M.) MARKBY, Sir William, K.C.I.E., D.C.L.; Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, and of Balliol College ; judge of High Court, Calcutta, 1866-78; Reader in Indian Law, Oxford, 18781900; author of ‘ Lectures on Indian Law,' ‘ Elements of Law considered with Reference to General Principles of Jurisprudence.’ (W. Ma.) MARKHAM, Sir Clements Robert, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; President of the Royal Geographical Society, of the International Geographical Congress, 1894-99, and of the Hakluyt Society, and of the Geographical, Elizabethan, and Royal Society Clubs ; entered the Navy in 1844; served in the Arctic Expedition of 1850-51; geographer to the Abyssinian Expedition; Assistant Secretary in the India Office, 1867-77; author of ‘Geography’ (historical), ‘Peru,’ ‘Polar Regions,’ in Ninth Edition of ‘ Ency. Brit.’; ‘ Life of the Great Lord Fairfax,’ ‘The Fighting Veres,’ ‘ History of Peru,’ ‘ History of Persia,’ ‘ History of the Abyssinian Expedition,’ Lives of Columbus, John Davis, and Major Rennell, ‘ The Paladins of Edwin the Great’; edited volumes for the Hakluyt Society, the Navy Records Society, the Roxburghe Club, etc. (C. R. M.) MARSHALL, George M., Ph.B.; Professor of English Language and Literature, University of Utah (G. M. M.) MARTEL, Major C. P., R.A. ; Sec. to the Ordnance Committee; late Professor of Artillery, Ordnance Coll. (C. P. M.) MARTIN, T. C.; editor of ‘Electrical World and Engineer,’ New York. (T. C. M.) MARTIN, Capt. W. R., R.N.; author of ‘A Treatise on Navigation and Nautical Astronomy,’ etc. (W. R. M*.)