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SOME CONTBIBUTOKS TO NEW VOLUMES OF ‘ ENCYCLOPAEDIA BBITANNICA ’ Early Christianity,’ ‘Lectures on Religion,’ etc. (L. P.) PURSER, F., M.A., M.R.I.A. ; Fellow of Trinity Coll., Dublin, and Professor of Natural Philosophy, University of Dublin. (F. Pu.) PURSER, J., M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., M.R.I.A.; emeritus Professor of Mathematics, Queen’s Coll., Belfast. (J. Pu.) PUTNAM, George Haven, A.M., Litt.D.; Head of the publishing House of G. P. Putnam’s Sons, N.Y. ; led in reorganizing, 1887, the American Copyright League, and was its secretary during the movement for International Copyright which resulted in the Copyright Bill of 1891; Received Cross of the Legion of Honour from France, 1891; author of ‘ Question of Copyright,’ ‘ Books and their Makers in the Middle Ages,’ etc. (G. H. P*.) PUTNAM, Hon. Herbert, Librarian of Congress, Washington, D.C. (H. P.) PYLE, J oseph Gilpin; editor of the ‘ PostIntelligencer,’ Seattle, Washington; author of ‘ Minnesota ’ in Ninth Edition of ‘ Ency. Brit.’ (J. G. P.) Q QUIIjIiER - COUCH, Arthur Thomas, B.A.; Lecturer Classics Trin. Coll., Oxford, 1886-87 ; author of ‘Dead Man’s Rock,’ ‘Troy Town,’ ‘ The Splendid Spur,’ ‘ Noughts and Crosses,’ ‘The Delectable Duchy,’ ‘Adventures in Criticism,’ ‘The Oxford Book of English Verse,’ ‘ The Laird’s Luck,’ finished R. L. Stevenson’s uncompleted novel ‘ St Ives,’ etc. (A. T. Q.-C.) R RADAU. R.; MembredeTAcademiedesSciences et du Bureau des Longitudes, Paris ; writer on Astronomy, etc., part author of ‘ Geologic d’Ethiopie,’ etc. (R. Ra.) RAIKES, His Honour Judge Francis William, LL.D., K.C. ; Judge of County Court (Hull) ; three years in Merchant Service, then passed into Royal Navy first; called to the Bar, 1873; author of ‘The New Practice’ (with Mr Justice Kennedy); ‘Jurisdiction and Practice of County Courts in Admiralty’ (with Mr Kilburn), ‘ Both to Blame,’ paper read at Brussels International Law Conference, 1895 ; and various papers on ‘ Maritime Law,’ translations and editions of the ‘Maritime Codes of Europe,’ etc. (F. W. Ra.) RAMBAUT, Arthur Alcock, M.A. (Dub. and Oxon.); D.Sc., F.R.S., F.R.A.S.; Radcliffe Observer, Oxford; Assistant Astronomer Trinity College, Dublin, at Dunsink, 1882-92; Andrews Professor of Astronomy in the University of Dublin and Royal Astronomer of Ireland, 1892-97 ; author of various memoirs and papers on Astronomical subjects. (A. A. R*.) RAMSAY, William Mitchell, D.C.L.,LL.D. St And. and Glasgow, Litt.D. Camb.; Professor of Humanity, Aberdeen Univ. ; Fellow of Exeter Coll.; Oxford, 1882; Lincoln Coll., Oxford, 1885; Professor of Classical Art in Oxford University, 1885; Levering Lecturer in Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 1894 ; Foreign Member of Austrian Imperial and Royal Archaeological Institute, 1900 ; author of ‘Hermes,’ ‘Illyria,’ ‘Jupiter,’ ‘Mysteries,’ ‘Oracle,’ ‘Phrygia,’ ‘Scio,’ ‘Sicyon,’ ‘Smyrna,’ in Ninth Edition of ‘Ency. Brit.,’ ‘The Historical Geography of Asia Minor,’ ‘The Church in the Roman Empire,’ ‘ The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia,’ ‘ St Paul the Traveller and the Roman Citizen,’ ‘Was Christ born at Bethlehem ?’ ‘ Historical Commentary on Galatians.’ (W. M. Ra.) RASHDALIi, Rev. Hastings, M.A., D.C.L. ; Fellow and Tutor of New College, Oxford; Lecturer in St David’s College, Lampeter, 1883 ; Tutor in the Univ. of Durham, 1884-88; Fellow and Lecturer of Hertford Coll., Oxford, 1888 - 95; Chaplain and Theological Tutor of Balliol Coll., 1894-95 ; author of ‘The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages,’ ‘Doctrine and Development’ (with R. S. Rait), ‘New College.’ (H. Rl.) RATH, Dr Zolt&Uj Professor at the Royal Academy of Law, Kassa, Hungary; late of the Royal Hungarian Statistical Bureau; author of ‘ Evitzediink egyenesado-reform jairol.’ (Z. R.) RAVENSTEIN, Ernest George; War Office, Topographical (now Intelligence) Department, 1855-75; Council Royal Statistical Society, 1877-92; President, Section E, Brit. Assoc., 1891; Professor of Geography, Bedford Coll., 1882-83; author of ‘The Russians on the Amur,’ ‘ Geographic und Statistik des

Britischen Reiches,’ ‘Vasco da Gama’s First Voyage,’ ‘Map, Equatorial Africa,’ ‘Systematic Atlas -’ (E. G. R.) Lord, 3rd Baron, D.C.L. (Hon. Oxon.), LL.D., D.Sc. (Camb. and Dublin), F.R.8. ; Professor of Natural Philosophy, Royal Institution; Scientific Adviser to Trinity House; Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics, Cambridge, 1879-84; Secretary of Royal Society, 1887-96; author of ‘Optics,’ ‘Wave Theory,’ in Ninth Edition of ‘Ency. Brit.,’ ‘Theory of Sound,’ numerous scientific papers. (R.) RE : .A.M.I.C.E., Rr , Boverton, F.R.S.Ed., M.I.M.E.; Fellow of Inst, of Chem. ; V.P. and Mem. of Council and Publication Com., Soc. Chem. Ind. ; Fellow of Chem. Geol. and R. Geog. Soc. ; D.Sc. Ohio Normal University; Mem. of Am. Chem. Soc., and Am. Philosophical Soc. (honorary); Hon. Corres. Mem. Imperial Russian Technical Soc. Chevalier of the Order of Leopold; Consulting Chemist, with special experience in the technology of petroleum ; Adviser on Petroleum to the Home Office; Consulting Adviser to the Corporation of London under the Petroleum Acts; Chemical Adviser to the Oil Trade Section of the London Chamber of Commerce; member of several juries at International Inventions and Health Exhibitions, president of International Jury for lighting appliances and materials at Brussels Exhibition, 1897, and member of Jury, Paris Exhibition, 1900; author of ‘ Cantor Lectures on Petroleum and its Products,’ ‘Petroleum: its Production and Use,’ ‘ Report (with Sir Frederick Abel) on Accidents with Mineral Oil Lamps,’ ‘Report (with Sir Frederick Abel) on the Transport of Petroleum through the Suez Canal,’ ‘The Transport of Petroleum in Bulk,’ articles on the Petroleum Industry, and Lamps in Chemical Technology, ‘A Treatise on Petroleum,’ ‘The Detection and Estimation of Inflammable Gases and Vapours in the Air’ (with Professor Clowes), ‘Handbook on Petroleum’ (with Capt. J. H. Thomson). (B. R.) REEVES, Hon. William Pember, AgentGeneral for New Zealand ; Member of Senate of University of London ; edited the ‘ Canterbury Times,’ and the ‘ Lyttelton Times ’; Member of N.Z. Parliament, 1887-96 ; Minister of Education, Labour, and Justice, 1891-96; resigned position to become Agent - General for colony; author of ‘ The Long White Cloud, a History of New Zealand,’ ‘An Introduction to the History of Communism and Socialism,’ also volume of New Zealand verse. (W. P. R.) REICH, Emil, Dr. Juris, F.R.Hist.S.; author of ‘History of Hungarian Literature,’ ‘ History of Civilization,’ ‘ Graeco - Roman Institutions,’ ‘Historical Atlas of English History,’ ‘Historical Atlas of Modern History,’ etc. (E. Re*.) REID, Clement, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S.; geologist on survey of England and Wales; formerly secretary and recorder to the Geological Section of British Association; author of ‘Pliocene Deposits of Britain,’ ‘Origin of the British Flora,’ many contributions to geological journals. (C. R.) REID. Sir George, LL.D.,; President Royal Scottish Academy; author of ‘ Lithography,’ ‘ Painting,’ ‘ Turner,’ in Ninth Edition of ‘Ency. Brit.’ (G. Re.) REID, Hon. Whitelaw, A.M., LL.D.; editor of the New York Tribune ; Ex-U.S. Minister to France; author of‘Greeley,’ ‘Newspapers,’ in Ninth Edition of ‘ Ency. Brit.’ (W. R.) RENTON, A. Wood, LL.B.; Puisne Judge, Mauritius; author of ‘ Thurlow ’ in Ninth Edition of ‘Ency. Brit.’ (A. W. R.) REN WICK, I. P. A., M.A., LL.B.; assistant editor of the ‘ Statesman’s Year Book.’ (I. P. A. R.) REYNOLDS, Osborne, M.A., LL.D. Glasgow, F.R.S., M.I.C.E., Hon. Fellow Queens’ Coll., Cambridge; Professor of Engineering, Owens College, Victoria University, Manchester ; Fellow of Queens’ College, Cambridge, 1877 ; President, Section G, British Association, 1887; author of upwards of sixty papers on original researches in ‘ Mechanics and Physics,’ in the Philosophical Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society, etc. (O. R.) RHODES, Hon. Bradford; editor of‘The Banker’s Magazine,’ New York. (B. R*.) RHODES, James Ford, LL.D.; author of ‘History of the United States from the Compromise to 1850.’ (J. F. R.) RICHARDS, Robert Hallowell, Sc.B.; Professor of Mining, Engineering, and Metallurgy, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (R. H. R.)

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RICHARDSON, Charles Francis, A.M., Ph.D.; Professor of English, Dartmouth College, N.H. ; author of ‘History of American Literature,’ ‘The Choice of Books,’ etc., etc. (C. F. R.) RICHARDSON, Professor Rufus B. ; director of American School of Classical Studies, Athens. (R. B. R.) RICHMOND, Sir William Blake, R.A., M.A., K.C.B.; Slade Professor at Oxford, 187883; President of Society of Miniature Painters, 1899. (W. B. Ri.) RICKETTS, Charles, English printer, artist, and wood-engraver; one of the founders of the Vale Press; decorated ‘Early Poems of John Milton,’ ‘The Poems of Keats,’ etc. (C. Ri.) RILEY, John Athelstan Laurie, M.A.; travelled in Persia, 1881; Turkey in Europe, 1883 ; Persia and Kurdistan, 1884, 1886, 1888; member of the House of Laymen of the Province of Canterbury; member London School Board, 1891-97; authorof ‘Athos, or the Mountain of the Monks,’ various pamphlets and articles, subjects connected with education, Eastern Christians, and foreign travel. (J. A. L. R.) RIPON, Bishop of, Rt. Rev. William Boyd Carpenter, Hon. D.D. Glasgow, Hon. D.C.L. Oxon.; Knight of the Order of the Royal Crown, Prussia; Hulsean Lecturer, Cambridge, 1878; Bampton Lecturer, Oxford, 1887; Pastoral Lecturer on Theology, Cambridge, 1895; Canon of Windsor, 1882-1884; Hon. Chaplain to the Queen, 1879-83; Chaplain-inOrdinary, 1883 - 84 ; author of ‘ Commentary on Revelation,’ ‘Witness of Heart to Christ’ (Huslean Lectures), ‘Permanent Elements of Religion’ (Bampton Lectures), ‘Lectures on Preaching,’ ‘Christian Reunion,’ ‘The Great Charter of Christ,’ ‘A Popular History of the Church of England.’ (W. B. R.) RISTORI, E. J., Assoc.M.Inst.C.E. (E. J. R.) ROBERTS, W. ; author of ‘ Christies’,’ ‘ The Book-hunter in London,’ etc. (W. R*.) ROBERTS-AUSTEN, Sir William Chandler, K.C.B., D.C.L. (Durham), F.R.S.; Chevalier de la Legion d’Honneur; chemist and assayer to Royal Mint since 1870; Professor of Metallurgy, Royal School of Mines since 1880; President of Iron and Steel Institute; author of ‘Gold,’ etc., in Ninth Edition of ‘Ency. Brit.,’ ‘An Introduction to the Study of Metallurgy.’ (W. C. R.-A.) ROBERTSON, Sir George Scott, K.C.S.I., D.C.L.; entered Indian Medical Service, 1878; British Agent in Gilgit; conducted a political mission to Chitral, 1893 ; besieged in Chitral, during March and April 1895; installed the present ruler of Chitral, September 1895 ; author of ‘The Kafirs of the Hindu Kush,’ ‘ Chitral: The Story of a Minor Siege.’ (G. S. R.) ROBERTSON, James W.; Commissioner of Agriculture and Dairying, Ottawa, Canada. (J. W. R.) ROBERTSON, John G.; Lecturer on the English Language, University of Strasburg. (J. G. R.) ROBINSON, A. Mary F. (Mme. Duclaux; formerly Mme. Darmesteter), author of ‘Emily Bronte,’ ‘The End of the Middle Ages,’ ‘ Margaret of Angouleme, Queen of Navarre,’ ‘ Retrospect, and other Poems,’ ‘Life of Renan,’ ‘Collected Poems,’ ‘Marguerites du Temps Passe,’ ‘ Froissart,’ ‘ Grands Ecrivains d’outre Manche,’ etc. (A. M. F. D.) ROBINSON, Rev. Charles Henry, M.A.; Hon. Canon of Ripon; Lecturer in Hausa in the University of Cambridge, 1896; travelled in Armenia in order to report to Archbishop of Canterbury on the condition of Armenian Church, 1892 ; conducted pioneer expedition to Kano, 1893-95 ; author of ‘ Hausaland, or Fifteen Hundred Miles through the Central Soudan,’ ‘Specimens of Hausa Literature,’ ‘ Grammar of the Hausa Language,’ ‘ Dictionary of the Hausa Language,’ ‘Studies in the Character of Christ,’ ‘Nigeria, Our Latest Protectorate,’ ‘Human Nature a Revelation of the Divine.’ (C. H. R.) ROBINSON, Gerald Philip; President of the Society of Mezzotint Engravers ; late Mezzotint Engraver to Queen Victoria, and appointed same to the King, 1901. (G. P. R.) ROBINSON, Rev. Joseph Armitage, D.D., Ph.D. ; Canon of Westminster; Norrisian Professor of Divinity, Cambridge University, 1893-99; author of ‘ A Collation of the Athos Codex of the Shepherd of Hermas,’ ‘Appendix to The Apology of Aristides,’ ‘The Passion of St Perpetua,’ ‘The Philocalia of Origen,’ ‘ Euthaliana,’ ‘ Unity in Christ.’ (J. A. R.) ROCKHILL, Hon. William Woodville ; Head of the Bureau of American Republics ; sometime First Assistant Secretary of State;