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U.S. Commissioner to China, etc.; author of ‘ Land of the Llamas.’ (W. W. R.) ROCXWEI1I1, General Alfred P., author of ‘Fire,’ ‘Fire Extinction,’ in Ninth Edition of ‘ Ency. Brit.’ (A. P. R.) ROGERS, Henry Wade, LL.D. ; Lecturer at Yale University ; sometime President of North Western University, Evanston, Ills.; Chairman of the World’s Congress on Jurisprudence and Law Reform, World’s Columbian Exposition; author of ‘ Expert Testimony, etc. (H. W. R.) ROLES, Hon. C, S.; pioneer in motor-car travelling. (C. S. R.) ROSCOE, Sir Henry Enfield, Ph.D., LL.D., D.C.L., M.D., F.R.8. ; Vice-Chancellor, University of London; Emeritus Professor, Owens College, Victoria University ; Member of Royal Commissions on Noxious Vapours, Technical Instruction, Scottish Universities, Secondary Education, and Exhibition of 1851; President of the British Association (Manchester, 1887) ; President Society of Chemical Industry, 1881; President Chemical Society, 1882; author of ‘ Lessons in Elementary Chemistry,’ ‘Treatise on Chemistry,’ ‘Primer of Chemistry,’ ‘John Dalton,’ ‘New View of the Genesis of the Atomic Theory of Chemistry ’ (with Dr Harden). (H. E. R.) ROSEWATER, Victor, A.M., Ph.D.; managing editor of the Omaha Bee, Omaha, Nebraska ; Member Omaha Public Library Bd., Am. Economic Assn., Am. Library Assn., Neb. Historical Society ; author of ‘ Special Assessments: a Study in Municipal Finance.’ (V. R.) ROSS, H. M., B.A.; formerly exhibitioner of Lincoln Coll., Oxford; writer on engineering and scientific subjects; associate editor of the new volumes of the ‘ Encyclopedia Britannica.’ (H. M. R.) ROSSETTI, William Michael; Professional Assistant to Board of Inland Rev. for Estate duty on Pictures and Drawings; author of ‘Canova,’ ‘Correggio,’ ‘ Fiesole,’ ‘Ghirlandajo,’ 1 Lippi,’ ‘ Murillo,' ‘ Perugino,’ ‘ Reni,’ ‘ Rosa,’ ‘Shelley,’ ‘Titian,’ ‘Veronese,’ etc., in Ninth Edition of ‘ Ency. Brit.’; ‘ Fine Art, chiefly contemporary,’ ‘Lives of Famous Poets,’ ‘Life of Keats,’ ‘ Dante G. Rossetti as Designer and Writer,’ ‘ Memoir of Dante G. Rossetti ’; editor of ‘The Germ,’ 1850, of ‘Shelley’s Poems,’ of ‘ Wm. Blake’s Poems,’ of ‘ Poems by Dante and Christina Rossetti,’ of ‘Ruskin,’ ‘Rossetti,’ ‘ Prseraphaelitism,’ of ‘ Prseraphaelite Diaries and Letters,’ etc. (W. M. R.) ROWLAND, Henry Augustus, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S., the late; Professor of Physics, Johns Hopkins University; recipient of Rumford, Draper, and Matteucci medals for scientific discoveries; Hon. Member Inst, of France, etc.; author of ‘ Screw ’ in Ninth Edition of ‘ Ency. Brit.’ (H. A. R.) RUFFINI, Arthur: Royal Naval Academy, Leghorn. (A. R*.) RUGE, Dr Sophus; Professor of Geography, University of Dresden; author of ‘Map’ in Ninth Edition of ‘Ency. Brit.,’ ‘Geschichte des Zeitalters der Entdeckungen,’ ‘ Abhandlungen und Vortriige zur Geschichte der Erdkunde,’ ‘Christopher Columbus,’ etc. (S. R.) RUSSELL, Hon. Bertrand Arthur William, M.A.; Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ; author of ‘ German Social Democracy,’ ‘ Essay on the Foundations of Geometry,’ ‘ Philosophy of Leibnitz.’ (B. A. W. R.) RUSSELL, George William Erskine, LL.D. ; Parliamentary Secretary to the Local Government Board, 1883-85 ; Under-Secretary of State for India, 1892-94; for the Home Department, 1894-95 ; author of ‘ A Monograph on the Rt. Hon. W. B. Gladstone,’ ‘ Letters of Matthew Arnold,’ ‘ Collections and Recollections, 1898.’ (G. W. E. R.) S SACHS, Edwin O., A.M.I.C.E. ; Chairman of British Fire Prevention Committee ; Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society ; Associate of the Institution of Naval Architects, etc.; in 1898 he applied electrical power to the working of the stage at Drury Lane; in 1899 he was appointed technical adviser to the Royal Opera, Covent Garden ; founded in 1897 the British Fire Prevention Committee, and in 1899 the first independent fire-testing station established in Europe; author of ‘ Modern Opera Houses and Theatres,’ ‘ Stage Construction,’ ‘ Fires and Public Entertain ments.’ (E. O. S.) ST. JOHN, Molyneux: Ottawa, Canada. (M. St. J.) SAMPSON, Rear-Admiral William Thomas, LL.D. ; in command of U.S. North

Atlantic Squadron, battle of Santiago; late Commandant U.S. Navy Yard, Boston, Mass.; Member of International Prime Meridian and Time Conference; U.S. Delegate to International Maritime Conference ; Chief of U.S. Bureau of Ordnance, 1893-97. (W. T. S.) SAUNDERS, George, B.A. ; Berlin Correspondent of ‘ The Times ’; late Berlin Correspondent of the ‘ Morning Post,’ etc. (G. Su.) SAYCE, Rev. Archibald Henry, M.A., LL.D., D.D.; Fellow of Queen’s College, Oxford; Professor of Assyriology, Oxford; Member of O.T. Revision Company, 1874-84 ; Deputy Professor of Comparative Philology, Oxford, 187690; Hibbert Lect., 1887; Gifford Lect., 1900-1; author of ‘ Babylonia,’ ‘ Cyrus,’ ‘ Darius,’ ‘ Grammar,’ ‘ Humboldt,’ ‘ Inscriptions ’ (Cuneiform and Semitic), ‘ Lydia,’ in Ninth Edition of ‘Ency. Brit.,’ ‘Assyrian Grammar for Comparative Purposes,’ ‘Translations in Records of the Past,’ 1st series; ‘ Lectures on the Assyrian Language and Syllabary,’ ‘Babylonian Literature,’ ‘ Introduction to the Science of Language,’ ‘The Monuments of theHittites,’ ‘ Fresh Light from the Monuments,’ ‘ The Ancient Empires of the East,’ ‘ Hibbert Lectures on Babylonian Religion,’ ‘ The Hittites,’ ‘ The Races of the Old Testament,’ ‘The Higher Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments,’ ‘ The Egypt of the Hebrews and Herodotus,’ ‘ Early History of the Hebrews.’ (A. H. S.) SCHIDROWITZ, Philip, Ph.D. Berne; F.C.S. (Great Britain and Germany); Member of Societies of Chemical Industry and of Public Analysts; author (joint) of various papers on Acids, Wine, Analyses, etc. (P. S.) SCHILLER, F. C. S., M.A. ; Fellow and Tutor of C.C.C. Oxford. (F. C. S. S.) SCHINDLER, Gen. Sir A. Houtum-, C.I.E.; general in the Persian army; has resided, as Persian official, and travelled for many years in Persia; author of ‘ Eastern Persian Irak,’ etc. (A. H.-S.) SCHLICH, William, Ph.D., C.I.E., F.R.S.; Professor of Forestry, Cooper’s Hill Coll.; appointed to the Indian Forest Department, 1866 ; Conservator of Forests, 1871; InspectorGeneral of Forests to the Government of India, 1881; organized the first School of Forestry in England at Cooper’s Hill, 1885 ; author of ‘ A Manual of Forestry.’ (W. Son.) SCHLOSS, David, M.A.; author of works on labour questions. (D. Sen.) SCHOULER, James, LL.D.; Professor School of Law, Boston University, and Lecturer at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore; author of ‘History of the United States under the Constitution ’ and numerous works on Jurisprudence. (J. Sen.) SCHRADER, Franz ; Prix Gay de TAcademie des Sciences; editor of ‘ L’Annee Cartographique, ’ ‘ Le Tour du Monde ’; author of ‘ Apergu de la Structure Geologique des Pyrenees,’ etc. (F. Sen.) SCHURMAN, Jacob Gould, D.Sc., LL.D.; President and sometime Professor of Philosophy, Cornell University; Chairman of the U.S. Philippine Commission, 1899; author of ‘ Kantian Ethics,’ ‘ Ethics of Evolution,’ ‘ Agnosticism and Religion,’ etc./# (J. G. S*.) SCHURZ, Hon. Carl, LL.D.; Secretary of the Interior under President Hayes ; author of ‘ Life of Henry Clay,’ ‘ Abraham Lincoln,’ ‘Speeches.’ (C. S.) SCOTT, Austin, Ph.D., LL.D.; President Rutgers College and Rutgers Scientific School, New Jersey. (A. So.) SCOTT, Dukinfield Henry, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.8.; Honorary Keeper Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Gardens, Kew; Assistant Professor of Botany, Univ. Coll., London, 1882-85; Royal Coll, of Science, London, 1885-92 ; a General Secretary of the British Association; cooperated with the late Professor W. C. Williamson in his ‘ Researches on Fossil Plants’; one of the editors of the ‘ Annals of Botany ’; author of ‘An Introduction to Structural Botany,’ ‘Studies in Fossil Botany’; author and jointauthor of many botanical papers. (D. H. S.) SCOTT, Harold Spencer: Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln’s Inn. (H. S. S.) SCOTT, Sir James George, G.C.I.E.; War Correspondent in Perak, 1875-76 ; Burma, 1879 ; Hong Kong, 1883-85 ; joined Burma Commission in 1886; member of Anglo - Siamese Boundary Commission, 1889-90 ; Superintendent Northern Shan States, 1891; Charge d’Aftaires in Bangkok, 1893-94; British Commissioner, Mekong Commission, 1894-96 ; British Commissioner Burma-China Boundary Commission, 1898-1900; author of ‘ The Burman, His Life and Notions,’ ‘France and Tongking,’ ‘Burma,’ ‘The Upper Burma Gazetteer.’ (J. G. Sc.)

SCOTT, Hon. Sir John, M.A., D.C.L., K.C.M.G. ; Deputy Judge-Advocate-General to His Majesty’s Forces ; Judge, afterwards Vice-President, International Court of Appeal in Egypt, 1874-82; Judge of High Court, Bombay, 1882-90; Judicial Adviser to the Khedive of Egypt, 1890-98; Vice-President International Law Association ; Grand Cordon of the Medjidieh; Grand Cordon of the Osmanieh. (Jno. S.) SCOTT, Leslie Frederic; Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. (L. p. s.) SCOTT, W. W. ; foreign sub-editor of ‘The Times.’ (W. W. S*.) SCOTT-MONCRIEFF, Sir Colin Campbell, K.C.M.G., C.S.I., LL.D.; Under-Secretary for Scotland ; Irrigation Depart. N.W. Provinces ; Chief Engineer, Burmah ; Undersecretary of State Public Works, Memshy, Cairo, 1883-92; author of ‘ Irrigation in Southern Europe.’ (C. S. M.) SCRUTTON, T. E., M.A., K.C. ; Barrister, Inner Temple; author of ‘Law of Copyright,' etc. (T. E. S.) SCUDDER, Horace Elisha, Litt.D., the late ; editor of ‘ The Atlantic Monthly,’ 1890-98; author of ‘ History of the United States,’ ‘ Book of Fables,’ ‘ The Life of James Russell Lowell,’ etc. (H. E. S*.) SECCOMBE, Thomas, M.A.; assistant editor, ‘ Dictionary of National Biography ’; author of ‘ The Age of Johnson,’ etc. etc. (T. Se.) SEDGWICK, Adam, M.A., F.R.S. ; Fellow and Tutor of Trim Coll. Cambridge , Reader of Animal Morphology in the University. (A. Se*.) SETON-KARR, Henry. M.A., M.P. ; travelled and shot big game in Western America, British Columbia, and Norway; Writer on sport and allied subjects. (H. S.-K.) SEWARD, Albert Charles, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.R.G.S.; University Lecturer in Botany, Cambridge; Late Fellow of St John’s College; Fellow and Tutor in Natural Science at Emmanuel College, Cambridge; author of ‘ Fossil Plants as Tests of Climate,’ ‘The Wealden Flora,’ ‘ Fossil Plants for Students of Botany and Geology,’ ‘The Jurassic Flora,’ also various Botanical papers contributed to scientific journals. (A. C. Se.) SHADWELL, A., M.D.; author of ‘ Tallerman Treatment by Superheated Dry Air,’ ‘ The London Water Supply,’ etc. (A. Sn.) SHADWELL, L. L., M.A. ; Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln’s Inn; revising barrister, Middlesex, 1885-1902. (L. L. S.) SHARP, David, M.A., M.B., C.M., F.R.S.; Past President of Entomological Society of London; author of ‘ Aquatic Carnivorous Coleoptera, ‘Insects.’ (D. S*.) SHARP, Robert Farquharson, B.A.; Assistant Librarian, British Museum; edited ‘Lytton’s Plays,’ author of ‘Dictionary of English Authors,’ Wagner’s drama, ‘ Der Ring des Nibelungen,’ ‘ Translation of Victor Hugo’s “Hernani,”’ ‘Makers of Music,’ ‘Architects of English Literature.’ (R. F. S.) SHAW, Albert, Ph.D.; editor of the American ‘ Monthly Review of Reviews’; author of ‘ Local Government in Illinois,’ ‘Municipal Government in Great Britain,’ ‘ Municipal Government in Continental Europe,’ etc. (A. Sw.) SHAW, Flora L. (Miss) ; special correspondent for ‘ The Times ’ to South Africa and Australia, Canada and Klondike; author of articles on British colonial questions. (F. L. S.) SHAW, Herbert, B.A. ; Secretary of the Tyneside Geographical Society. (H. Sn.) SHAW, Hon. Leslie Mortier, LL.D.; Secretary of the U.S. Treasury; formerly Governor of the State of Iowa. (L. M. S.) SHAYLOR, J. ; manager to Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. (J. Sh*.) SHEARMAN, Montague; past President O.U.A.C.: joint-author of ‘Football: Its History for Five Centuries,’ author of ‘ Athletics and Football.’ (M. S.) SHEARMAN, Thomas Gaskell, the late; joint-author of ‘ Shearman . and Redfield on Negligence’; author of ‘Natural Taxation,’ ‘ Crooked Taxation,’ * Distribution of Wealth,’ ‘ The Single Tax,’ etc. (T. G. S.) SHERRINGTON, Charles S., M.A., M.D., F.R.S.; Professor of Physiology, Univ. Coll. Liverpool; Member of Council of Royal Society; Late Brown Professor of Pathology, University of London; Lecturer on Physiology, St Thomas’s Hospital, London ; Croonian Lecturer, Royal Society ; Member of the Commission on Asiatic Cholera, 1886; AngloAmerican Secretary, International Congresses of Physiology, Liege 1892, Berne 1895, Cam-