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pense of Camillo Gonzaga, Count of Novellara. It had four octaves, each divided into 31 notes, and as the highest of the treble was in octaves to the lowest of the bass, it had 125 keys in all, black and white. He bought with it a four-stringed instrument, noted to correspond with it, so that the two could easily be tuned in unison.

Casini's published works consist of—a volume of motets for 4 voices in the 'stile osservato,' intituled 'Johannis Mariae, Casini Majoris Ecclesiae Florentiae modulatoris, et sacerdotio proediti, Moduli quatuor vocibus: opus primum. Romae, apud Mascardum, 1706.' 'Responsori per la Settimana Santa, a 4 voci, op. 2, Florence, C. Bindi, 1706.' 'Motetti a 4 voci a Cappella, ibid. 1714.' 'Fantasies and Fugues for the Organ, Florence, 1714.' A motet of his is given by Proske in 'Musica Divina,' ii. No. 58.

[ E. H. P. ]

CASSATION, perhaps implying 'farewell,' designates a piece of instrumental music of the last century, for the open air, in several movements, much like the Serenade or Divertimento. In Köchel's Mozart Catalogue there are three, Nos. 62, 63, 99, the two last of 7 movements each.

[ G. ]

CASSEL, Guillaume, born at Lyons 1794, died at Brussels 1836; dramatic singer; studied first under Georges Jadin, and then at the Paris Conservatoire under Garat and Talma. He made his début at Amiens, and sang at various places previous to his appearance at the Opéra Comique in Paris, where he remained for three years. At the end of that time he quarrelled with Pixérécourt, the director, and retired to Belgium, where he settled for life. After a five years' engagement in Brussels he retired from the stage in 1832, and became a teacher. He trained many eminent pupils, including Madame Dorus-Gras. In 33 he was appointed professor of singing at the Brussels Conservatoire. His compositions were unimportant, but he was successful as a teacher.

[ M. C. C. ]

CASTANETS. A pair of castanets (or castagnettes) consists of two small pieces of hard wood, shaped somewhat like the bowl of a spoon, or a scallop shell. These are hinged together by a cord, the ends of which pass over the thumb and first finger of the performer. The remaining fingers strike the two halves together, either in single strokes or in trills; the instrument emitting a deep hollow click, which, although not a musical note, is nevertheless not disagreeable to the ear. The performer has usually a pair in each hand. It is a Moorish and Spanish instrument, and is intended for accompanying dances. Its use by ballet-dancers is well known.

When required to be played in the orchestra, to accompany dance music, it is best to attach a pair, half on each side, to a flat piece of hard wood, ending in a stick about eight inches long. By shaking this apparatus, the required effect is produced, without the necessity of fitting the castanets to the performer's fingers, who generally is playing some other instrument, and must suddenly take up the castanets to play a few bars.

The Spanish name is Castañuela, either because made sometimes from the wood of the chestnut-tree castaño) or from some fancied resemblance to the two halves into which the chestnut (castaña) naturally divides itself.

[ V. de P. ]

CASTELLI, a seconda donna engaged at the King's Theatre in 1825, at a salary of £250. She sang the part of Alma in 'Il Crociato' with Velluti in 25 and 26; and, in the latter year, also that of Cherubino in 'Le Nozze.' She pleased the public, though far from equalling Caradori in that rôle. She was engaged again in 1828, since when her name does not occur.

[ J. M. ]

CASTELLI, Ignaz Friedrich, born at Vienna 1781, died there 1854; German dramatist of great popularity, author of the librettos of Weigl's 'Schweizer Familie,' and Schubert's 'Verschwornen' or 'Häusliche Krieg,' and adaptor amongst others of Meyerbeer's 'Huguenots.' From 1811 held the post of 'Hoftheaterdichter' at the Kärnthnerthor theatre in Vienna. Founder, and from 1829 to 1840, sole editor of the 'Allgemeiner musikalischer Anzeiger.' He was a good amateur violinist, and was greatly esteemed and beloved.

[ M. C. C. ]

CASTRO, Jean de, composer and lutist. In 1570 he was at Lyons, and in 1580 chapelmaster to the Prince of Juliers. He composed many sets of madrigals, odes, sonnets, and sacred songs (1569–1600). One collection, 'La Fleur des Chansons' (Louvain and Antwerp, 1547), contains, besides compositions of his own, songs by Severin, Cornet, Noé Faignent, Cléreau, Créquillon, Jacotin, and Jannequin. For list see Fétis.

[ M. C. C. ]

CASTRUCCI, Pietro, pupil of Corelli, and distinguished violin player, born at Rome 1689. In 1715 he came to England with Lord Burlington and became leader of Handel's opera-band. He had a special reputation as performer on the Violetta marina, an instrument of his own invention. In Handel's 'Orlando' is an air accompanied by two Violette marine with celli pizzicati, 'per gli Signori Castrucci' (see the MS.) meaning Pietro and his brother Prospero. In Handel's 'Sosarme' is also an air with Violetta marina obligato. In 1737 he was superseded at the opera by Festing—not by Clegg. To his undoubted talent Castrucci added an amount of charlatanism surprising in a pupil of Corelli's, though paralleled by other great players, Clement, Boucher, Ole Bull, &c. An instance of these is given by Burney (Hist. iv. 353 note). He died 1769 in great poverty. Castrucci is said to have been the original of Hogarth's 'Enraged musician'; but that is now known to be intended for Feating.

[ P. D. ]

CATALANI, Angelica, born Oct. 1779 at Sinigaglia, where her father was a tradesman.