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time at Fontainebleau Oct. 18, 1752, and at the Académie royale March i, 53. Last played in 1829, after more than 400 representations; some one threw a perruque on the stage, which decided its fate. It was translated and adapted as 'The Cunning Man' by Dr. Burney in 1766. One of Jullien's very first public feats was a Quadrille on the motifs of the Devin, 1836 or 37.

[ G. ]

DEVRIENT, Wilhelmine Schröder. See Schröder.

DIABELLI, Anton, head of the firm of Diabelli & Co., music publishers in Vienna, and composer of pianoforte and church music, born Sept. 6, 1781, at Mattsee in Salzburg. His piano pieces are well written, at once graceful and good practice, and both these and his numerous arrangements had an immense popularity. His masses, especially the 'Landmessen' (for country churches), are widely spread in Austria, being for the most part easy to execute, and interesting, if not particularly solid. He also composed songs for one and more voices, and an operetta, 'Adam in der Klemme.' Being intended for the priesthood he received a good general education, and profited much from association with Michael Haydn, who superintended his musical studies. When the Bavarian convents were secularised in 1803, he gave up the idea of taking orders, went to Vienna, and was warmly received by Joseph Haydn. He soon became a popular teacher of the pianoforte and guitar, made money enough to become partner with Peter Cappi the music-publisher in 1818, and in 24 the firm became Diabelli & Co. The latter half of his life is much more interesting than the former, as it brings us into contact with one of the first music-publishing establishments in Vienna, where Czerny was for many years a daily visitor, and where all the leaders of the musical world went in and out. In 1852 the firm became C. A. Spina, and in July 72 F. Schreiber, under which name it still continues, though the business was purchased in May 76 by A. Cranz of Hamburg. Their publications at this moment amount to over 25,000. In Diabelli's time they acquired the publications of the extinct firms of M. Artaria, L. Kozeluch, Th. Weigl, Berka, Leidesdorf, Pennauer, and Traeg, and in 1855 those of Carlo Mecchetti. They published specially for Schubert, Czerny, Strauss, and Lanner; also Marpurg's 'Abhandlung von der Fuge' revised by Sechter, and Keicha's 'Lehrbuch'; and, under the title 'Ecclesiasticon,' a collection of church music. In 1874 they issued a fresh catalogue of their publications, and a thematic catalogue of Schubert's published works, compiled with his usual exhaustive accuracy by Nottebohm. Diabelli died April 8, 1858. His quiet and unassuming life made him many friends, some of whom in 1871 erected a tablet to his memory on the house at Mattsee in which he was born. Beethoven wrote his 33 Variations (op. 120) on a waltz of Diabelli's, and this alone will preserve his name to posterity should it disappear in other ways.

[ C. F. P. ]

DIADESTE. A buffo Italian opera, words by Fitzball, music by Balfe; produced at Drury Lane May 17, 1838.

DIAMANTS DE LA COURONNE, LES. Opera comique in 3 acts, words by Scribe and St. George, music by Auber; produced at the Opéra Comique March 6, 1841; at the Princess's Theatre, London, May 2, 44, as Crown Diamonds.

DIAPASON originally meant the interval of an octave, because it was δια πασων χορδων συμφωνία, the consonance arrived at by going 'through all the strings of the lyre' from first to last. In this sense it is used by Dryden:

'Through all the compass of the notes it ran,
The diapason closing full in man.'

In French it came to mean a tuning-fork, and hence also the pitch which was as it were registered by it, the 'Diapason normal' being the standard of pitch supposed to be generally accepted in France, which gave 435 vibrations for the A above middle C. In England the name is given to the most important foundation stops of the organ. (See Organ.)

DIAPENTE was the ancient Greek name for the consonance of the 5th. By the musicians of the 17th and 18th centuries a canon in the fifth was called in Epidiapente or Subdiapente, as it answered above or below.

DIATESSARON was the ancient Greek name for the consonance of the 4th—δια τεσσάρων χορδων συμφωνία.

DIATONIC is the name given to music which is confined to notes proper to the signature of the key in which they occur—such as the white notes only, in the key of C major. The different forms of the minor scale are considered diatonic. Therefore the major 7th and major 6th, which often occur instead of the minor 7th and minor 6th in the signature of a minor scale, can be used without the passage ceasing to be diatonic. The theme of the Finale of the Choral Symphony is a splendid example of a diatonic melody.

DIBDIN, Charles, was the son of a silversmith at Southampton, where he was born March 15, 1745. his mother being in her fiftieth year and he being her eighteenth child. His grandfather was a considerable merchant, who founded the village near Southampton which bears his name. Dibdin's eldest brother, who was twentynine years his senior, was captain of an Indiaman and father of the Rev. Dr. Thomas Frognall Dibdin, the well-known bibliographer. Charles Dibdin, being intended by his father for the Church, was placed at Winchester College, but a passion for music took possession of him, and he sang with the choristers both at the cathedral and college. He had a good voice and a quickness in learning, which induced Kent to compose anthems for him and teach him to sing them, and Fussel, who afterwards succeeded Kent as organist, taught him the rudiments of music and a few common tunes. All musical knowledge beyond that he acquired for himself, studying