purest ideal, and who inspired him with many of his poems. She died Mar. 3, 1879.
[ C. F. P. ]
FROTTOLE, early Italian songs, of which nine books, containing each on an average 64, were published by Petrucci at Venice between 1504 and 1509. Many of them are by Tromboncino, who so far may be called the Gordigiani of his day. As far as can be gathered from the account of Ambros the Frottola was essentially a popular melody, or street-song, treated with a certain amount of contrivance. It stood midway between the strict and complicated Madrigal, and the Villota or Vilanelle, which was a mere harmonisation of a tune; and in fact as the use of counterpoint increased it disappeared, its better elements went into the Madrigal, its lower into the Vilanella. The words of the Frottole were often comic (in fact the word is a synonym for a joke) but still oftener extremely sentimental. Ambros (478) cites some in which the song of the cicada and the mewing of a cat are imitated. The poem was in verses, sometimes very numerous. The music was set almost exclusively for 4 voices. Besides those printed at Venice a book of 22 was published at Rome by Junte in 1526. See Ambros, as below, and Eitner 'Bibliographie.'
[ G. ]
FRUYTIERS, Jan, Flemish poet and musician of the 16th century, was living at Antwerp in 1565. He was a Lutheran, and author of the words and music of 'Ecclesiasticus oft de wijse sproken Jesu des soons Syrach, etc.' (Antwerp, Selvius, 1565), a metrical translation of the book of Ecclesiasticus. The music is printed in the fine type of Plantin. This scarce book is the more remarkable as it was published by permission of Margaret of Parma, Governess of the Netherlands, only a few months before she enforced the decrees against the heretics which brought about the War of the Gueux. The melodies are chiefly popular Flemish airs. The 35th Cantique (Ecclus. xxiv) is set to a French dance of the l5th century, called 'L'homme armé,'—not to be confounded with the celebrated song of the same name, so often used as a theme for entire masses by composers of the 15th and 16th centuries. The song is in 3-2 time, the dance in 2-4, and in the form of a round. [L'Homme Armé.]
[ M. C. C. ]
FUCHS, Aloys, bass-singer in the Imperial chapel since 1836, and government employé in the war department at Vienna, born June 23, 1799, at Raase in Austrian Silesia, remarkable as an ardent collector of autographs. His collection of music, books, portraits, etc., purchased out of a small salary by dint of rigid economy, has often been described in detail. It contained specimens from all nations, though the Italian and German masters were most fully represented, and especially Mozart. These materials were partly used by Otto Jahn in his Life of that Master. Fuchs contributed articles to several musical periodicals, and took a keen interest in everything connected with the history and literature of music. Severe illnesses compelled him to part with his treasures one by one, and thus his whole collection was scattered. Thalberg bought the remaining autographs; the Mozarteum a fair copy of Mozart's works; Grasnick of Berlin the collection of portraits; the ecclesiastical institution of Göttweig the library; and Butsch the bookseller of Augsburg the rest of the papers and biographical articles. Fuchs died at Vienna March 20, 1853.
[ C. F. P. ]
FÜHRER, Robert, born at Prague, 1807; in 1840 succeeded Wittasek as organist to the Cathedral there. His irregular life however lost him the post, and in 43 he left Prague. In 57 he was organist at Gmunden and Ischl for a short time, and then settled in Vienna, where he died Nov. 28, 1861, in great distress in a hospital. His compositions, published since 1830 in Prague and Vienna, are numerous and good. (For list see Fétis.) They comprise masses, graduates, offertories, preludes, fugues, a method for the pedal-organ, a handbook for choirmasters, a 'Praktische Anleitung zu Orgelcompositionen,' etc. Whatever his merits as a musician, however, he was a dishonest man, for he actually published Schubert's Mass in G under his own name (Marco Berra, Prague 1846), a fact which requires no comment.
[ M. C. C. ]
FÜRSTENAU, a family of distinguished flutists and good musicians.
1. Caspar, born Feb. 26, 1772, at Münster, where his father was in the Bishop's band; was early left an orphan under the care of A. Romberg, who tried to force him to learn the bassoon, as well as the oboe, which he had been already taught; but his preference for the flute asserted itself, and he shortly became so proficient, as to support his family by playing in a military band, and in that of the Bishop. In 1793–4 he made a professional tour through Germany, and settled at Oldenburg, where he entered the Court band, and gave lessons to the Duke. In 1811 the band was dispersed, and Caspar again travelled with his son. He died at Oldenburg May 11, 1819.
2. Anton Bernhard, a finer flutist than his brother [App. p.643 "father"], born Oct. 20, 1792, at Münster; first appeared at a Court concert in Oldenburg when only 7. He remained with his father, the two taking long journeys together. In 1817 he was engaged for the municipal orchestra of Frankfort, from whence he removed in 1820 to Dresden, where he remained in the service of the King of Saxony till his death, Nov. 18, 1852. In 1826 he accompanied Weber on his last sad journey to London, tended him with anxious care, and assisted him to undress the night before his death. (See Max Maria von Weber's Life of his father, ii. 703.) He composed several pieces and two Methods for the flute.
3. His son Moritz, born in Dresden, July 26, 1824, also a flutist, at 17 entered the royal band, in which he has remained ever since. He has made some valuable contributions to the history of music, such as 'Beiträge zur Ge-
- Geschichte, iii. 404–489.