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ALEXANDER 287 ALEXANDER Alexander III, Pope, 1150-81 (Orlando Ban- DiNELi.i), born of a distinguished Sienese fa- mily; d. 3 August, 1181. As professor in Hologna he "acquired a great reputation as a canonist, which he increased by the publication of his commen- tary on the "Decretura" of Gratian, popularly known as "Summa Magistri Uolandi " (ed. Thaner, Innsbruck, 1S74). Called to Koine by Eugene III in the year 1150, liis advancement was rapid. He was created Cardinal-Deacon, then Cardinal- Priest of the title of St. Mark, and Papal Chancellor. He was the trusted advi.scr of .Adrian IV and was regarded as the soul of the party of inde- pendence among the cardinals, which sought to escape the German yoke by alliance witli the Normans of Naples. For opeidy asserting before Barbarossa, at the Diet of Hesanron (11(17) that the imperial dignity was a papal licncpcium (in the general sense of favour, not feudal .sense of fief), he incurred the wrath of the German princes, and would iiave fallen on the spot umler the battle-axe of his life-long foe. Otto of Witlelsliach had Frederick not in- tervened (llergennither-Kirsch, Kircheng., Frei- burg. 1904, II, -151). For the purpose of securing a submissive ixintifT at the next vacancy, the Em- peror despatched into Italy two able emissaries who were to work upon the weaknesses and fears of the cardinals and the Romans, the aforesaid Otto and the .rclibisliop-elect of Cologne, Rainald von Dassel, whose anti-papal attitude was largely owing to the fact that the Holy See refused to confirm his ap- pointment. The fruits of their activity became Catent after the death of Pope Adrian IV (1 Septem- er, 1159). Of the twenty-two cardinals assembled, 7 September, to elect a succes.sor all but tliree voted for Orlando. The contention made later, that the imperialist cardinals numbered nine, may be ex- plained by the that in the earlier ballotings six of the faithful cardinals voted for a less prominent and obnoxious candidate. In opposition to Cardinal Orlando, who took the immortal name of Alexander III, the three imperialist members one of their number, Cardinal Octavian, who a.ssumed the title of Victor IV. .V mob hired by the Count of Wittels- bach broke up the conclave, .lexander retreated towards the Norman south and was con.secrated and crowned, 20 September, at the little Volscian town of Nympha. Octavian's consecration took place 4 October, at the monastery of Farfa. The Emperor now interposed to settle a disturbance entirely cau.sed by his own agents, and summoned both claimants before a packed assembly at Pavia. He betrayed his animus by addressing Octavian as Victor IV and the true Pope as Cardinal Orlando. Pope .lexander refused to submit his clear right to this iniquitous tribunal, which, as was foreseen, declared for the usurper (11 Februan,-, 1160). Alex- ander promptly responded, from the ill-fated Anagni, by solemnly excommunicating the Emperor and releasing his subjects from their oaths of allegiance. The ensuing schism, far more disastrous to the Empire than to the Papacy, la.sted for seventeen years and ended after the battle of Legnano (1176) with the unconditional .surrender of the hauglity Barbarossa, in Venice, 1177. (See Frederick I.) The chililish legeml that the Pope placed his foot on the neck of the prostrate Emperor has done valiant service to Protestant trailition since the days of Luther. [See the di.s.scrtation of George Remus, Nuremberg, 1625; Lyons, 17J8; and Gosselin, "The Power of the Pope during the Middle .Vpes'^tr. Lon- don, 1853) II. 133.] .Alexander's enforced exile (1162-65) in France contributed greatly to enliance the dignity of the papacy, never so popular as when in disti-ess. It brought him into direct contact with the most powerful monarch of the West. Henrj- II of England. The cautious manner in which he defended the rights of the Ciiurch during the quarrel between the two impetuous Normans, King Henry and St. Thomas Hccfcet, though many a time excit- ing the displeasure of both contestants, and often since denounced as "shifty", was the strategy of an able commander who, by marches and counter- marches succeeds in keeping the field against over- whelming odds. It is no disparagement of the Martyr of Canterbury to say that the Pope equalled him in firmness and excelled him in the arts of diplo- macy. .fter Becket's murder the Pope succeeded, witliout actual recourse to ban or interdict, in ob- taining from the penitent monarch every right for which the martyr had fouglit and bled. To crown and seal the triumph of religion, Alex- ander convoked and presidecl over the Third Lateran Council (Eleventh Gx-umenical), in 1179. Sur- rounded by over 300 bishops, the much-tried Pon- tiff issued many salutary decrees, notably the ordi- nance which vested the exclusive right of papal elections in a two-thirds vote of the cardinals. Throughout all the vicissitudes of his chequered career Alexander remained a canonist. A glance at the Decretals shows that, as an ecclesiastical legislator, he was scarcely second to Innocent III. Worn out by trials, he died at Civiti, Castellana. When we are told that "the Romans" pursued his remains with curses and stones, the remembrance of a similar scene at the burial of Pius IX teaches us what value to attach to such a demonstration. In the estimation of Rome, Italy, and Christendom, Alexander Ill's epita[)h expresses the truth, when it calls him "the Light of the Clergy, the Ornament of the Church, the Father of his City and of the World ". He was frieniUy to the new academical movement that led to the establishment of the great medieval universities (Rashdall, The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, Oxford, 1895, I, 283, 292; II, 138, 724). His own reputation as a teacher and a canonist has been greatly enhanced througli the di.scovery by Father Denifle in the public library of Nureinberg of the "Sententiffi Rolandi liononiensis", edited (Frei- burg, 1891) by Father , ibrosius Gietl. The collec- tion of his letters (JaflY^. Regesta KR. Pontif., Xos. 10,584-14,424) was enriched by Lowenfeld's publica- tion of many hitherto unknown (Epistola; Pontif. Rom. ineditie, Leipzig, 1885). Even oltaire regards him as the man who in medieval times deserved best from the human race, for abolishing .slaverj-, for overcoming the violence of the Emperor Barbarossa, for compelling Henry II of l^ngland to ask pardon for the murder of Thomas Becket, for restoring to men their rights, and giving splendour to many cities (CEuvres, Paris, 1817, X, 998). Artai'd dk .Montok. Lirrs of the Roman Ponliffs (New York, 1867). I. 350-350; Hefei.e, ConcilimgeschicJiU (2.1. e<l,) V, 520-720, Kirchmgesch. (ed. Kinsrii,, FrcihurR, 19041. II. 447- 462, GREOonoviiH, Giich. d. Stndt Rvm. (Stuttgart. IS'JO). IV; R2b-5G5: Von Redmont, GfsM. rf. ^■^ld/ Ktmi (Herlin, 1867) 11. 449-157; Tosti, Sloria della l.cqn Lombarda (Milan. 1SIJ6); Lib. Pont. (ed. Duchesne) II. 394-446 and pra-f. XLII-XLIII. James F. Loughlin. Alexander IV, Pope, 12.54-61 (Rinaldo Conti), of the house of Segni, which had already given two illustrious sons to tlio Papacy, Innocent III and Gregory IX, date of birtli uncertain; d. 25 May, 1261, at Vitcrbo. He was created Cardinal-Deacon, in 1227, by his uncleGregory IX, and four years later Cardinal- Bishop of Ostia. Gregory also bequeatlied to him his solicitude for the Franciscan Order, which he had .so well iK'friended. On the death of Innocent I', at Naples, 7 Dccemljor, 12.>1, the aged Cardinal unanimously chosen to succeed him. Wc may well believe his protestation that he yielded verj- reluct- antly to the importunities of the Sacred College. Matthew of Paris has depicted him as "kind and re- ligious, assiduous in prayer and strict in alxstinence, but easily led away oy the whispering of flatterers,