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ALLIOLI

325

ALLORI

nine important essays on the Royal Supremacy and cognate subjects. These volumes and The Journal in France are now out of print. The two volumes on St. Peter have been re-published by the Catholic Truth Society, the smaller one at the express desire of Pope Leo XIII, to whom the book is dedicated. A Life's Decision is in the second edition, which contains an important addition. Five volumes of the Formation have appeared in the popular edition; the three remaining volumes will follow at, it is hoped, no distant date.

Allioli, Joseph Franz, b. at Sulzbach, 10 August, 1793; d. at Augsburg, 22 May, 1873. He studied theology at Landshut, was ordained at Ratisbon, 1816, studied Oriental languages at Vienna, Rome, and Paris (1818–20), became professor in the University at Landshut in 1824, and was transferred with the university to Munich in 1826, but owing to a weak throat he had to accept a canonry at Ratisbon, in 1835, and became Dean of the chapter at Augsburg, in 1838. His works are: "Aphorismen über den Zusammenhang der heiligen Schrift Alten und Neuen Testaments, aus der Idee des Reichs Gottes" (Ratisbon 1819); "Häusliche Alterthümer der Hebräer nebst biblischer Geographie" (1821); "Biblische Alterthümer" (Landshut, 1825); "Handbuch der biblischen Alterthumskunde" (in cooperation with Grätz and Haneberg, Landshut, 1843–44); "Übersetzung der heiligen Schriften Alten und Neuen Testaments, aus der Vulgata, mit Bezug auf den Grundtext, neu übersetzt und mit kurzen Anmerkungen erläutert, dritte Auflage von Allioli umgearbeitet" (6 vols., Nürnberg, 1830–35). This work received a papal approbation, 11 May, 1830.

Hergenröther in Kirchenlex.; Wetzer und Welte, Konversations-Lexikon, 3 ed. (St. Louis, 1902); Vig., Dict. de la bible (Paris, 1895).

Allison, William.—He was one of the English priests who were victims of the plots of 1679–80, and died a prisoner in York Castle about this time.

Challoner, Memoirs; Gillow, Bibl. Dict.

Allocution is a solemn form of address or speech from the throne employed by the Pope on certain occasions. It is delivered only in a secret consistory at which the cardinals alone are present. The term allocutio was used by the ancient Romans for the speech made by a commander to his troops, either before a battle or during it, to animate and encourage them. The term when adopted into ecclesiastical usage retained much of its original significance. An allocution of the Pope often takes the place of a manifesto when a struggle between the Holy See and the secular powers has reached an acute stage. It then usually summarizes the points at issue and details the efforts made by the Holy See to preserve peace. It likewise indicates what the Pope has already conceded and the limit which principle obliges him to put to further concessions. A secret consistory of cardinals, as opposed to a public and ceremonious one, is a meeting of those dignitaries in presence of the Pope to discuss matters of great importance concerning the well-being of the Church. At these secret consistories the Sovereign Pontiff not only creates cardinals, bishops, and legates, but he also discusses with the cardinals grave matters of State arising out of those mixed affairs, partly religious, partly civil, in which conflict can easily arise between Church and State. In such secret consistories the cardinals have a consultative vote. When the Pope has reached a conclusion on some important matter, he makes his mind known to the cardinals by means of a direct address, or allocution. Such allocations, though delivered in secret, are usually published for the purpose of making clear the attitude of the Holy See on a given question. They treat generally of matters that affect the whole Church, or of religious troubles in a particular country where ecclesiastical rights are infringed or endangered, or where heretical or immoral doctrines are undermining the faith of the people. Most of the subjects presented to the secret consistory have already been prepared in the consistorial congregation, which is composed of a limited number of cardinals. These conclusions may be accepted or rejected by the Pope as he thinks proper. In matters of statecraft the Pontiff also takes counsel with those most conversant with the subject at issue and with his Secretary of State. His conclusions are embodied in the allocution. Among papal allocutions of later times which attracted widespread attention from the importance or delicacy of the matters with which they dealt, may be mentioned those of Pius VII on the French Concordat (1802) and on the difficulties created by Napoleon for the Holy See (1808); those of Gregory XVI referring to the troubles with Prussia concerning mixed marriages, and with Russia over forcible conversions to the schismatical Greek Church; those of Pius IX concerning the attacks on the Pope's temporal power, and of Pius X on the rupture with France occasioned by the breaking of the Concordat and the consequent separation of Church and State in that country.

De Luca, Prælect. Jur. Can. (Rome, 1897), II; Bouix, De Curia Romana (Paris, 1880); Binder, Conversationlex, (Ratisbon, 1846).

Allogenes. See Gnostics.

Allori, (1) Angiolo di Cosimo, called Il Bronzino, an exceptionally able painter and a poet, b. at Ponticello, near Florence, in 1502; d. at Florence in 1572. He was a pupil of Raffaelino del Garbo and later of Jacopo da Pontormo, whom he assisted, and some of whose unfinished works he completed. Allori, who was the friend of Vasari, became court painter to the Medicean tyrant Cosimo I, Grand Duke of Tuscany. Among his brilliant series of portraits are those of Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio. A great admirer of Michael Angelo, his work shows that master's grandiose influence. Among his religious, allegorical, and historical paintings the chief is the "Limbo", or "Descent of Christ into Hell", in the Uffizi. For Florentine public buildings Allori executed various works. Some of his most notable paintings in public galleries are "Young Sculptor", "Boy with a Letter", "A Lady", and "Ferdinando de' Medici", in the Uffizi; "The Engineer", at the Pitti Palace; "Cosimo I", "Knight of St. Stephan", "A Lady", and "Venus, Cupid, Folly, and Time", in the National Gallery in London, the last two painted for Francis I of France; "Christ Appearing to Mary Magdalen", in the Louvre; the "Dead Christ", in the Florence Academy; and "Venus and Cupid", at Buda-Pesth. In the galleries of Vienna and Dresden appear portraits of his patron, Cosimo, accompanied by the Duchess Eleonora. Similar portraits are found at Lucca in both the Royal Palace and the Communal Gallery, and in Rome in the palace of the Borghese. The duchess is also represented at the Uffizi.

(2) Allessandro, a nephew of (1), b. at Florence, 1535, d. there 1607, was an artist of much ability and was patronized by the Grand Duke Francesco.

(3) Cristofano, Allessandro's son, known as Bronzino the Younger, b. at Florence, 1577, d. there 1621, a pupil of his father, of Santo di Tito and Cigoli, and of somewhat irregular life, was a painter of talent both in figure and landscape and one of the best colourists of the Florentine school.

Vasari, Lives of the Painters (Eng. Tr. London, 1850; New York, 1896); Charles Blanc, L'Ecole Florentine, in his Histoire des peinires de toutes les ecoles (40 vols., Paris, 1848–76); Baldinucci, Notizie de' professori del disegno da Cimabue in quà (Florence, 1681–1728, 1767–74, 1846–47; Turin, 1768