Page:Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 1.djvu/776

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lustre on the Churcli of Spain by his vast learning, fine literary taste, and patriotic devotion to the early Christian writers of his fatherland.

SoMMKHvoGEL, Bibl. des ccr. de In cie. de Jesus, I. 530-534; BoERO, Merwlogio, I, 154-155; Ami de la Religion, XXXIV, 28.

Thomas J. Shahan. Arevalo, Rodriguez Sanchez de, a learned Spanish bishop, b. 1404, in the diocese of Segovia; d. 4 October, 1470. After studying law at Salamanca for ten years and there graduating as Doctor, he be- came secretary to John II and Henry IV, Kings of Castile. They employed him as envoy on various missions, notably to the Holy See apropos of the Council of Basle, whose parliamentary theories lie opposed. After the elevation of Calixtus III, he remained at Rome, became Bishop of Oviedo in Spain, and later commander of the papal fortress, the Castle of St. Angelo, under Paul II, who trans- ferred him successively to the Spanish sees of Zaniora, Calahorra, and Palencia. His writings, mostly un- edited, are in the Vatican and at Padua, and deal with ecclesiastical and political matters. The fol- lowing have been printed: "Speculum Vita? Hu- manse" (Rome, 1468), a popular work, frequently reprinted in the next two centuries; it treats of the lights and shadows of the various estates of life; "Historia Hispanica", from the earliest times to 1469 (Rome, 1470), reprinted in the first volume of A. Schott's "Hispania lUustrata"; "De Monarchia Orbis et de origine et differentia principatus im- perialis et regalis" (Rome, 1521), in which he as- serts for the Pope the sole right to punish kings. His bold reproofs of certain ecclesiastical dignitaries caused Matth.'Eus Flaccus to put him down as a forerunner of Luther, but quite unjustly, as Niccolo Antonio has shown in his "Bibliotheca Hispanica Vetus" (II, 397, 608, 614).

8TANONICK in Kirchenlex., 1, 1272; Fastor. Gesch. d. Piipsle I, 392, .-ind II, 333, 342. ThOMAS J. ShAHAN.

Arezzo, The Diocese of, a diocese of Tuscany, in Italy, which is directly dependent on the Holy See. It has 40 towns in the province of .^rezzo, 10 in that of Sienna, and one in that of Perugia. It has 250,000 Catholics, 330 parishes, 563 secular priests, 149 regu- lars, 145 seminarists, 436 churches or chapels. The list of bishops is sufficiently regular from a. d. 250. Arezzo is of great antiquity and was one of the first cities of Italy to receive the Gospel, as tradition avers, from St. Romulus, afterwards Bishop of Fiesole, a disciple of St. Paul. It became a bishopric about 304, under St. Satyrus. St. Donatus, his successor, is patron of the cathedral of St. Peter the Apostle. The first eight bishops were saints. Clem- ent XII, while his nephew. Cardinal Guadagni, was Bishop of Arezzo, conceded to it in perpetuo archi- episcopal insignia, the pallium and double cross. The cathedral is an imposing Gothic structure of the thirteenth century. A more venerable structure is Santa Maria, of the ninth century, called "la vecchia pieve" (the old parish). Gregory X, who died in Arezzo, 10 January, 1276, is buried in the latliedral. The conclave which elected his successor, Innocent V, was held here. St. Donatus, the patron of Arezzo, is also buried in the cathedral.

Arezzo boast-s many illustrious citizens. Among them are Vasari, the biographer of the Italian painters; Guittone, one of the oldest of Italian writers; C!\iido Arotino, author of the "Rlicrology", who is credited witli inventing the stave and other musi- cal improvoments; Petrarca; Pietro Arctino, the licentious poet; Leonardo Aretino, secretary of the historian of the republic of Tloronce, and Concini, whom Marie de' Medici made a marshal of Franco. Micheliingclo wsus bom in a csistle near Arezzo.

Arezzo lias three celebrated sanctuaries: Alvernia, where St, Francis of Assisi received the stigmata; Camaldoli, where St. Romuald founded the order

of that name, and Accona, where Blessed Bernardo Tolommei founded the Olivetan Congregation.

Battandier, Ann. calh. pont., 1906; Vast in La Grande Encycl., s. v. Joj,n J. a' Becket.

Argenson, Piekre de Voyer d', called the \'icomte d'Argcnson, chevalier, vicomte de Mouz6, seigneur de Chastres, was the fifth Governor-General of Canada (1657-^1), b. 1626; d. 1710. He belonged to an ancient family of Touraine which has produced many distinguished statesmen; among others Marc Ren6, Marquis d'Argenson, Louis XIV's famous lieutenant of police. Pierre de Voyer was the fifth child of Ren6, count d'Argenson, who filled many important missions, and died while ambassador a"t Venice, in 1651. At first destined for the Church, he received tonsure in 1636, but adopted the career of arms. He rendered important services at the sieges of Portolongone, La Bass^e, and Ypres, at the battle of Lens, and at the siege of Bordeaux, where he received many woimds. Gentleman in ordinary of the king's bed-chamber, he was appointed to the office of bailiff of the lands and duchy of Touraine in 1643, in place of the famous '•onspirator Cinq-Mars. Appointed councillor of State, then governor of Canada, in 1657, to succeed Lauzon, he arrived in Quebec, 11 July, 1658. He received a stately welcome from the Jesuits. Canada was then a prey to Iroquois invasions. D'Argenson had only a hundred soldiers, yet he inspired the colonists, and gave them the example of a bravery often rash. It thus happened that the brave Dollard and his companions were slain while seeking to avert the blows which threatened the little city, and that the grand seneschal, Jean de Lauzon, perished ob- scurely in an ambuscade. D'Argenson souglit to draw around him the children of the Iroquois, in order to ha\-e them instructed and to keep them as so many hostages. The Jesuit Lemoine was sent to negotiate with the barbarians. D'Argenson, who had endeared himself to the colonists by promptly according to them justice, in an impartial manner and without expense, advised the king to free the colony from the plague of bureaucracy and to let the habitants govern themselves. Monseigneur de Laval, appointed Vicar-.\postolic of Canada, arrived there in 1659, during his administration. Accustomed to command, d'.4rgenson wished to have the law of precedence observed in all ceremonies, and that the noblemen in his suite sliould rank above ecclesiastical dignitaries. This gave rise to the fre- quent conflicts between Church and State during the French regime. D'.Vrgcnson made the mistake of ■svishing to perpetuate in democratic America the exactions of Old World etiquette. Possibly, too, he was overindulgcnt to the wishes of traffickers in the sale of brandy to the aborigines, a practice which resulted in grave disorders. At last, suffering from his old wounds, no longer able to head bands for warfare, dissatisfied that F^ ranee left him without support, tired of struggling with the bishop, for lie was a devout churchman, he asked for his recall, and returned to France in September, 1661. The rest of his career is little known. He left important letters and documents concerning the various duties lie had had to fulfil, but they were burned with the collection known as the "D'Argenson Papers" in the fire at the Biblioth(>que du Louvre in 1871. D'Argenson died at an advanced ago, about 1710, and at his own request, was buried at Mouz(5, a village near Loches, in Touraine, of which he was seigneur. Parkman, Old Riiiimi I" <;n,,„l,i, 11.5-130; Anselme. Ilistoire g{mialo(tiquc, \'\, 'OJ; 1 \iii<im, Ilist. col. franc, au Canada, 1. 457-471. -lIKi; Iwi, m \u:s w.ix, Jiauiles de la Nou- vclle France. II, 302-:!-'.-.; I'uii^. /,. » manuscriu de la liiblio- Ihique du Louvre bruli.'< en;,sr;, 41-40.

J. Edmond Roy. Argentine Republic (Ahc.entina), a South American confederation of fourteen provinces, or