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benefice or pious cause or ecclesiastical institute: must bestow it on the church fabric, or the diocesan (d) converted, when it is changed from one kind seminary, or the poor. The law does not decide of benefice to another; (e) suppressed, when it is what a proportionate part for one day's omission entirely extinguished. The extinctive union of would amount to, but Lehmkuhl considers that benefices, their suppression, their dismemberment in between 16% and 30% of the daily income would which property belonging to the benefice is taken be a fair estimate. (See Collation.) away without a new benefice being erected, the Code, can. 1409-88.

union of a religious with a secular benefice or of a Benevento, Archdiocbsb op (Bbnbsventana: cf. secular with a religious benefice ^que or minus Q. E., II-477c), in the province of Naples, Southern pnnctpahter, and the tranrfemng, dividing, or dis- jtaly. Rt. Rev. Bishop Bonazzi, appointed to this membering of a rehgious benefice, the conversion gee 9 June, 1902, died 23 April, 1915, and was suc- of a benefice curatum into one without cure of ceeded by the present incumbent. His Eminence souls, or of a rehgious into a secular benefice, or Cardinal Ascalesi. Bom at Casalnuovo, 1872, he of a secular into a religious benefice, are reserved entered the Order of Missionaries of the Precious to the lloly feee. . Blood, was appointed Bishop of Muro-Lucano, 29

A local ordinary but not a vicar capitular or vicar April, 1909, transferred to Santa Agata dei Goti general, unless delegated, can xmitemque or minus jg j^^e, 1911, and promoted 9 December, 1915, pnncipahter any parish church with another, or being made a cardinal-priest 4 Dedember of the with a benefice not entailing the cure of souls, following year. The 1920 statistics credit this terri- when the welfare of the Church demands it or tory with 590,500 Catholics, 138 parishes. 805 secular would be greatly promoted by it. Such a union ^nd 69 regular clergj', 80 seminarians, 463 churches must, however, be perpetual. For the »me reasons ^^ chapels, 40 Brothers, and 129 Sisters, the bishop can transfer a secular parochial benefice

from one place to another within the parish. Other Bengweolo, Vicariatb Apostouc op. See Ban- benefices ne may not transfer unless the church in QUBaLO.

which they were established has fallen into ruin Beni (or El Beni), Vicarutb Apostouc op (dk and cannot be restored; in that case they are to be bbni), in Bolivia. South America. This vicariate, transferred with their privileges and their obliga- comprising the territory of Beni, and the districts tioM to the mother church or to other churches of Colonias, Caupolican and Yuracares, was erected m the »me place or vicinit>% and altars or chapels j December, 1917, and entrusted to the Friara are to be erected there under the same titles if Minor. It is at present (1922) under the adminis- possible. ^ Finally, ordmaries can divide up a pansh Oration of its first vicar apostoUc. Rt. Rev. Ray- even against the wish of its rector and without the j^Q^d Calvo. titular Bishop of Cotenna. appointed consent of the faithful, and erect a perpetual ^ August, 1919. By latest statistics the vicariate vicariate or a new parish, or they may dismember comprises 60.000 Catholics, 11 parishes, 30 churches ^^V^^^^- J^'X^^'^^l'^^*^'^^^^ ^o^f o^^^ and chapels, 4 missions, 36 mission stations, 3

It 18 too difficult for the panshoners to go to the ^^^^^^^ ^^^ 14 regular clergy. A number of societies pansh church or when the number of the parish- ^^e organized, the most active of which is the oners is so great that their spiritual welfare cannot League of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, estabhshed be properly provided for even by increasing the ^^ f^^^ of five parishes and counting about 300 number of vicar co-operators. This new vicanate members or parish must be financially provided for, if neces- sary, from the funds of the mother church, pro- Benin, Vicarute Apostolic of the Coabt of vided the funds are sufficient for that; in the latter (Ob^ Benini; cf. C. E., II-480a), includes an ex- case the filial church must pay honor or homage tensive negro country in Western Africa, with ^ to the mother church in the manner prescribed by dence at Lagos. It covers 96,250 sq. miles and has the ordinary, but it is entitled to its own baptismal a total population (1922) of 2,000,000, of whom font. Parties interested may always appeal to the 12.909 are Catholic and 3163 catechumens. It is Holy See against the ordinary's decree, but mean- entrusted to the African Missionaries of Lyons, the while the decree goes into effect. Ordinaries may present vicar apostolic being Rt. Rev. Ferdinand not burden a benefice with a perpetual tax or pen- Terrien, titular Bishop of Gordos, appointed 1 sion or with one lasting during the lifetime of the March, 1912. There are now 30 missionary priests pensioner, but for a just cause they can, when laboring in this territorv, 27 European religious, conferring the benefice, encumber it with a pension and 31 native catechists*; 111 churches or cha'pels for the lifetime of the beneficiary, provided that have been established, 13 principal stations. Ill the latter has still a suitable portion remaining, secondary stations, and 66 schools with 4756 pupils. However, parochial benefices may not be encum- bered unless in the interest of the rector or vicar Benson, Robert Hugh, preacher and writer, b. of the same parish when he is leaving his post, and 18 November, 1871, at Wellington College, England; even then the possession must not exceed one-third d. 19 October, 1914, at Salford, Ensland. He was of the revenues of the parish after deducting all the son of Edward Benson, Archbishop of Canter- expenses and all uncertain income. bury, and Mary Sedgwick. After his private school Two benefices, both of which afford a decent days at Clevedon he went to Eton, and having living to an incumbent, or which together impose failed in his examinations for the Indian Civil obligations that one beneficiary cannot carry out Ser\'^ice completed his classical course at Cambridge personally, are incompatible, and so may not be (1893). The following year he took orders in the accepted and held simultaneously. If a cleric hold- Anglican Church, and after serving parishes in East, ing a benefice can show that he has held it in good London and Kemsing joined the Anglican Com- faith peacefully for three years, he enjoys a pre- munity of the Resurrection at Mirsfield. scriptive right to it, even if by chance his title was In 1903. Roman claims becoming more and more at first invalid, provided there was no simony in insistent, he made his submission and was received the case. If a beneficiary fails, without a valid into the Church by Father Reginald Buckler at excuse, to carry out his obligation of reciting the the Dominican Priory at Woodchester, probably the canonical hours, he is to lose a part of his revenue first son of an Anglican archbishop to become a proportionate to the extent of his omission and Catholic since Tobie Mathew, son of the Archbishop